Glossary of Military Terms
table of allowance
An equipment allowance document that prescribes basic
allowances of organizational equipment, and provides the control
to develop, revise, or change equipment authorization inventory
data. Also called TOA.
Any friendly frequency of such importance that it must
never be deliberately jammed or interfered with by friendly
forces. Normally, these frequencies include international
distress, CEASE BUZZER, safety, and controller frequencies.
These frequencies are generally long standing. However, they may
be time-oriented in that, as the combat or exercise situation
changes, the restrictions may be removed. See also CEASE BUZZER;
An ultrahigh frequency electronic air navigation
system, able to provide continuous bearing and slant range to a
selected station. The term is derived from tactical air
tacit arms control agreement
An arms control course of action in which two or more
nations participate without any formal agreement having been
tactical aeromedical evacuation
That phase of evacuation which provides airlift for
patients from the combat zone to points outside the combat zone,
and between points within the communications zone.
tactical air command center
The principal US Marine Corps air command and control
agency from which air operations and air defense warning
functions are directed. It is the senior agency of the US Marine
air command and control system that serves as the operational
command post of the aviation combat element commander. It
provides the facility from which the aviation combat element
commander and his battle staff plan, supervise, coordinate, and
execute all current and future air operations in support of the
Marine air-ground task force. The tactical air command center
can provide integration, coordination, and direction of joint
and combined air operations. Also called Marine TACC.
tactical air commander (ashore)
The officer (aviator) responsible to the landing force
commander for control and coordination of air operations within
the landing force commander's area of operations when control of
these operations is passed ashore.
tactical air control center
The principal air operations installation (ship-based)
from which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical
air operations are controlled. Also called Navy TACC.
tactical air control party
A subordinate operational component of a tactical air
control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces
and for the control of aircraft. Also called TACP.
tactical air coordinator (airborne)
An officer who coordinates, from an aircraft, the actions
of other aircraft engaged in air support of ground or sea
forces. Also called TAC(A). See also forward observer.
tactical air direction center
An air operations installation under the overall control
of the Navy tactical air control center (afloat)/Marine Corps
tactical air command center, from which aircraft and air warning
service functions of tactical air operations in support of
amphibious operations are directed. Also called TADC
tactical airfield fuel dispensing system
A tactical aircraft refueling system deployed by a Marine
air-ground task force in support of air operations at an
expeditionary airfield or a forward arming and refueling point.
Also called TAFDS.
tactical air groups (shore-based)
Task organizations of tactical air units assigned to the
amphibious task force that are to be land-based within, or
sufficiently close to, the objective area to provide tactical
air support to the amphibious task force.
tactical air officer (afloat)
The officer (aviator) under the amphibious task force
commander who coordinates planning of all phases of air
participation of the amphibious operation and air operations of
supporting forces en route to and in the objective area. Until
control is passed ashore, this officer exercises control over
all operations of the tactical air control center (afloat) and
is charged with the following: a. control of all aircraft in the
objective area assigned for tactical air operations, including
offensive and defensive air; b. control of all other aircraft
entering or passing through the objective area; and c. control
of all air warning facilities in the objective area.
tactical air operation
An air operation involving the employment of air power in
coordination with ground or naval forces to:a. gain and maintain
air superiority;b. prevent movement of enemy forces into and
within the objective area and to seek out and destroy these
forces and their supporting installations;c. join with ground or
naval forces in operations within the objective area, in order
to assist directly in attainment of their immediate objective.
tactical air operations center
The principal air control agency of the US Marine air
command and control system responsible for airspace control and
management. It provides real-time surveillance, direction,
positive control, and navigational assistance for friendly
aircraft. It performs real-time direction and control of all antiair warfare operations, to include manned interceptors and
surface-to-air weapons. It is subordinate to the tactical air
command center. Also called TAOC.
tactical air reconnaissance
The use of air vehicles to obtain information concerning
terrain, weather, and the disposition, composition, movement,
installations, lines of communications, electronic and
communication emissions of enemy forces. Also included are
artillery and naval gunfire adjustment, and systematic and
random observation of ground battle areas, targets, and/or
sectors of airspace.
tactical air support
Air operations carried out in coordination with
surface forces and which directly assist land or maritime
operations. See also air support.
tactical air support element
An element of a US Army division, corps, or field army
tactical operations center consisting of Army component
intelligence staff officer and Army component operations staff
officer air personnel who coordinate and integrate tactical air
support with current tactical ground operations.
tactical air transport operations
The carriage of passengers and cargo within a theater by means of: a. airborne operations: (1) parachute
assault, (2) helicopterborne assault, (3) air landing; b. air
logistic support; c. special missions; d. aeromedical evacuation
tactical assembly area
An area that is generally out of the reach of light
artillery and the location where units make final preparations
(pre-combat checks and inspections) and rest, prior to moving to
the line of departure. See also assembly area; line of
tactical call sign
A call sign which identifies a tactical command or
tactical communication facility. See also call sign.
tactical combat force
A combat unit, with appropriate combat support and combat
service support assets, that is assigned the mission of
defeating Level III threats. Also called TCF.
tactical command, control, communications, and computer
The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and
personnel essential to theater-level and below-theater-level
commanders for planning, directing, and controlling operations
of assigned and attached forces pursuant to the mission assigned
and that provide for the conveyance and/or exchange of data and
information from one person or force to another. See also
command, control, and computer systems.
A statement, in broad outline, which provides a
common basis for future development of tactical doctrine. See
also tactical sub-concept.
Command authority over assigned or attached forces or
commands, or military capability or forces made available for
tasking, that is limited to the detailed direction and control
of movements or maneuvers within the operational area necessary
to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Tactical control is
inherent in operational control. Tactical control may be
delegated to, and exercised at any level at or below the level
of combatant command. When forces are transferred between
combatant commands, the command relationship the gaining
commander will exercise (and the losing commander will
relinquish) over these forces must be specified by the Secretary
of Defense. Tactical control provides sufficient authority for
controlling and directing the application of force or tactical
use of combat support assets within the assigned mission or
task. Also called TACON. See also combatant command; combatant
command (command authority); operational control.
tactical deception group
A task organization that conducts deception operations
against the enemy, including electronic, communication, visual,
and other methods designed to misinform and confuse the enemy.
tactical digital information link
A Joint Staff-approved, standardized communication link
suitable for transmission of digital information. Tactical
digital information links interface two or more command and
control or weapons systems via a single or multiple network
architecture and multiple communication media for exchange of
tactical information. Also called TADIL.
tactical event system
Current architecture for reporting theater ballistic
missile events. The tactical event system is composed of three
independent processing and reporting elements: the joint
tactical ground stations, attack launch early warning, and
tactical detection and reporting. Also called TES.
tactical exploitation of national capabilities
Congressionally mandated program to improve the combat
effectiveness of the Services through more effective military
use of national programs. Also called TENCAP.
tactical information processing and interpretation system
A tactical, mobile, land-based, automated
information-handling system designed to store and retrieve
intelligence information and to process and interpret imagery or
nonimagery data. Also called TIPI.
Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting
tactical operations. Also called TACINTEL. See also
tactical intelligence and related activities
Those activities outside the National Foreign Intelligence
Program that accomplish the following: a. respond to operational
commanders' tasking for time-sensitive information on foreign
entities; b. respond to national intelligence community tasking
of systems whose primary mission is support to operating forces;
c. train personnel for intelligence duties; d. provide an
intelligence reserve; or e. are devoted to research and
development of intelligence or related capabilities.
Specifically excluded are programs that are so closely
integrated with a weapon system that their primary function is
to provide immediate-use targeting data. Also called TIARA.
tactical level of war
The level of war at which battles and engagements are
planned and executed to accomplish military objectives assigned
to tactical units or task forces. Activities at this level focus
on the ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat elements in
relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat
objectives. See also operational level of war; strategic level
See combat loading; unit loading.
An area of terrain which, because of its location or
features, possesses a tactical significance in the particular
circumstances existing at a particular time.
Representatives designated by troop commanders to assist
Navy control officers aboard control ships in the ship-to-shore
movement of troops, equipment, and supplies. Also called TACLOG
A large-scale map used for tactical and administrative
purposes. See also map.
A minefield that is employed to directly attack enemy
maneuver as part of a formation obstacle plan and is laid to
delay, channel, or break up an enemy advance, giving the
defending element a positional advantage over the attacker.
In naval mine warfare, mining designed to influence
a specific operation or to counter a known or presumed tactical
aim of the enemy. Implicit in tactical mining is a limited
period of effectiveness of the minefield.
tactical nuclear weapon employment
The use of nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air forces
against opposing forces, supporting installations or facilities,
in support of operations that contribute to the accomplishment
of a military mission of limited scope, or in support of the
military commander's scheme of maneuver, usually limited to the
area of military operations.
Those obstacles employed to disrupt enemy formations, to
turn them into a desired area, to fix them in position under
direct and indirect fires, and to block enemy penetrations.
tactical operations center
A physical groupment of those elements of a general and
special staff concerned with the current tactical operations and
the tactical support thereof. Also called TOC. See also command
A range in which realistic targets are in use and a
certain freedom of maneuver is allowed.
A part of a force held under the control of the commander
as a maneuvering force to influence future action.
In operations, the measures necessary to deny
information to the enemy and to ensure that a force retains its
freedom of action and is warned or protected against an
unexpected encounter with the enemy or an attack. See also
physical security; security.
A statement, in broad outline, for a specific field
of military capability within a tactical concept which provides
a common basis both for equipment and weapon system development
and for future development of tactical doctrine. See also
tactical transport aircraft
Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of
personnel and/or cargo over short or medium distances.
Combat troops, together with any service troops required
for their direct support, who are organized under one commander
to operate as a unit and engage the enemy in combat. See also
An organization of troops, aircraft, or ships that is
intended to serve as a single unit in combat. It may include
service units required for its direct support.
See military designed vehicle.
1. A warning after initiation of a threatening or hostile
act based on an evaluation of information from all available
sources. 2. In satellite and missile surveillance, a
notification to operational command centers that a specific
threat event is occurring. The component elements that describe
threat events are as follows: a. country of origin--Country or
countries initiating hostilities; b. event type and
size--Identification of the type of event and determination of
the size or number of weapons; c. country under
attack--Determined by observing trajectory of an object and
predicting its impact point; and d. event time--Time the hostile
event occurred. Also called integrated tactical warning. See
also attack assessment; strategic warning.
tactical warning and assessment
A composite term. See separate definitions for tactical warning
and for attack assessment.
tactical warning and attack assessment
A composite term. See separate definitions for tactical
warning and for attack assessment. Also called TW/AA.
The employment and ordered arrangement of forces in
relation to each other. See also procedures; techniques.
A line attached to a draft of cargo or container to
provide control and minimize pendulation of cargo during lifting
operations. See also container; draft.
Tanker Airlift Control Center
The Air Mobility Command direct reporting unit responsible
for tasking and controlling operational missions for all
activities involving forces supporting US Transportation
Command's global air mobility mission. The Tanker Airlift
Control Center is comprised of the following functions: current
operations, command and control, logistic operations, aerial
port operations, aeromedical evacuation, flight planning,
diplomatic clearances, and weather. Also called TACC. See also
Air Mobility Command; tanker airlift control element.
tanker airlift control element
A mobile command and control organization deployed to
support intertheater and intratheater air mobility operations at
fixed, en route, and deployed locations where air mobility
operational support is nonexistent or insufficient. The tanker
airlift control element (TALCE) provides on-site management of
air mobility airfield operations to include command and control,
communications, aerial port services, maintenance, security,
transportation, weather, intelligence, and other support
functions, as necessary. The TALCE is composed of mission
support elements from various units and deploys in support of
peacetime, contingency, and emergency relief operations on both
planned and "no notice" basis. Also called TALCE. See also air
mobility; Tanker Airlift Control Center.
The weight of a container deducted from gross weight to
obtain net weight or the weight of an empty container.
1. An area, complex, installation, force, equipment,
capability, function, or behavior identified for possible action
to support the commander's objectives, guidance, and intent.
Targets fall into two general categories: planned and immediate.
2. In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency,
or person against which intelligence operations are directed. 3.
An area designated and numbered for future firing. 4. In gunfire
support usage, an impact burst that hits the target. Also called
TGT. See also objective area.
The detection, identification, and location of a
target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment
of weapons. Also called TA. See also target analysis.
An examination of potential targets to determine
military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to
obtain a desired level of damage or casualties. See also target
target approach point
In air transport operations, a navigational check
point over which the final turn into the drop zone/landing zone
is made. See also initial point.
target area of interest
The geographical area where high-value targets can be
acquired and engaged by friendly forces. Not all target areas of
interest will form part of the friendly course of action; only
target areas of interest associated with high priority targets
are of interest to the staff. These are identified during staff
planning and wargaming. Target areas of interest differ from
engagement areas in degree. Engagement areas plan for the use of
all available weapons; target areas of interest might be engaged
by a single weapon. Also called TAI. See also area of interest;
high-value target; target.
target area survey base
A base line used for the locating of targets or
other points by the intersection of observations from two
stations located at opposite ends on the line.
A graphic representation of enemy forces, personnel, and
facilities in a specific situation, accompanied by a target
An individual or group selected for influence or
attack by means of psychological operations.
target base line
A line connecting prime targets along the periphery of a
1. true--The true compass bearing of a target from a
firing ship. 2. relative--The bearing of a target measured in
the horizontal from the bow of one's own ship clockwise from 0
degrees to 360 degrees, or from the nose of one's own aircraft
in hours of the clock.
A grouping of targets in accordance with their threat to
the amphibious task force and its component elements: targets
not to be fired upon prior to D-day and targets not to be
destroyed except on direct orders.
A geographically integrated series of target
concentrations. See also target.
A set of targets within a target system performing a
similar function. See also target; target critical damage point.
A grouping of geographically proximate targets. See
also target; target complex.
target critical damage point
The part of a target component that is most vital. Also
called critical node. See also target; target component.
target data inventory
A basic targeting program that provides a standardized
target data in support of the requirements of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff, Military Departments, and unified and specified
commands for target planning coordination and weapons
application. Also called TDI.
The date on which it is desired that an action be
accomplished or initiated.
The ability of a surveillance or guidance system to
identify or engage any one target when multiple targets are
A file of assembled target intelligence about a
specific geographic area.
A folder, hardcopy or electronic, containing target
intelligence and related materials prepared for planning and
executing action against a specific target. See also target.
target information center
The agency or activity responsible for collecting,
displaying, evaluating, and disseminating information pertaining
to potential targets. See also target.
The process of selecting and prioritizing targets and
matching the appropriate response to them, taking account of
operational requirements and capabilities. See also joint
targeting coordination board; target.
The cumulative results of actions taken to attack targets
and target systems by lethal and nonlethal means. See also
Intelligence that portrays and locates the components of a
target or target complex and indicates its vulnerability and
relative importance. See also target; target complex.
The listing of targets maintained and promulgated by the
senior echelon of command; it contains those targets that are to
be engaged by supporting arms, as distinguished from a "list of
targets" that may be maintained by any echelon as confirmed,
suspected, or possible targets for informational and planning
purposes. See also joint target list; list of targets.
Graphic, textual, tabular, digital, video, or other
presentations of target intelligence, primarily designed to
support operations against designated targets by one or more
weapon(s) systems. Target materials are suitable for training,
planning, executing, and evaluating military operations. See
also Air Target Materials Program.
target nomination list
A list of targets nominated by component commanders,
national agencies, or the joint force commander staff for
potential inclusion on the joint integrated prioritized target
list to support joint force commander objectives and priorities.
Also called TNL. See also joint integrated prioritized target
target of opportunity
A target visible to a surface or air sensor or observer,
which is within range of available weapons and against which
fire has not been scheduled or requested. See also target.
A transparent sheet which, when superimposed on a
particular chart, map, drawing, tracing or other representation,
depicts target locations and designations. The target overlay
may also show boundaries between maneuver elements, objectives
and friendly forward dispositions.
The flight path of aircraft during the attack phase. Also
called attack pattern.
A grouping of targets with the indicated sequence of
target response (nuclear)
The effect on men, material, and equipment of blast, heat,
light, and nuclear radiation resulting from the explosion of a
1. The characteristic pattern of a target displayed
by detection and identification equipment. 2. In naval mine
warfare, the variation in the influence field produced by the
passage of a ship or sweep.
target stress point
The weakest point (most vulnerable to damage) on the
critical damage point. Also called vulnerable node. See also
target critical damage point.
1. All the targets situated in a particular
geographic area and functionally related. 2. (DOD only) A group
of targets that are so related that their destruction will
produce some particular effect desired by the attacker. See also
target; target complex.
target system assessment
The broad assessment of the overall impact and
effectiveness of the full spectrum of military force applied
against the operation of an enemy target system or total combat
effectiveness (including significant subdivisions of the system)
relative to the operational objectives established. See also
target system component
A set of targets belonging to one or more groups of
industries and basic utilities required to produce component
parts of an end product such as periscopes, or one type of a
series of interrelated commodities, such as aviation gasoline.
A subdivision of a fleet, task force, task group, or task
unit, organized by the respective commander or by higher
authority for the accomplishment of specific tasks.
A component of a naval task unit organized by the
commander of a task unit or higher authority.
1. A temporary grouping of units, under one
commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a specific
operation or mission. 2. A semi-permanent organization of units,
under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a
continuing specific task. 3. A component of a fleet organized by
the commander of a task fleet or higher authority for the
accomplishment of a specific task or tasks. Also called TF. See
A component of a naval task force organized by the
commander of a task force or higher authority. Also called TG.
A method used to task and to disseminate to components,
subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected
targets and specific missions. In addition, the tasking order
provides specific instructions concerning the mission planning
agent, targets, and other control agencies, as well as general
instructions for accomplishment of the mission. Also called
TASKORD. See also mission; order; target.
1. In the Navy, an organization which assigns to
responsible commanders the means with which to accomplish their
assigned tasks in any planned action. 2. An organization table
pertaining to a specific naval directive.
The act of designing an operating force, support staff, or
logistic package of specific size and composition to meet a
unique task or mission. Characteristics to examine when
task-organizing the force include, but are not limited to:
training, experience, equipage, sustainability, operating
environment, enemy threat, and mobility.
A component of a naval task group organized by the
commander of a task group or higher authority.
A specially prepared or designated path on an
airfield for the use of taxiing aircraft.
A physical line on an intelligence message or document
separating categories of information that have been approved for
foreign disclosure and release. Normally, the intelligence below
the tear line is that which has been previously cleared for
disclosure or release.
In imagery interpretation, the precise description
of details appearing on imagery.
A minimal set of rules governing the arrangement,
interaction, and interdependence of the parts or elements whose
purpose is to ensure that a conformant system satisfies a
specified set of requirements.
The providing of advice, assistance, and training
pertaining to the installation, operation, and maintenance of
Those characteristics of equipment that pertain primarily
to the engineering principles involved in producing equipment
possessing desired military characteristics; e.g., for
electronic equipment, technical characteristics include such
items as circuitry as well as types and arrangement of
Visual information documentation (with or without sound as
an integral documentation component) of an actual event made for
purposes of evaluation. Typically, technical documentation
contributes to the study of human or mechanical factors,
procedures, and processes in the fields of medicine, science,
logistics, research, development, test and evaluation,
intelligence, investigations, and armament delivery. Also called
TECDOC. See also visual information documentation.
An individual technically qualified and properly equipped
to accompany designated material requiring a high degree of
safety or security during shipment.
The study and investigations by a developing agency to
determine the technical suitability of material, equipment, or a
system for use in the Military Services. See also operational
Information, including scientific information, that
relates to research, development, engineering, test, evaluation,
production, operation, use, and maintenance of munitions and
other military supplies and equipment.
Intelligence derived from exploitation of foreign
material, produced for strategic, operational, and tactical
level commanders. Technical intelligence begins when an
individual service member finds something new on the battlefield
and takes the proper steps to report it. The item is then
exploited at succeedingly higher levels until a countermeasure
is produced to neutralize the adversary's technological
advantage. Also called TECHINT. See also exploitation;
technical operational intelligence
A Defense Intelligence Agency initiative to provide
enhanced scientific and technical intelligence to the commanders
of unified commands and their subordinates through a closed loop
system involving all Service and Defense Intelligence Agency
scientific and technical intelligence centers. Through a system
manager in the National Military Joint Intelligence Center, the
technical operational intelligence program provides timely
collection, analysis, and dissemination of area of
responsibility-specific scientific and technical intelligence to
combatant commanders and their subordinates for planning,
training, and executing joint operations. Also called TOPINT.
technical review authority
The organization tasked to provide specialized technical
or administrative expertise to the primary review authority or
coordinating review authority for joint publications. Also
called TRA. See also coordinating review authority; joint
publication; primary review authority.
A detailed description of technical requirements, usually
with specific acceptance criteria, stated in terms suitable to
form the basis for the actual design development and production
processes of an item having the qualities specified in the
operational characteristics. See also operational
technical supply operations
Operations performed by supply units or technical supply
elements of supply and maintenance units in acquiring,
accounting for, storing, and issuing Class II and IV items
needed by supported units and maintenance activities.
technical surveillance countermeasures
Techniques and measures to detect and neutralize a wide
variety of hostile penetration technologies that are used to
obtain unauthorized access to classified and sensitive
information. Technical penetrations include the employment of
optical, electro-optical, electromagnetic, fluidic, and acoustic
means as the sensor and transmission medium, or the use of
various types of stimulation or modification to equipment or
building components for the direct or indirect transmission of
information meant to be protected. Also called TSCM. See also
A complete electronic and physical inspection to ascertain
that offices, conference rooms, war rooms, and other similar
locations where classified information is discussed are free of
monitoring systems. See also sweep.
Non-prescriptive ways or methods used to perform missions,
functions, or tasks. See also procedures; tactics.
Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs,
signals, writings, images, sounds, or information of any nature
by wire, radio, visual, or other electromagnetic systems.
A facility, normally serving more than one organization or
terminal, responsible for transmission, receipt, acceptance,
processing, and distribution of incoming and outgoing messages.
A conference between persons remote from one another
but linked by a telecommunications system.
The combining of telecommunications and computer
operations interacting in the automatic processing, reception,
and transmission of data and/or information.
Imagery acquired by a television camera and recorded or
See track telling.
At sea, a temperature gradient is the change of
temperature with depth; a positive gradient is a temperature
increase with an increase in depth, and a negative gradient is a
temperature decrease with an increase in depth.
An unclassified term referring to technical investigations
for compromising emanations from electrically operated
information processing equipment; these investigations are
conducted in support of emanations and emissions security. See
A site for the purpose of: a. the interment of the remains
if the circumstances permit; or b. the reburial of remains
exhumed from an emergency interment. See also emergency
interment; group interment; mortuary affairs; trench interment.
A facility designed to transfer cargo from one means of
conveyance to another. (Conveyance is the piece of equipment
used to transport cargo; i.e., railcar to truck or truck to
truck. This is as opposed to mode, which is the type of
equipment; i.e., ship to rail, rail to truck.) See also
terminal attack control
The authority to control the maneuver of and grant weapons
release clearance to attacking aircraft. See also joint terminal
terminal clearance capacity
The amount of cargo or personnel that can be moved through
and out of a terminal on a daily basis.
1. The authority to direct aircraft to maneuver into a
position to deliver ordnance, passengers, or cargo to a specific
location or target. Terminal control is a type of air control.
2. Any electronic, mechanical, or visual control given to
aircraft to facilitate target acquisition and resolution. See
also terminal guidance.
terminal control area
A control area or portion thereof normally situated at the
confluence of air traffic service routes in the vicinity of one
or more major airfields. See also airway; control area;
controlled airspace; control zone.
1. The guidance applied to a guided missile between
midcourse guidance and arrival in the vicinity of the target. 2.
Electronic, mechanical, visual, or other assistance given an
aircraft pilot to facilitate arrival at, operation within or
over, landing upon, or departure from an air landing or airdrop
facility. 3. Any electronic, mechanical, voice or visual
communication that provides approaching aircraft or weapons
additional information regarding a specific location or target.
Terminal guidance is not a type of air control. Those providing
terminal guidance do not have weapons release authority, or
authority to direct the maneuver of aircraft. See also terminal
The reception, processing, and staging of passengers;
thereceipt, transit, storage, and marshalling of cargo; the
loadingand unloading of modes of transport conveyances; and
themanifesting and forwarding of cargo and passengers
todestination. See also operation; terminal.
That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile
between reentry into the atmosphere or the end of the mid-course
phase and impact or arrival in the vicinity of the target. See
also boost phase; midcourse phase; reentry phase.
1. Hypothetical maximum speed a body could attain
along a specified flight path under given conditions of weight
and thrust if diving through an unlimited distance in air of
specified uniform density. 2. Remaining speed of a projectile at
the point in its downward path where it is level with the muzzle
of the weapon.
terms of reference
Terms of reference allude to a mutual agreement under
which a command, element, or unit exercises authority or
undertakes specific missions or tasks relative to another
command, element, or unit. Also called TORs.
The collection, analysis, evaluation, and
interpretation of geographic information on the natural and
manmade features of the terrain, combined with other relevant
factors, to predict the effect of the terrain on military
terrain avoidance system
A system which provides the pilot or navigator of an
aircraft with a situation display of the ground or obstacles
which project above either a horizontal plane through the
aircraft or a plane parallel to it, so that the pilot can
maneuver the aircraft to avoid the obstruction.
terrain clearance system
A system which provides the pilot, or autopilot, of
an aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft
will maintain a selected height over flat ground and clear the
peaks of undulating ground within the selected height in a
vertical plane through the flight vector. This system differs
from terrain following in that the aircraft need not descend
into a valley to follow the ground contour.
An exercise in which a stated military situation is solved
on the ground, the troops being imaginary and the solution
usually being in writing.
Flight close to the Earth's surface during which
airspeed, height, and/or altitude are adapted to the contours
and cover of the ground in order to avoid enemy detection and
fire. Also called TERF.
terrain following system
A system which provides the pilot or autopilot of an
aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft will
maintain as closely as possible a selected height above a ground
contour in a vertical plane through the flight vector.
Intelligence on the military significance of natural and
manmade characteristics of an area.
An analysis and interpretation of natural and manmade
features of an area, their effects on military operations, and
the effect of weather and climate on these features.
The Earth's land area, including its manmade and natural
surface and sub-surface features, and its interfaces and
interactions with the atmosphere and the oceans.
terrestrial reference guidance
The technique of providing intelligence to a missile from
certain characteristics of the surface over which the missile is
flown, thereby achieving flight along a predetermined path.
Airspace above land territory, internal waters,
archipelagic waters, and territorial seas.
A belt of ocean space adjacent to and measured from the
coastal state's baseline to a maximum width of 12 nm. Throughout
the vertical and horizontal planes of the territorial sea, the
coastal state exercises sovereign jurisdiction, subject to the
right of innocent passage of vessels on the surface and the
right of transit passage in, under, and over international
straits. Territorial sea areas that are a continuation of sea
lanes through archipelagoes are subject to archipelagic sealane
passage, with the same transit rights as those that apply to
The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of
unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to
intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that
are generally political, religious, or ideological. See also
antiterrorism; combating terrorism; counterterrorism; force
protection condition; terrorist; terrorist groups.
An individual who uses violence, terror, and intimidation
to achieve a result. See also terrorism.
Any element, regardless of size or espoused cause, that
commits acts of violence or threatens violence in pursuit of its
political, religious, or ideological objectives. See also
terrorist threat level
An intelligence threat assessment of the level of
terrorist threat faced by US personnel and interests in a
foreign country. The assessment is based on a continuous
intelligence analysis of a minimum of five elements: terrorist
group existence, capability, history, trends, and targeting.
There are five threat levels: NEGLIGIBLE, LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, and
CRITICAL. Threat levels should not be confused with force
protection conditions (FPCONs). Threat level assessments are
provided to senior leaders to assist them in determining the
appropriate local FPCON. (Department of State also makes threat
assessments, which may differ from those determined by
Department of Defense.)
The depth to which the submarine is tested by actual
or simulated submergence. See also maximum operating depth
See service test; troop test.
The geographical area outside the continental United
States for which a commander of a combatant command has been
See intratheater airlift.
theater airlift liaison officer
An officer specially trained to implement the theater air
control system and to control tactical airlift assets. Theater
airlift liaison officers are highly qualified, rated airlift
officers with tactical (airdrop) airlift experience and assigned
duties, supporting US Army units. Also called TALO.
theater-assigned transportation assets
Transportation assets that are assigned under the
combatant command (command authority) of a geographic combatant
commander. See also combatant command (command authority);
single manager for transportation.
The flow of personnel, equipment, and materiel within
theater to meet the geographic combatant commander's missions.
See also distribution; theater; theater distribution system.
theater distribution management
The function of optimizing the distribution networks to
achieve the effective and efficient flow of personnel,
equipment, and materiel to meet the combatant commander's
requirements. See also distribution; theater; theater
theater distribution system
A distribution system comprised of four independent and
mutually supported networks within theater to meet the
geographic combatant commander's requirements: the physical
network; the financial network; the information network; and the
communications network. See also distribution; distribution
plan; distribution system; theater; theater distribution.
A missile, which may be a ballistic missile, a cruise
missile, or an air-to-surface missile (not including
short-range, non-nuclear, direct fire missiles, bombs, or
rockets such as Maverick or wire-guided missiles), whose target
is within a given theater of operation. Also called TM. See also
joint theater missile defense.
theater of operations
A subarea within a theater of war defined by the
geographic combatant commander required to conduct or support
specific combat operations. Different theaters of operations
within the same theater of war will normally be geographically
separate and focused on different enemy forces. Theaters of
operations are usually of significant size, allowing for
operations over extended periods of time. Also called TO. See
also theater of war.
theater of war
Defined by the Secretary of Defense or the geographic
combatant commander, the area of air, land, and water that is,
or may become, directly involved in the conduct of the war. A
theater of war does not normally encompass the geographic
combatant commander's entire area of responsibility and may
contain more than one theater of operations. See also area of
responsibility; theater of operations.
theater strategic environment
A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and
influences in the theater that describes the diplomatic-military
situation, affect the employment of military forces, and affect
the decisions of the chain of command. See also theater.
The art and science of developing integrated strategic
concepts and courses of action directed toward securing the
objectives of national and alliance or coalition security policy
and strategy by the use of force, threatened use of force, or
operations not involving the use of force within a theater. See
also military strategy; national military strategy; national
security strategy; strategy.
theater support contractors
Contract personnel hired in, and operating in, a specific
operational area. See also external support contractors; systems
The natural phenomenon that normally occurs twice daily
when temperature conditions are such that there is a loss of
contrast between two adjacent objects on infrared imagery.
The energy emitted from the fireball as thermal radiation.
The total amount of thermal energy received per unit area at a
specified distance from a nuclear explosion is generally
expressed in terms of calories per square centimeter.
The total normal component of thermal radiation striking a
given surface throughout the course of a detonation; expressed
in calories per square centimeter or megajoules per square
Imagery produced by sensing and recording the
thermal energy emitted or reflected from the objects which are
The radiant power versus time pulse from a nuclear weapon
1. The heat and light produced by a nuclear
explosion. 2. (DOD only) Electromagnetic radiations emitted from
a heat or light source as a consequence of its temperature; it
consists essentially of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared
The tone contrast difference of infrared linescan
imagery which is caused by a thermal gradient which persists as
a result of a shadow of an object which has been moved.
The electromagnetic radiation, mainly in the soft
(low-energy) X-ray region, emitted by the debris of a nuclear
weapon by virtue of its extremely high temperature.
An adjective referring to the process (or processes) in
which very high temperatures are used to bring about the fusion
of light nuclei with the accompanying release of energy.
A weapon in which very high temperatures are used to
bring about the fusion of light nuclei such as those of hydrogen
isotopes (e.g., deuterium and tritium) with the accompanying
release of energy. The high temperatures required are obtained
by means of fission.
Decontamination carried out by a unit, with or without
external support, to reduce contamination on personnel,
equipment, materiel, and/or working areas equal to natural
background or to the lowest possible levels, to permit the
partial or total removal of individual protective equipment and
to maintain operations with minimum degradation. This may
include terrain decontamination beyond the scope of operational
decontamination. See also immediate decontamination; operational
In antiterrorism, a continual process of compiling and
examining all available information concerning potential
terrorist activities by terrorist groups which could target a
facility. A threat analysis will review the factors of a
terrorist group's existence, capability, intentions, history,
and targeting, as well as the security environment within which
friendly forces operate. Threat analysis is an essential step in
identifying probability of terrorist attack and results in a
threat assessment. See also antiterrorism.
threat and vulnerability assessment
In antiterrorism, the pairing of a facility's threat
analysis and vulnerability analysis. See also antiterrorism.
threat identification and assessment
The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System function
that provides: timely warning of potential threats to US
interests; intelligence collection requirements; the effects of
environmental, physical, and health hazards, and cultural
factors on friendly and enemy operations; and determines the
enemy military posture and possible intentions.
In stockpile planning, munitions intended to
neutralize a finite assessed threat and for which the total
requirement is determined by an agreed mathematical model. See
also level-of-effort munitions.
The urgent communication and acknowledgement of
time-critical information essential for the preservation of life
and/or vital resources.
The beginning of that portion of the runway usable
The average quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass
through a port on a daily basis from arrival at the port to
loading onto a ship or plane, or from the discharge from a ship
or plane to the exit (clearance) from the port complex.
Throughput is usually expressed in measurement tons, short tons,
or passengers. Reception and storage limitation may affect final
tie down diagram
A drawing indicating the prescribed method of
securing a particular item of cargo within a specific type of
tie down point
An attachment point provided on or within a vehicle
for securing cargo.
tie down point pattern
The pattern of tie down points within a vehicle.
The angle between the optical axis of an air camera
and the vertical at the time of exposure.
time and frequency standard
A reference value of time and time interval. Standards of
time and frequency are determined by astronomical observations
and by the operation of atomic clocks and other advanced
timekeeping instruments. They are disseminated by transport of
clocks, radio transmissions, satellite relay, and other means.
The delivery of requested logistics support at a time and
destination specified by the receiving activity. See also
A fuze which contains a graduated time element to
regulate the time interval after which the fuze will function.
Duration of a segment of time without reference to when
the time interval begins or ends. Time intervals may be given in
seconds of time or fractions thereof.
time of attack
The hour at which the attack is to be launched. If a line
of departure is prescribed, it is the hour at which the line is
to be crossed by the leading elements of the attack.
time of delivery
The time at which the addressee or responsible relay
agency receipts for a message.
time of flight
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, the time
in seconds from the instant a weapon is fired, launched, or
released from the delivery vehicle or weapons system to the
instant it strikes or detonates.
time of origin
The time at which a message is released for transmission.
time of receipt
The time at which a receiving station completes reception
of a message.
time on target
1. Time at which aircraft are scheduled to
attack/photograph the target. 2. The actual time at which
aircraft attack/photograph the target. 3. The time at which a
nuclear detonation as planned at a specified desired ground
zero. Also called TOT.
time over target conflict
A situation wherein two or more delivery vehicles are
scheduled such that their proximity violates the established
separation criteria for yield, time, distance, or all three.
time over target (nuclear)
See time on target -- Part 3.
time-phased force and deployment data
The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System database
portion of an operation plan; it contains time-phased force
data, non-unit-related cargo and personnel data, and movement
data for the operation plan, including the following: a.
In-place units; b. Units to be deployed to support the operation
plan with a priority indicating the desired sequence for their
arrival at the port of debarkation; c. Routing of forces to be
deployed; d. Movement data associated with deploying forces; e.
Estimates of non-unit-related cargo and personnel movements to
be conducted concurrently with the deployment of forces; and f.
Estimate of transportation requirements that must be fulfilled
by common-user lift resources as well as those requirements that
can be fulfilled by assigned or attached transportation
resources. Also called TPFDD. See also time-phased force and
deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and deployment
data refinement; time-phased force and deployment list.
time-phased force and deployment data maintenance
The deliberate planning process that requires a supported
commander to incorporate changes to time-phased force and
deployment data (TPFDD) that occur after the TPFDD becomes
effective for execution. TPFDD maintenance is conducted by the
supported combatant commander in coordination with the
supporting combatant commanders, Service components, US
Transportation Command, and other agencies as required. At
designated intervals, changes to data in the TPFDD, including
force structure, standard reference files, and Services' type
unit characteristics files, are updated in Joint Operation
Planning and Execution System (JOPES) to ensure currency of
deployment data. TPFDD maintenance may also be used to update
the TPFDD for Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff or Joint
Strategic Capabilities Plan submission in lieu of refinement
during the JOPES plan development phase. Also called TPFDD
maintenance. See also time-phased force and deployment data;
time-phased force and deployment data refinement; time-phased
force and deployment list.
time-phased force and deployment data refinement
For both global and regional operation plan development,
the process consists of several discrete phases time-phased
force and deployment data (TPFDD) that may be conducted
sequentially or concurrently, in whole or in part. These phases
are concept, plan development, and review. The plan development
phase consists of several subphases: forces, logistics, and
transportation, with shortfall identification associated with
each phase. The plan development phases are collectively
referred to as TPFDD refinement. The normal TPFDD refinement
process consists of sequentially refining force, logistic
(non-unit-related personnel and sustainment), and transportation
data to develop a TPFDD file that supports a feasible and
adequate overlapping of several refinement phases. The decision
is made by the supported commander, unless otherwise directed by
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. For global planning,
refinement conferences are conducted by the Joint Staff in
conjunction with US Transportation Command. TPFDD refinement is
conducted in coordination with supported and supporting
commanders, Services, the Joint Staff, and other supporting
agencies. Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command, will
normally host refinement conferences at the request of the Joint
Staff or the supported commander. Also called TPFDD refinement.
See also time-phased force and deployment data; time-phased
force and deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and
time-phased force and deployment list
Appendix 1 to Annex A of the operation plan. It identifies
types and/or actual units required to support the operation plan
and indicates origin and ports of debarkation or ocean area. It
may also be generated as a computer listing from the time-phased
force and deployment data. Also called TPFDL. See also Joint
Operation Planning and Execution System; time-phased force and
deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data
maintenance; time-phased force and deployment data refinement.
(C-, D-, M-days end at 2400 hours Universal Time (Zulu
time) and are assumed to be 24 hours long for planning.) The
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff normally coordinates the
proposed date with the commanders of the appropriate unified and
specified commands, as well as any recommended changes to C-day.
L-hour will be established per plan, crisis, or theater of
operations and will apply to both air and surface movements.
Normally, L-hour will be established to allow C-day to be a
24-hour day. a. C-day. The unnamed day on which a deployment
operation commences or is to commence. The deployment may be
movement of troops, cargo, weapon systems, or a combination of
these elements using any or all types of transport. The letter
"C" will be the only one used to denote the above. The highest
command or headquarters responsible for coordinating the
planning will specify the exact meaning of C-day within the
aforementioned definition. The command or headquarters directly
responsible for the execution of the operation, if other than
the one coordinating the planning, will do so in light of the
meaning specified by the highest command or headquarters
coordinating the planning. b. D-day. The unnamed day on which a
particular operation commences or is to commence. c. F-hour. The
effective time of announcement by the Secretary of Defense to
the Military Departments of a decision to mobilize Reserve
units. d. H-hour. The specific hour on D-day at which a
particular operation commences. e. H-hour (amphibious
operations). For amphibious operations, the time the first
assault elements are scheduled to touch down on the beach, or a
landing zone, and in some cases the commencement of countermine
breaching operations. f. L-hour. The specific hour on C-day at
which a deployment operation commences or is to commence. g.
L-hour (amphibious operations). In amphibious operations, the
time at which the first helicopter of the helicopter-borne
assault wave touches down in the landing zone. h. M-day. The
term used to designate the unnamed day on which full
mobilization commences or is due to commence. i. N-day. The
unnamed day an active duty unit is notified for deployment or
redeployment. j. R-day. Redeployment day. The day on which
redeployment of major combat, combat support, and combat service
support forces begins in an operation. k. S-day. The day the
President authorizes Selective Reserve callup (not more than
200,000). l. T-day. The effective day coincident with
Presidential declaration of national emergency and authorization
of partial mobilization (not more than 1,000,000 personnel
exclusive of the 200,000 callup). m. W-day. Declared by the
President, W-day is associated with an adversary decision to
prepare for war (unambiguous strategic warning).
Those targets requiring immediate response because they
pose (or will soon pose) a danger to friendly forces or are
highly lucrative, fleeting targets of opportunity. Also called
Period of time during which certain activities are
governed by specific regulations.
time to target
The number of minutes and seconds to elapse before
aircraft ordnance impacts on target. Also called TTT.
External fuel tanks.
See information box.
A measure of the energy released from the detonation
of a nuclear weapon, or from the explosion of a given quantity
of fissionable material, in terms of the amount of TNT
(trinitrotoluene) which could release the same amount of energy
The amount of radiation that may be received by an
individual within a specified period with negligible results.
A device specially designed to permit the lifting and
handling of containers from the top with rough terrain container
handlers. See also container.
See chart base.
Those engineering tasks that provide geospatial
information and services to commanders and staffs across the
range of military operations. These tasks include terrain
analyses, terrain visualization, digitized terrain products,
nonstandard map products, and baseline survey data. See also
geospatial information and services.
A map that presents the vertical position of features in
measurable form as well as their horizontal positions. See also
The configuration of the ground to include its relief and
all features. Topography addresses both dry land and the sea
floor (underwater topography).
See security classification.
torpedo defense net
A net employed to close an inner harbor to torpedoes
fired from seaward or to protect an individual ship at anchor or
A method of bombing where an aircraft flies on a line
towards the target, pulls up in a vertical plane, releasing the
bomb at an angle that will compensate for the effect of gravity
drop on the bomb. Similar to loft bombing; unrestricted as to
altitude. See also loft bombing.
total active aircraft authorization
The sum of the primary and backup aircraft authorizations.
total active aircraft inventory
The sum of the primary and backup aircraft assigned to
meet the total active aircraft authorization.
total asset visibility
The capability to provide users with timely and accurate
information on the location, movement, status, and identity of
units, personnel, equipment, materiel, and supplies. It also
includes the capability to act upon that information to improve
overall performance of Department of Defense's logistic
practices. Also called TAV. See also automated identification
technology; in-transit visibility; joint total asset visibility.
total dosage attack
A chemical operation which does not involve a time
limit within which to produce the required toxic level.
total materiel assets
The total quantity of an item available in the military
system worldwide and all funded procurement of the item with
adjustments to provide for transfers out of or into the
inventory through the appropriation and procurement lead-time
periods. It includes peacetime force materiel assets and war
total materiel requirement
The sum of the peacetime force material requirement and
the war reserve material requirement.
total overall aircraft inventory
The sum of the total active aircraft inventory and the
inactive aircraft inventory. Also called TOAI.
The sum of dynamic and static pressures.
1. For fixed wing aircraft--The first 3,000 feet or
1,000 meters of runway beginning at the threshold. 2. For rotary
wings and vectored thrust aircraft--That portion of the
helicopter landing area or runway used for landing.
Any chemical which, through its chemical action on life
processes, can cause death, temporary incapacitation, or
permanent harm to humans or animals. This includes all such
chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of
production, and regardless of whether they are produced in
facilities, in munitions or elsewhere.
toxic chemical, biological, or radiological attack
An attack directed at personnel, animals, or crops, using
injurious agents of chemical, biological, or radiological
See toxin agent.
A poison formed as a specific secretion product in the
metabolism of a vegetable or animal organism, as distinguished
from inorganic poisons. Such poisons can also be manufactured by
1. A series of related contacts displayed on a data
display console or other display device. 2. To display or record
the successive positions of a moving object. 3. To lock onto a
point of radiation and obtain guidance therefrom. 4. To keep a
gun properly aimed, or to point continuously a target-locating
instrument at a moving target. 5. The actual path of an aircraft
above or a ship on the surface of the Earth. The course is the
path that is planned; the track is the path that is actually
taken. 6. One of the two endless belts on which a full-track or
half-track vehicle runs. 7. A metal part forming a path for a
moving object; e.g., the track around the inside of a vehicle
for moving a mounted machine gun.
Correlating track information for identification purposes
using all available data.
Defined set of procedures whereby the commander ensures
accurate friendly and enemy unit and/or platform locations, and
a dissemination procedure for filtering, combining, and passing
that information to higher, adjacent, and subordinate
track of interest
In counterdrug operations, contacts that meet the initial
sorting criteria applicable in the area where the contacts are
detected. Also called TOI. See also special interest target;
track production area
An area in which tracks are produced by one radar
Symbols used to display tracks on a data display
console or other display device.
The process of communicating air surveillance and tactical
data information between command and control systems or between
facilities within the systems. Telling may be classified into
the following types: back tell; cross tell; forward tell;
lateral tell; overlap tell; and relateral tell.
Capability of terrain to bear traffic. It refers to the
extent to which the terrain will permit continued movement of
any or all types of traffic.
traffic circulation map
A map showing traffic routes and the measures for traffic
regulation. It indicates the roads for use of certain classes of
traffic, the location of traffic control stations, and the
directions in which traffic may move. Also called circulation
map. See also map.
traffic control police
Any persons ordered by a military commander and/or by
national authorities to facilitate the movement of traffic and
to prevent and/or report any breach of road traffic regulations.
The average number of vehicles that occupy one mile
or one kilometer of road space, expressed in vehicles per mile
or per kilometer.
The total number of vehicles passing a given point
in a given time. Traffic flow is expressed as vehicles per hour.
traffic flow security
The protection resulting from features, inherent in some
cryptoequipment, that conceal the presence of valid messages on
a communications circuit, normally achieved by causing the
circuit to appear busy at all times.
traffic information (radar)
Information issued to alert an aircraft to any radar
targets observed on the radar display that may be in such
proximity to its position or intended route of flight to warrant
The direction, control, and supervision of all functions
incident to the procurement and use of freight and passenger
The traffic flow that is prescribed for aircraft landing
at, taxiing on, and taking off from an airport. The usual
components of a traffic pattern are upwind leg, crosswind leg,
downwind leg, base leg, and final approach.
1. A service force or group of service elements that
provides logistic support, e.g., an organization of naval
auxiliary ships or merchant ships or merchant ships attached to
a fleet for this purpose; similarly, the vehicles and operating
personnel that furnish supply, evacuation, and maintenance
services to a land unit. 2. Bombs dropped in short intervals or
trained strength in units
Those reservists assigned to units who have completed
initial active duty for training of 12 weeks or its equivalent
and are eligible for deployment overseas on land when mobilized
under proper authority. Excludes personnel in non-deployable
accounts or a training pipeline.
The interval of time between two trains boarded by the
same unit at the same point.
Any item developed or procured with the primary intent
that it shall assist in training and the process of learning.
training and readiness oversight
The authority that combatant commanders may exercise over
assigned Reserve Component (RC) forces when not on active duty
or when on active duty for training. As a matter of Department
of Defense policy, this authority includes: a. Providing
guidance to Service component commanders on operational
requirements and priorities to be addressed in Military
Department training and readiness programs; b. Commenting on
Service component program recommendations and budget requests;
c. Coordinating and approving participation by assigned RC
forces in joint exercises and other joint training when on
active duty for training or performing inactive duty for
training; d. Obtaining and reviewing readiness and inspection
reports on assigned RC forces; and e. Coordinating and reviewing
mobilization plans (including post-mobilization training
activities and deployability validation procedures) developed
for assigned RC forces. Also called TRO. See also combatant
training and retirement category
The category identifying (by specific training and
retirement category designator) a reservist's training or
retirement status in a reserve component category and Reserve
A designation identifying the number of days of training
and pay required for members of Reserve Components.
An authorized and scheduled regular inactive duty training
period. A training period must be at least two hours for
retirement point credit and four hours for pay. Previously used
interchangeably with other common terms such as drills, drill
period, assemblies, periods of instruction, etc.
A Reserve Component category designation that identifies
untrained officer and enlisted personnel who have not completed
initial active duty for training of 12 weeks or its equivalent.
See also nondeployable account.
A unit established to provide military training to
individual reservists or to Reserve Component units.
In railway terminology, the timing of a possible
movement of a train along a given route. All the train paths on
a given route constitute a timetable.
See ballistic trajectory.
1. In nuclear warfare, the period from the initiation of
the attack to its termination. 2. As applied to the Single
Integrated Operational Plan, the period that extends from
execution (or enemy attack, whichever is sooner) to termination
of the Single Integrated Operational Plan. See also postattack
A wheeled or tracked vehicle with a platform capable
of vertical and horizontal adjustment used in the loading and
unloading of aircraft, ships, or other vehicles.
1. Personnel, ships, or craft stopping temporarily at a
post, station, or port to which they are not assigned or
attached, and having destination elsewhere. 2. An independent
merchant ship calling at a port and sailing within 12 hours, and
for which routing instructions to a further port have been
promulgated. 3. An individual awaiting orders, transport, etc.,
at a post or station to which he or she is not attached or
Forces that pass or stage through, or base temporarily
within, the operational area of another command but are not
under its operational control. See also force; transient.
See staging area.
A bearing determined by noting the time at which two
features on the Earth's surface have the same relative bearing.
The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an
aircraft is controlled by reference to true altitude.
The airspace between the transition altitude and the
The lowest flight level available for use above the
transition altitude. See also altitude; transition altitude.
The nonsuspendable right of continuous and expeditious
navigation and/or overflight in the normal mode through an
international strait linking one part of the high seas (or
exclusive economic zone) with another.
A sea route which crosses open waters normally
joining two coastal routes.
The path taken by either airborne or seaborne smugglers.
Zone can include transfer operations to another carrier
(airdrop, at-sea transfer, etc.). See also arrival zone.
transmission factor (nuclear)
The ratio of the dose inside the shielding material to the
outside (ambient) dose. Transmission factor is used to calculate
the dose received through the shielding material. See also half
See communications security.
Of or pertaining to the speed of a body in a
surrounding fluid when the relative speed of the fluid is
subsonic in some places and supersonic in others. This is
encountered when passing from subsonic to supersonic speed and
vice versa. See also speed of sound.
A receiver-transmitter which will generate a reply
signal, upon proper interrogation. See also responsor.
The capability of material to be moved by towing,
self-propulsion, or carrier via any means, such as railways,
highways, waterways, pipelines, oceans, and airways.
Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of
personnel and/or cargo. Transport aircraft may be classed
according to range, as follows: a. Short-range--Not to exceed
1200 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (2222 Km). b.
Medium-range--Between 1200 and 3500 nautical miles at normal
cruising conditions (2222 and 6482 Km). c. Long-range--Exceeds
3500 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (6482 Km). See
also strategic transport aircraft; tactical transport aircraft.
In amphibious operations, an area assigned to a transport
organization for the purpose of debarking troops and equipment.
See also inner transport area; outer transport area
The actual arrival date of a specified movement
requirement at port of debarkation.
transportation component command
The three component commands of United States
Transportation Command: Air Force Air Mobility Command; Navy
Military Sealift Command; and Army Military Traffic Management
Command. Each transportation component command remains a major
command of its parent Service and continues to organize, train,
and equip its forces as specified by law. Each transportation
component command also continues to perform Service-unique
missions. Also called TCC. See also United States Transportation
A situation created by a shortage of normal transportation
capability and of a magnitude sufficient to frustrate military
movement requirements, and which requires extraordinary action
by the President or other designated authority to ensure
continued movement of essential Department of Defense traffic.
Operation plans and operation plans in concept format are
considered transportation feasible when the capability to move
forces, equipment, and supplies exists from the point of origin
to the final destination according to the plan. Transportation
feasibility determination will require concurrent analysis and
assessment of available strategic and theater lift assets,
transportation infrastructure, and competing demands and
restrictions. a. The supported commander of a combatant command
will analyze deployment, joint reception, staging, onward
movement, and integration (JRSOI), and theater distribution of
forces, equipment, and supplies to final destination. b.
Supporting combatant commanders will provide an assessment on
movement of forces from point of origin to aerial port of
embarkation and/or seaport of embarkation. c. The Commander,
United States Transportation Command will assess the strategic
leg of the time-phased force and deployment data for
transportation feasibility, indicating to the Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff and supported combatant commander that
movements arrive at the port of debarkation consistent with the
supported combatant commander's assessment of JRSOI and theater
distribution. d. Following analysis of all inputs, the supported
combatant commander is responsible for declaring a plan
end-to-end executable. See also operation plan.
transportation movement requirement
The need for transport of units, personnel, or materiel
from a specified origin to a specified destination within a
transportation operating agencies
Those Federal agencies having responsibilities under
national emergency conditions for the operational direction of
one or more forms of transportation. Also called federal modal
agencies; federal transport agencies.
Indicators assigned to eligible traffic that establish its
movement precedence. Appropriate priority systems apply to the
movement of traffic by sea and air. In times of emergency,
priorities may be applicable to continental United States
movements by land, water, or air.
All the land, water, and air routes and transportation
assets engaged in the movement of US forces and their supplies
across the range of military operations, involving both mature
and immature theaters and at the strategic, operational, and
tactical levels of war.
transport control center (air transport)
The operations center through which the air transport
force commander exercises control over the air transport system
An element that directly deploys and supports the landing
of the landing force (LF), and is functionally designated as a
transport group in the amphibious task force organization. A
transport group provides for the embarkation, movement to the
objective, landing, and logistic support of the LF. Transport
groups comprise all sealift and airlift in which the LF is
embarked. They are categorized as follows: a. airlifted groups;
b. Navy amphibious ship transport groups; and c. strategic
sealift shipping groups.
The movement or repositioning of ordnance or explosive
devices along established explosive routes (does not apply to
the aircraft flight line). See also ordnance.
A location where material is transferred between
1. To turn a weapon to the right or left on its
mount. 2. A method of surveying in which lengths and directions
of lines between points on the earth are obtained by or from
field measurements, and used in determining positions of the
That vertical displacement above low-level air
defense systems, expressed both as a height and altitude, at
which aircraft can cross the area.
traverse racking test load value
Externally applied force in pounds or kilograms at the
top-corner fitting that will strain or stretch end structures of
the container sideways.
Violation of the allegiance owed to one's sovereign or
state; betrayal of one's country.
A method of interment in which remains are placed
head-to-toe. Used only for temporary multiple burials. See also
emergency interment; group interment; mortuary affairs,
The straying of the fall of shot, such as might be caused
by incorrect speed settings of the fire support ship.
A point on the Earth, the position of which is
determined by triangulation. Also called trig point.
Photography obtained by simultaneous exposure of
three cameras systematically disposed in the air vehicle at
fixed overlapping angles relative to each other in order to
cover a wide field. See also fan camera photography.
A list published by certain Army units that includes
essential information of accurately located survey points.
The difference in draft at the bow and stern of a vessel
or the manner in which a vessel floats in the water based on the
distribution of cargo, stores and ballast aboard the vessel. See
also draft; watercraft.
The intersection of the incident, reflected, and fused (or
Mach) shock fronts accompanying an air burst. The height of the
triple point above the surface, i.e., the height of the Mach
stem, increases with increasing distance from a given explosion.
An approved list of those military units and individuals
(including civilians) required for the performance of a
particular mission by numbers, organization and equipment and,
in the case of larger commands, by deployment.
A collective term for uniformed military personnel
(usually not applicable to naval personnel afloat). See also
airborne troops; combat service support elements; combat support
troops; service troops; tactical troops.
troop safety (nuclear)
An element that defines a distance from the proposed burst
location beyond which personnel meeting the criteria described
under degree of risk will be safe to the degree prescribed. It
is expressed as a combination of a degree of risk and
vulnerability category. See also emergency risk (nuclear);
negligible risk (nuclear); unwarned exposed; warned protected.
troop space cargo
Cargo such as sea or barracks bags, bedding rolls or
hammocks, locker trunks, and office equipment, normally stowed
in an accessible place. This cargo will also include normal
hand-carried combat equipment and weapons to be carried ashore
by the assault troops.
A test conducted in the field for the purpose of
evaluating operational or organizational concepts, doctrine,
tactics, and techniques, or to gain further information on
material. See also service test.
A tropical cyclone in which the surface wind speed is at
least 34, but not more than 63 knots.
The transition zone between the stratosphere and the
troposphere. The tropopause normally occurs at an altitude of
about 25,000 to 45,000 feet (8 to 15 kilometers) in polar and
temperate zones, and at 55,000 feet (20 kilometers) in the
true airspeed indicator
An instrument which displays the speed of the aircraft
relative to the ambient air.
The height of an aircraft as measured from mean sea level.
The direction to an object from a point; expressed as a
horizontal angle measured clockwise from true north.
The angle at which one meridian is inclined to another on
the surface of the Earth. See also convergence.
1. The boundary of a horizontal plane passing
through a point of vision. 2. In photogrammetry, the boundary of
a horizontal plane passing through the perspective center of a
The direction from an observer's position to the
geographic North Pole. The north direction of any geographic
A jet engine whose air is supplied by a turbine-driven
compressor, the turbine being activated by exhaust gases.
The length of time between arriving at a point and
being ready to depart from that point. It is used in this sense
for the loading, unloading, re-fueling, and re-arming, where
appropriate, of vehicles, aircraft, and ships. See also
A term used in conjunction with vehicles, ships, and
aircraft, and comprising the following: loading time at
departure point; time to and from destination; unloading and
loading time at destination; unloading time at returning point;
planned maintenance time; and, where applicable, time awaiting
facilities. See also turnaround.
A variation of the envelopment in which the
attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal
defensive positions to secure objectives deep in the enemy's
rear to force the enemy to abandon his position or divert major
forces to meet the threat.
In land mine warfare, a point on the centerline of a
mine strip or row where it changes direction.
Information which enables the pilot of a landing aircraft
to select and follow the correct taxiway from the time the
aircraft leaves the runway until it may safely be brought to a
halt clear of the active runway.
The continuous surveillance and control of positive
control material at all times by a minimum of two authorized
individuals, each capable of detecting incorrect or unauthorized
procedures with respect to the task being performed and each
familiar with established security requirements. Also called
A system designed to prohibit access by an individual to
nuclear weapons and certain designated components by requiring
the presence at all times of at least two authorized persons,
each capable of detecting incorrect or unauthorized procedures
with respect to the task to be performed.
types of burst
See airburst; fallout safe height of burst; height of burst;
high airburst; high altitude burst; low airburst; nuclear
airburst; nuclear exoatmospheric burst; nuclear contact-surface
burst; nuclear proximity-surface burst; nuclear underground
burst; nuclear underwater burst; optimum height of burst; safe
A type of organizational or functional entity established
within the Armed Forces and uniquely identified by a
five-character, alphanumeric code called a unit type code.
type unit data file
A file that provides standard planning data and movement
characteristics for personnel, cargo, and accompanying supplies
associated with type units.