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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources


Glossary of Military Terms

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table of allowance
An equipment allowance document that prescribes basic allowances of organizational equipment, and provides the control to develop, revise, or change equipment authorization inventory data. Also called TOA.

TABOO frequencies
Any friendly frequency of such importance that it must never be deliberately jammed or interfered with by friendly forces. Normally, these frequencies include international distress, CEASE BUZZER, safety, and controller frequencies. These frequencies are generally long standing. However, they may be time-oriented in that, as the combat or exercise situation changes, the restrictions may be removed. See also CEASE BUZZER; electronic warfare.

TACAN
An ultrahigh frequency electronic air navigation system, able to provide continuous bearing and slant range to a selected station. The term is derived from tactical air navigation.

tacit arms control agreement
An arms control course of action in which two or more nations participate without any formal agreement having been made.

tactical aeromedical evacuation
That phase of evacuation which provides airlift for patients from the combat zone to points outside the combat zone, and between points within the communications zone.

tactical air command center
The principal US Marine Corps air command and control agency from which air operations and air defense warning functions are directed. It is the senior agency of the US Marine air command and control system that serves as the operational command post of the aviation combat element commander. It provides the facility from which the aviation combat element commander and his battle staff plan, supervise, coordinate, and execute all current and future air operations in support of the Marine air-ground task force. The tactical air command center can provide integration, coordination, and direction of joint and combined air operations. Also called Marine TACC.

tactical air commander (ashore)
The officer (aviator) responsible to the landing force commander for control and coordination of air operations within the landing force commander's area of operations when control of these operations is passed ashore.

tactical air control center
The principal air operations installation (ship-based) from which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air operations are controlled. Also called Navy TACC.

tactical air control party
A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft. Also called TACP.

tactical air coordinator (airborne)
An officer who coordinates, from an aircraft, the actions of other aircraft engaged in air support of ground or sea forces. Also called TAC(A). See also forward observer.

tactical air direction center
An air operations installation under the overall control of the Navy tactical air control center (afloat)/Marine Corps tactical air command center, from which aircraft and air warning service functions of tactical air operations in support of amphibious operations are directed. Also called TADC

tactical airfield fuel dispensing system
A tactical aircraft refueling system deployed by a Marine air-ground task force in support of air operations at an expeditionary airfield or a forward arming and refueling point. Also called TAFDS.

tactical air groups (shore-based)
Task organizations of tactical air units assigned to the amphibious task force that are to be land-based within, or sufficiently close to, the objective area to provide tactical air support to the amphibious task force.

tactical air officer (afloat)
The officer (aviator) under the amphibious task force commander who coordinates planning of all phases of air participation of the amphibious operation and air operations of supporting forces en route to and in the objective area. Until control is passed ashore, this officer exercises control over all operations of the tactical air control center (afloat) and is charged with the following: a. control of all aircraft in the objective area assigned for tactical air operations, including offensive and defensive air; b. control of all other aircraft entering or passing through the objective area; and c. control of all air warning facilities in the objective area.

tactical air operation
An air operation involving the employment of air power in coordination with ground or naval forces to:a. gain and maintain air superiority;b. prevent movement of enemy forces into and within the objective area and to seek out and destroy these forces and their supporting installations;c. join with ground or naval forces in operations within the objective area, in order to assist directly in attainment of their immediate objective.

tactical air operations center
The principal air control agency of the US Marine air command and control system responsible for airspace control and management. It provides real-time surveillance, direction, positive control, and navigational assistance for friendly aircraft. It performs real-time direction and control of all antiair warfare operations, to include manned interceptors and surface-to-air weapons. It is subordinate to the tactical air command center. Also called TAOC.

tactical air reconnaissance
The use of air vehicles to obtain information concerning terrain, weather, and the disposition, composition, movement, installations, lines of communications, electronic and communication emissions of enemy forces. Also included are artillery and naval gunfire adjustment, and systematic and random observation of ground battle areas, targets, and/or sectors of airspace.

tactical air support
Air operations carried out in coordination with surface forces and which directly assist land or maritime operations. See also air support.

tactical air support element
An element of a US Army division, corps, or field army tactical operations center consisting of Army component intelligence staff officer and Army component operations staff officer air personnel who coordinate and integrate tactical air support with current tactical ground operations.

tactical air transport operations
The carriage of passengers and cargo within a theater by means of: a. airborne operations: (1) parachute assault, (2) helicopterborne assault, (3) air landing; b. air logistic support; c. special missions; d. aeromedical evacuation missions.

tactical assembly area
An area that is generally out of the reach of light artillery and the location where units make final preparations (pre-combat checks and inspections) and rest, prior to moving to the line of departure. See also assembly area; line of departure.

tactical call sign
A call sign which identifies a tactical command or tactical communication facility. See also call sign.

tactical combat force
A combat unit, with appropriate combat support and combat service support assets, that is assigned the mission of defeating Level III threats. Also called TCF.

tactical command, control, communications, and computer system(s)
The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel essential to theater-level and below-theater-level commanders for planning, directing, and controlling operations of assigned and attached forces pursuant to the mission assigned and that provide for the conveyance and/or exchange of data and information from one person or force to another. See also command, control, and computer systems.

tactical concept
A statement, in broad outline, which provides a common basis for future development of tactical doctrine. See also tactical sub-concept.

tactical control
Command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capability or forces made available for tasking, that is limited to the detailed direction and control of movements or maneuvers within the operational area necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Tactical control is inherent in operational control. Tactical control may be delegated to, and exercised at any level at or below the level of combatant command. When forces are transferred between combatant commands, the command relationship the gaining commander will exercise (and the losing commander will relinquish) over these forces must be specified by the Secretary of Defense. Tactical control provides sufficient authority for controlling and directing the application of force or tactical use of combat support assets within the assigned mission or task. Also called TACON. See also combatant command; combatant command (command authority); operational control.

tactical deception group
A task organization that conducts deception operations against the enemy, including electronic, communication, visual, and other methods designed to misinform and confuse the enemy.

tactical digital information link
A Joint Staff-approved, standardized communication link suitable for transmission of digital information. Tactical digital information links interface two or more command and control or weapons systems via a single or multiple network architecture and multiple communication media for exchange of tactical information. Also called TADIL.

tactical diversion
See diversion.

tactical event system
Current architecture for reporting theater ballistic missile events. The tactical event system is composed of three independent processing and reporting elements: the joint tactical ground stations, attack launch early warning, and tactical detection and reporting. Also called TES.

tactical exploitation of national capabilities
Congressionally mandated program to improve the combat effectiveness of the Services through more effective military use of national programs. Also called TENCAP.

tactical information processing and interpretation system
A tactical, mobile, land-based, automated information-handling system designed to store and retrieve intelligence information and to process and interpret imagery or nonimagery data. Also called TIPI.

tactical intelligence
Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting tactical operations. Also called TACINTEL. See also intelligence.

tactical intelligence and related activities
Those activities outside the National Foreign Intelligence Program that accomplish the following: a. respond to operational commanders' tasking for time-sensitive information on foreign entities; b. respond to national intelligence community tasking of systems whose primary mission is support to operating forces; c. train personnel for intelligence duties; d. provide an intelligence reserve; or e. are devoted to research and development of intelligence or related capabilities. Specifically excluded are programs that are so closely integrated with a weapon system that their primary function is to provide immediate-use targeting data. Also called TIARA.

tactical level of war
The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to accomplish military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces. Activities at this level focus on the ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat elements in relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat objectives. See also operational level of war; strategic level of war.

tactical loading
See combat loading; unit loading.

tactical locality
An area of terrain which, because of its location or features, possesses a tactical significance in the particular circumstances existing at a particular time.

tactical-logistical group
Representatives designated by troop commanders to assist Navy control officers aboard control ships in the ship-to-shore movement of troops, equipment, and supplies. Also called TACLOG group.

tactical map
A large-scale map used for tactical and administrative purposes. See also map.

tactical minefield
A minefield that is employed to directly attack enemy maneuver as part of a formation obstacle plan and is laid to delay, channel, or break up an enemy advance, giving the defending element a positional advantage over the attacker.

tactical mining
In naval mine warfare, mining designed to influence a specific operation or to counter a known or presumed tactical aim of the enemy. Implicit in tactical mining is a limited period of effectiveness of the minefield.

tactical nuclear weapon employment
The use of nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air forces against opposing forces, supporting installations or facilities, in support of operations that contribute to the accomplishment of a military mission of limited scope, or in support of the military commander's scheme of maneuver, usually limited to the area of military operations.

tactical obstacles
Those obstacles employed to disrupt enemy formations, to turn them into a desired area, to fix them in position under direct and indirect fires, and to block enemy penetrations.

tactical operations center
A physical groupment of those elements of a general and special staff concerned with the current tactical operations and the tactical support thereof. Also called TOC. See also command post.

tactical range
A range in which realistic targets are in use and a certain freedom of maneuver is allowed.

tactical reserve
A part of a force held under the control of the commander as a maneuvering force to influence future action.

tactical security
In operations, the measures necessary to deny information to the enemy and to ensure that a force retains its freedom of action and is warned or protected against an unexpected encounter with the enemy or an attack. See also physical security; security.

tactical sub-concept
A statement, in broad outline, for a specific field of military capability within a tactical concept which provides a common basis both for equipment and weapon system development and for future development of tactical doctrine. See also tactical concept.

tactical transport aircraft
Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo over short or medium distances.

tactical troops
Combat troops, together with any service troops required for their direct support, who are organized under one commander to operate as a unit and engage the enemy in combat. See also troops.

tactical unit
An organization of troops, aircraft, or ships that is intended to serve as a single unit in combat. It may include service units required for its direct support.

tactical vehicle
See military designed vehicle.

tactical warning
1. A warning after initiation of a threatening or hostile act based on an evaluation of information from all available sources. 2. In satellite and missile surveillance, a notification to operational command centers that a specific threat event is occurring. The component elements that describe threat events are as follows: a. country of origin--Country or countries initiating hostilities; b. event type and size--Identification of the type of event and determination of the size or number of weapons; c. country under attack--Determined by observing trajectory of an object and predicting its impact point; and d. event time--Time the hostile event occurred. Also called integrated tactical warning. See also attack assessment; strategic warning.

tactical warning and assessment
A composite term. See separate definitions for tactical warning and for attack assessment.

tactical warning and attack assessment
A composite term. See separate definitions for tactical warning and for attack assessment. Also called TW/AA.

tactics
The employment and ordered arrangement of forces in relation to each other. See also procedures; techniques.

tagline
A line attached to a draft of cargo or container to provide control and minimize pendulation of cargo during lifting operations. See also container; draft.

Tanker Airlift Control Center
The Air Mobility Command direct reporting unit responsible for tasking and controlling operational missions for all activities involving forces supporting US Transportation Command's global air mobility mission. The Tanker Airlift Control Center is comprised of the following functions: current operations, command and control, logistic operations, aerial port operations, aeromedical evacuation, flight planning, diplomatic clearances, and weather. Also called TACC. See also Air Mobility Command; tanker airlift control element.

tanker airlift control element
A mobile command and control organization deployed to support intertheater and intratheater air mobility operations at fixed, en route, and deployed locations where air mobility operational support is nonexistent or insufficient. The tanker airlift control element (TALCE) provides on-site management of air mobility airfield operations to include command and control, communications, aerial port services, maintenance, security, transportation, weather, intelligence, and other support functions, as necessary. The TALCE is composed of mission support elements from various units and deploys in support of peacetime, contingency, and emergency relief operations on both planned and "no notice" basis. Also called TALCE. See also air mobility; Tanker Airlift Control Center.

tare weight
The weight of a container deducted from gross weight to obtain net weight or the weight of an empty container.

target
1. An area, complex, installation, force, equipment, capability, function, or behavior identified for possible action to support the commander's objectives, guidance, and intent. Targets fall into two general categories: planned and immediate. 2. In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed. 3. An area designated and numbered for future firing. 4. In gunfire support usage, an impact burst that hits the target. Also called TGT. See also objective area.

target acquisition
The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. Also called TA. See also target analysis.

target analysis
An examination of potential targets to determine military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to obtain a desired level of damage or casualties. See also target acquisition.

target approach point
In air transport operations, a navigational check point over which the final turn into the drop zone/landing zone is made. See also initial point.

target area of interest
The geographical area where high-value targets can be acquired and engaged by friendly forces. Not all target areas of interest will form part of the friendly course of action; only target areas of interest associated with high priority targets are of interest to the staff. These are identified during staff planning and wargaming. Target areas of interest differ from engagement areas in degree. Engagement areas plan for the use of all available weapons; target areas of interest might be engaged by a single weapon. Also called TAI. See also area of interest; high-value target; target.

target area survey base
A base line used for the locating of targets or other points by the intersection of observations from two stations located at opposite ends on the line.

target array
A graphic representation of enemy forces, personnel, and facilities in a specific situation, accompanied by a target analysis.

target audience
An individual or group selected for influence or attack by means of psychological operations.

target base line
A line connecting prime targets along the periphery of a geographic area.

target bearing
1. true--The true compass bearing of a target from a firing ship. 2. relative--The bearing of a target measured in the horizontal from the bow of one's own ship clockwise from 0 degrees to 360 degrees, or from the nose of one's own aircraft in hours of the clock.

target classification
A grouping of targets in accordance with their threat to the amphibious task force and its component elements: targets not to be fired upon prior to D-day and targets not to be destroyed except on direct orders.

target complex
A geographically integrated series of target concentrations. See also target.

target component
A set of targets within a target system performing a similar function. See also target; target critical damage point.

target concentration
A grouping of geographically proximate targets. See also target; target complex.

target critical damage point
The part of a target component that is most vital. Also called critical node. See also target; target component.

target data inventory
A basic targeting program that provides a standardized target data in support of the requirements of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Military Departments, and unified and specified commands for target planning coordination and weapons application. Also called TDI.

target date
The date on which it is desired that an action be accomplished or initiated.

target discrimination
The ability of a surveillance or guidance system to identify or engage any one target when multiple targets are present.

target dossier
A file of assembled target intelligence about a specific geographic area.

target folder
A folder, hardcopy or electronic, containing target intelligence and related materials prepared for planning and executing action against a specific target. See also target.

target information center
The agency or activity responsible for collecting, displaying, evaluating, and disseminating information pertaining to potential targets. See also target.

targeting
The process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate response to them, taking account of operational requirements and capabilities. See also joint targeting coordination board; target.

targeting effects
The cumulative results of actions taken to attack targets and target systems by lethal and nonlethal means. See also target; targeting.

target intelligence
Intelligence that portrays and locates the components of a target or target complex and indicates its vulnerability and relative importance. See also target; target complex.

target list
The listing of targets maintained and promulgated by the senior echelon of command; it contains those targets that are to be engaged by supporting arms, as distinguished from a "list of targets" that may be maintained by any echelon as confirmed, suspected, or possible targets for informational and planning purposes. See also joint target list; list of targets.

target materials
Graphic, textual, tabular, digital, video, or other presentations of target intelligence, primarily designed to support operations against designated targets by one or more weapon(s) systems. Target materials are suitable for training, planning, executing, and evaluating military operations. See also Air Target Materials Program.

target nomination list
A list of targets nominated by component commanders, national agencies, or the joint force commander staff for potential inclusion on the joint integrated prioritized target list to support joint force commander objectives and priorities. Also called TNL. See also joint integrated prioritized target list; target.

target of opportunity
A target visible to a surface or air sensor or observer, which is within range of available weapons and against which fire has not been scheduled or requested. See also target.

target overlay
A transparent sheet which, when superimposed on a particular chart, map, drawing, tracing or other representation, depicts target locations and designations. The target overlay may also show boundaries between maneuver elements, objectives and friendly forward dispositions.

target pattern
The flight path of aircraft during the attack phase. Also called attack pattern.

target priority
A grouping of targets with the indicated sequence of attack.

target range
See range.

target response (nuclear)
The effect on men, material, and equipment of blast, heat, light, and nuclear radiation resulting from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.

target signature
1. The characteristic pattern of a target displayed by detection and identification equipment. 2. In naval mine warfare, the variation in the influence field produced by the passage of a ship or sweep.

target stress point
The weakest point (most vulnerable to damage) on the critical damage point. Also called vulnerable node. See also target critical damage point.

target system
1. All the targets situated in a particular geographic area and functionally related. 2. (DOD only) A group of targets that are so related that their destruction will produce some particular effect desired by the attacker. See also target; target complex.

target system assessment
The broad assessment of the overall impact and effectiveness of the full spectrum of military force applied against the operation of an enemy target system or total combat effectiveness (including significant subdivisions of the system) relative to the operational objectives established. See also target system.

target system component
A set of targets belonging to one or more groups of industries and basic utilities required to produce component parts of an end product such as periscopes, or one type of a series of interrelated commodities, such as aviation gasoline.

task component
A subdivision of a fleet, task force, task group, or task unit, organized by the respective commander or by higher authority for the accomplishment of specific tasks.

task element
A component of a naval task unit organized by the commander of a task unit or higher authority.

task force
1. A temporary grouping of units, under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a specific operation or mission. 2. A semi-permanent organization of units, under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a continuing specific task. 3. A component of a fleet organized by the commander of a task fleet or higher authority for the accomplishment of a specific task or tasks. Also called TF. See also force.

task group
A component of a naval task force organized by the commander of a task force or higher authority. Also called TG.

tasking order
A method used to task and to disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected targets and specific missions. In addition, the tasking order provides specific instructions concerning the mission planning agent, targets, and other control agencies, as well as general instructions for accomplishment of the mission. Also called TASKORD. See also mission; order; target.

task organization
1. In the Navy, an organization which assigns to responsible commanders the means with which to accomplish their assigned tasks in any planned action. 2. An organization table pertaining to a specific naval directive.

task-organizing
The act of designing an operating force, support staff, or logistic package of specific size and composition to meet a unique task or mission. Characteristics to examine when task-organizing the force include, but are not limited to: training, experience, equipage, sustainability, operating environment, enemy threat, and mobility.

task unit
A component of a naval task group organized by the commander of a task group or higher authority.

taxiway
A specially prepared or designated path on an airfield for the use of taxiing aircraft.

T-day
See times.

tear line
A physical line on an intelligence message or document separating categories of information that have been approved for foreign disclosure and release. Normally, the intelligence below the tear line is that which has been previously cleared for disclosure or release.

technical analysis
In imagery interpretation, the precise description of details appearing on imagery.

technical architecture
A minimal set of rules governing the arrangement, interaction, and interdependence of the parts or elements whose purpose is to ensure that a conformant system satisfies a specified set of requirements.

technical assistance
The providing of advice, assistance, and training pertaining to the installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment.

technical characteristics
Those characteristics of equipment that pertain primarily to the engineering principles involved in producing equipment possessing desired military characteristics; e.g., for electronic equipment, technical characteristics include such items as circuitry as well as types and arrangement of components.

technical documentation
Visual information documentation (with or without sound as an integral documentation component) of an actual event made for purposes of evaluation. Typically, technical documentation contributes to the study of human or mechanical factors, procedures, and processes in the fields of medicine, science, logistics, research, development, test and evaluation, intelligence, investigations, and armament delivery. Also called TECDOC. See also visual information documentation.

technical escort
An individual technically qualified and properly equipped to accompany designated material requiring a high degree of safety or security during shipment.

technical evaluation
The study and investigations by a developing agency to determine the technical suitability of material, equipment, or a system for use in the Military Services. See also operational evaluation.

technical information
Information, including scientific information, that relates to research, development, engineering, test, evaluation, production, operation, use, and maintenance of munitions and other military supplies and equipment.

technical intelligence
Intelligence derived from exploitation of foreign material, produced for strategic, operational, and tactical level commanders. Technical intelligence begins when an individual service member finds something new on the battlefield and takes the proper steps to report it. The item is then exploited at succeedingly higher levels until a countermeasure is produced to neutralize the adversary's technological advantage. Also called TECHINT. See also exploitation; intelligence.

technical operational intelligence
A Defense Intelligence Agency initiative to provide enhanced scientific and technical intelligence to the commanders of unified commands and their subordinates through a closed loop system involving all Service and Defense Intelligence Agency scientific and technical intelligence centers. Through a system manager in the National Military Joint Intelligence Center, the technical operational intelligence program provides timely collection, analysis, and dissemination of area of responsibility-specific scientific and technical intelligence to combatant commanders and their subordinates for planning, training, and executing joint operations. Also called TOPINT.

technical review authority
The organization tasked to provide specialized technical or administrative expertise to the primary review authority or coordinating review authority for joint publications. Also called TRA. See also coordinating review authority; joint publication; primary review authority.

technical specification
A detailed description of technical requirements, usually with specific acceptance criteria, stated in terms suitable to form the basis for the actual design development and production processes of an item having the qualities specified in the operational characteristics. See also operational characteristics.

technical supply operations
Operations performed by supply units or technical supply elements of supply and maintenance units in acquiring, accounting for, storing, and issuing Class II and IV items needed by supported units and maintenance activities.

technical surveillance countermeasures
Techniques and measures to detect and neutralize a wide variety of hostile penetration technologies that are used to obtain unauthorized access to classified and sensitive information. Technical penetrations include the employment of optical, electro-optical, electromagnetic, fluidic, and acoustic means as the sensor and transmission medium, or the use of various types of stimulation or modification to equipment or building components for the direct or indirect transmission of information meant to be protected. Also called TSCM. See also counterintelligence.

technical survey
A complete electronic and physical inspection to ascertain that offices, conference rooms, war rooms, and other similar locations where classified information is discussed are free of monitoring systems. See also sweep.

techniques
Non-prescriptive ways or methods used to perform missions, functions, or tasks. See also procedures; tactics.

telecommunication
Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals, writings, images, sounds, or information of any nature by wire, radio, visual, or other electromagnetic systems.

telecommunications center
A facility, normally serving more than one organization or terminal, responsible for transmission, receipt, acceptance, processing, and distribution of incoming and outgoing messages.

teleconference
A conference between persons remote from one another but linked by a telecommunications system.

teleprocessing
The combining of telecommunications and computer operations interacting in the automatic processing, reception, and transmission of data and/or information.

television imagery
Imagery acquired by a television camera and recorded or transmitted electronically.

telling
See track telling.

temperature gradient
At sea, a temperature gradient is the change of temperature with depth; a positive gradient is a temperature increase with an increase in depth, and a negative gradient is a temperature decrease with an increase in depth.

tempest
An unclassified term referring to technical investigations for compromising emanations from electrically operated information processing equipment; these investigations are conducted in support of emanations and emissions security. See also counterintelligence.

temporary interment
A site for the purpose of: a. the interment of the remains if the circumstances permit; or b. the reburial of remains exhumed from an emergency interment. See also emergency interment; group interment; mortuary affairs; trench interment.

terminal
A facility designed to transfer cargo from one means of conveyance to another. (Conveyance is the piece of equipment used to transport cargo; i.e., railcar to truck or truck to truck. This is as opposed to mode, which is the type of equipment; i.e., ship to rail, rail to truck.) See also facility.

terminal attack control
The authority to control the maneuver of and grant weapons release clearance to attacking aircraft. See also joint terminal attack controller.

terminal clearance capacity
The amount of cargo or personnel that can be moved through and out of a terminal on a daily basis.

terminal control
1. The authority to direct aircraft to maneuver into a position to deliver ordnance, passengers, or cargo to a specific location or target. Terminal control is a type of air control. 2. Any electronic, mechanical, or visual control given to aircraft to facilitate target acquisition and resolution. See also terminal guidance.

terminal control area
A control area or portion thereof normally situated at the confluence of air traffic service routes in the vicinity of one or more major airfields. See also airway; control area; controlled airspace; control zone.

terminal guidance
1. The guidance applied to a guided missile between midcourse guidance and arrival in the vicinity of the target. 2. Electronic, mechanical, visual, or other assistance given an aircraft pilot to facilitate arrival at, operation within or over, landing upon, or departure from an air landing or airdrop facility. 3. Any electronic, mechanical, voice or visual communication that provides approaching aircraft or weapons additional information regarding a specific location or target. Terminal guidance is not a type of air control. Those providing terminal guidance do not have weapons release authority, or authority to direct the maneuver of aircraft. See also terminal control.

terminal operations
The reception, processing, and staging of passengers; thereceipt, transit, storage, and marshalling of cargo; the loadingand unloading of modes of transport conveyances; and themanifesting and forwarding of cargo and passengers todestination. See also operation; terminal.

terminal phase
That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile between reentry into the atmosphere or the end of the mid-course phase and impact or arrival in the vicinity of the target. See also boost phase; midcourse phase; reentry phase.

terminal velocity
1. Hypothetical maximum speed a body could attain along a specified flight path under given conditions of weight and thrust if diving through an unlimited distance in air of specified uniform density. 2. Remaining speed of a projectile at the point in its downward path where it is level with the muzzle of the weapon.

terms of reference
Terms of reference allude to a mutual agreement under which a command, element, or unit exercises authority or undertakes specific missions or tasks relative to another command, element, or unit. Also called TORs.

terrain analysis
The collection, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of geographic information on the natural and manmade features of the terrain, combined with other relevant factors, to predict the effect of the terrain on military operations.

terrain avoidance system
A system which provides the pilot or navigator of an aircraft with a situation display of the ground or obstacles which project above either a horizontal plane through the aircraft or a plane parallel to it, so that the pilot can maneuver the aircraft to avoid the obstruction.

terrain clearance system
A system which provides the pilot, or autopilot, of an aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft will maintain a selected height over flat ground and clear the peaks of undulating ground within the selected height in a vertical plane through the flight vector. This system differs from terrain following in that the aircraft need not descend into a valley to follow the ground contour.

terrain exercise
An exercise in which a stated military situation is solved on the ground, the troops being imaginary and the solution usually being in writing.

terrain flight
Flight close to the Earth's surface during which airspeed, height, and/or altitude are adapted to the contours and cover of the ground in order to avoid enemy detection and fire. Also called TERF.

terrain following system
A system which provides the pilot or autopilot of an aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft will maintain as closely as possible a selected height above a ground contour in a vertical plane through the flight vector.

terrain intelligence
Intelligence on the military significance of natural and manmade characteristics of an area.

terrain study
An analysis and interpretation of natural and manmade features of an area, their effects on military operations, and the effect of weather and climate on these features.

terrestrial environment
The Earth's land area, including its manmade and natural surface and sub-surface features, and its interfaces and interactions with the atmosphere and the oceans.

terrestrial reference guidance
The technique of providing intelligence to a missile from certain characteristics of the surface over which the missile is flown, thereby achieving flight along a predetermined path.

territorial airspace
Airspace above land territory, internal waters, archipelagic waters, and territorial seas.

territorial sea
A belt of ocean space adjacent to and measured from the coastal state's baseline to a maximum width of 12 nm. Throughout the vertical and horizontal planes of the territorial sea, the coastal state exercises sovereign jurisdiction, subject to the right of innocent passage of vessels on the surface and the right of transit passage in, under, and over international straits. Territorial sea areas that are a continuation of sea lanes through archipelagoes are subject to archipelagic sealane passage, with the same transit rights as those that apply to international straits.

terrorism
The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. See also antiterrorism; combating terrorism; counterterrorism; force protection condition; terrorist; terrorist groups.

terrorist
An individual who uses violence, terror, and intimidation to achieve a result. See also terrorism.

terrorist groups
Any element, regardless of size or espoused cause, that commits acts of violence or threatens violence in pursuit of its political, religious, or ideological objectives. See also terrorism.

terrorist threat level
An intelligence threat assessment of the level of terrorist threat faced by US personnel and interests in a foreign country. The assessment is based on a continuous intelligence analysis of a minimum of five elements: terrorist group existence, capability, history, trends, and targeting. There are five threat levels: NEGLIGIBLE, LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, and CRITICAL. Threat levels should not be confused with force protection conditions (FPCONs). Threat level assessments are provided to senior leaders to assist them in determining the appropriate local FPCON. (Department of State also makes threat assessments, which may differ from those determined by Department of Defense.)

test depth
The depth to which the submarine is tested by actual or simulated submergence. See also maximum operating depth

tests
See service test; troop test.

theater
The geographical area outside the continental United States for which a commander of a combatant command has been assigned responsibility.

theater airlift
See intratheater airlift.

theater airlift liaison officer
An officer specially trained to implement the theater air control system and to control tactical airlift assets. Theater airlift liaison officers are highly qualified, rated airlift officers with tactical (airdrop) airlift experience and assigned duties, supporting US Army units. Also called TALO.

theater-assigned transportation assets
Transportation assets that are assigned under the combatant command (command authority) of a geographic combatant commander. See also combatant command (command authority); single manager for transportation.

theater distribution
The flow of personnel, equipment, and materiel within theater to meet the geographic combatant commander's missions. See also distribution; theater; theater distribution system.

theater distribution management
The function of optimizing the distribution networks to achieve the effective and efficient flow of personnel, equipment, and materiel to meet the combatant commander's requirements. See also distribution; theater; theater distribution.

theater distribution system
A distribution system comprised of four independent and mutually supported networks within theater to meet the geographic combatant commander's requirements: the physical network; the financial network; the information network; and the communications network. See also distribution; distribution plan; distribution system; theater; theater distribution.

theater missile
A missile, which may be a ballistic missile, a cruise missile, or an air-to-surface missile (not including short-range, non-nuclear, direct fire missiles, bombs, or rockets such as Maverick or wire-guided missiles), whose target is within a given theater of operation. Also called TM. See also joint theater missile defense.

theater of operations
A subarea within a theater of war defined by the geographic combatant commander required to conduct or support specific combat operations. Different theaters of operations within the same theater of war will normally be geographically separate and focused on different enemy forces. Theaters of operations are usually of significant size, allowing for operations over extended periods of time. Also called TO. See also theater of war.

theater of war
Defined by the Secretary of Defense or the geographic combatant commander, the area of air, land, and water that is, or may become, directly involved in the conduct of the war. A theater of war does not normally encompass the geographic combatant commander's entire area of responsibility and may contain more than one theater of operations. See also area of responsibility; theater of operations.

theater strategic environment
A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences in the theater that describes the diplomatic-military situation, affect the employment of military forces, and affect the decisions of the chain of command. See also theater.

theater strategy
The art and science of developing integrated strategic concepts and courses of action directed toward securing the objectives of national and alliance or coalition security policy and strategy by the use of force, threatened use of force, or operations not involving the use of force within a theater. See also military strategy; national military strategy; national security strategy; strategy.

theater support contractors
Contract personnel hired in, and operating in, a specific operational area. See also external support contractors; systems support contractors

thermal crossover
The natural phenomenon that normally occurs twice daily when temperature conditions are such that there is a loss of contrast between two adjacent objects on infrared imagery.

thermal energy
The energy emitted from the fireball as thermal radiation. The total amount of thermal energy received per unit area at a specified distance from a nuclear explosion is generally expressed in terms of calories per square centimeter.

thermal exposure
The total normal component of thermal radiation striking a given surface throughout the course of a detonation; expressed in calories per square centimeter or megajoules per square meter.

thermal imagery
Imagery produced by sensing and recording the thermal energy emitted or reflected from the objects which are imaged.

thermal pulse
The radiant power versus time pulse from a nuclear weapon detonation.

thermal radiation
1. The heat and light produced by a nuclear explosion. 2. (DOD only) Electromagnetic radiations emitted from a heat or light source as a consequence of its temperature; it consists essentially of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiations.

thermal shadow
The tone contrast difference of infrared linescan imagery which is caused by a thermal gradient which persists as a result of a shadow of an object which has been moved.

thermal X-rays
The electromagnetic radiation, mainly in the soft (low-energy) X-ray region, emitted by the debris of a nuclear weapon by virtue of its extremely high temperature.

thermonuclear
An adjective referring to the process (or processes) in which very high temperatures are used to bring about the fusion of light nuclei with the accompanying release of energy.

thermonuclear weapon
A weapon in which very high temperatures are used to bring about the fusion of light nuclei such as those of hydrogen isotopes (e.g., deuterium and tritium) with the accompanying release of energy. The high temperatures required are obtained by means of fission.

thorough decontamination
Decontamination carried out by a unit, with or without external support, to reduce contamination on personnel, equipment, materiel, and/or working areas equal to natural background or to the lowest possible levels, to permit the partial or total removal of individual protective equipment and to maintain operations with minimum degradation. This may include terrain decontamination beyond the scope of operational decontamination. See also immediate decontamination; operational decontamination.

threat analysis
In antiterrorism, a continual process of compiling and examining all available information concerning potential terrorist activities by terrorist groups which could target a facility. A threat analysis will review the factors of a terrorist group's existence, capability, intentions, history, and targeting, as well as the security environment within which friendly forces operate. Threat analysis is an essential step in identifying probability of terrorist attack and results in a threat assessment. See also antiterrorism.

threat and vulnerability assessment
In antiterrorism, the pairing of a facility's threat analysis and vulnerability analysis. See also antiterrorism.

threat identification and assessment
The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System function that provides: timely warning of potential threats to US interests; intelligence collection requirements; the effects of environmental, physical, and health hazards, and cultural factors on friendly and enemy operations; and determines the enemy military posture and possible intentions.

threat-oriented munitions
In stockpile planning, munitions intended to neutralize a finite assessed threat and for which the total requirement is determined by an agreed mathematical model. See also level-of-effort munitions.

threat warning
The urgent communication and acknowledgement of time-critical information essential for the preservation of life and/or vital resources.

threshold
The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.

throughput
The average quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass through a port on a daily basis from arrival at the port to loading onto a ship or plane, or from the discharge from a ship or plane to the exit (clearance) from the port complex. Throughput is usually expressed in measurement tons, short tons, or passengers. Reception and storage limitation may affect final throughput

tie down diagram
A drawing indicating the prescribed method of securing a particular item of cargo within a specific type of vehicle.

tie down point
An attachment point provided on or within a vehicle for securing cargo.

tie down point pattern
The pattern of tie down points within a vehicle.

tilt angle
The angle between the optical axis of an air camera and the vertical at the time of exposure.

time and frequency standard
A reference value of time and time interval. Standards of time and frequency are determined by astronomical observations and by the operation of atomic clocks and other advanced timekeeping instruments. They are disseminated by transport of clocks, radio transmissions, satellite relay, and other means.

time-definite delivery
The delivery of requested logistics support at a time and destination specified by the receiving activity. See also logistic support.

time fuze
A fuze which contains a graduated time element to regulate the time interval after which the fuze will function.

time interval
Duration of a segment of time without reference to when the time interval begins or ends. Time intervals may be given in seconds of time or fractions thereof.

time of attack
The hour at which the attack is to be launched. If a line of departure is prescribed, it is the hour at which the line is to be crossed by the leading elements of the attack.

time of delivery
The time at which the addressee or responsible relay agency receipts for a message.

time of flight
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, the time in seconds from the instant a weapon is fired, launched, or released from the delivery vehicle or weapons system to the instant it strikes or detonates.

time of origin
The time at which a message is released for transmission.

time of receipt
The time at which a receiving station completes reception of a message.

time on target
1. Time at which aircraft are scheduled to attack/photograph the target. 2. The actual time at which aircraft attack/photograph the target. 3. The time at which a nuclear detonation as planned at a specified desired ground zero. Also called TOT.

time over target conflict
A situation wherein two or more delivery vehicles are scheduled such that their proximity violates the established separation criteria for yield, time, distance, or all three.

time over target (nuclear)
See time on target -- Part 3.

time-phased force and deployment data
The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System database portion of an operation plan; it contains time-phased force data, non-unit-related cargo and personnel data, and movement data for the operation plan, including the following: a. In-place units; b. Units to be deployed to support the operation plan with a priority indicating the desired sequence for their arrival at the port of debarkation; c. Routing of forces to be deployed; d. Movement data associated with deploying forces; e. Estimates of non-unit-related cargo and personnel movements to be conducted concurrently with the deployment of forces; and f. Estimate of transportation requirements that must be fulfilled by common-user lift resources as well as those requirements that can be fulfilled by assigned or attached transportation resources. Also called TPFDD. See also time-phased force and deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and deployment data refinement; time-phased force and deployment list.

time-phased force and deployment data maintenance
The deliberate planning process that requires a supported commander to incorporate changes to time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) that occur after the TPFDD becomes effective for execution. TPFDD maintenance is conducted by the supported combatant commander in coordination with the supporting combatant commanders, Service components, US Transportation Command, and other agencies as required. At designated intervals, changes to data in the TPFDD, including force structure, standard reference files, and Services' type unit characteristics files, are updated in Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) to ensure currency of deployment data. TPFDD maintenance may also be used to update the TPFDD for Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff or Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan submission in lieu of refinement during the JOPES plan development phase. Also called TPFDD maintenance. See also time-phased force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data refinement; time-phased force and deployment list.

time-phased force and deployment data refinement
For both global and regional operation plan development, the process consists of several discrete phases time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) that may be conducted sequentially or concurrently, in whole or in part. These phases are concept, plan development, and review. The plan development phase consists of several subphases: forces, logistics, and transportation, with shortfall identification associated with each phase. The plan development phases are collectively referred to as TPFDD refinement. The normal TPFDD refinement process consists of sequentially refining force, logistic (non-unit-related personnel and sustainment), and transportation data to develop a TPFDD file that supports a feasible and adequate overlapping of several refinement phases. The decision is made by the supported commander, unless otherwise directed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. For global planning, refinement conferences are conducted by the Joint Staff in conjunction with US Transportation Command. TPFDD refinement is conducted in coordination with supported and supporting commanders, Services, the Joint Staff, and other supporting agencies. Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command, will normally host refinement conferences at the request of the Joint Staff or the supported commander. Also called TPFDD refinement. See also time-phased force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and deployment list.

time-phased force and deployment list
Appendix 1 to Annex A of the operation plan. It identifies types and/or actual units required to support the operation plan and indicates origin and ports of debarkation or ocean area. It may also be generated as a computer listing from the time-phased force and deployment data. Also called TPFDL. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System; time-phased force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and deployment data refinement.

times
(C-, D-, M-days end at 2400 hours Universal Time (Zulu time) and are assumed to be 24 hours long for planning.) The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff normally coordinates the proposed date with the commanders of the appropriate unified and specified commands, as well as any recommended changes to C-day. L-hour will be established per plan, crisis, or theater of operations and will apply to both air and surface movements. Normally, L-hour will be established to allow C-day to be a 24-hour day. a. C-day. The unnamed day on which a deployment operation commences or is to commence. The deployment may be movement of troops, cargo, weapon systems, or a combination of these elements using any or all types of transport. The letter "C" will be the only one used to denote the above. The highest command or headquarters responsible for coordinating the planning will specify the exact meaning of C-day within the aforementioned definition. The command or headquarters directly responsible for the execution of the operation, if other than the one coordinating the planning, will do so in light of the meaning specified by the highest command or headquarters coordinating the planning. b. D-day. The unnamed day on which a particular operation commences or is to commence. c. F-hour. The effective time of announcement by the Secretary of Defense to the Military Departments of a decision to mobilize Reserve units. d. H-hour. The specific hour on D-day at which a particular operation commences. e. H-hour (amphibious operations). For amphibious operations, the time the first assault elements are scheduled to touch down on the beach, or a landing zone, and in some cases the commencement of countermine breaching operations. f. L-hour. The specific hour on C-day at which a deployment operation commences or is to commence. g. L-hour (amphibious operations). In amphibious operations, the time at which the first helicopter of the helicopter-borne assault wave touches down in the landing zone. h. M-day. The term used to designate the unnamed day on which full mobilization commences or is due to commence. i. N-day. The unnamed day an active duty unit is notified for deployment or redeployment. j. R-day. Redeployment day. The day on which redeployment of major combat, combat support, and combat service support forces begins in an operation. k. S-day. The day the President authorizes Selective Reserve callup (not more than 200,000). l. T-day. The effective day coincident with Presidential declaration of national emergency and authorization of partial mobilization (not more than 1,000,000 personnel exclusive of the 200,000 callup). m. W-day. Declared by the President, W-day is associated with an adversary decision to prepare for war (unambiguous strategic warning).

time-sensitive targets
Those targets requiring immediate response because they pose (or will soon pose) a danger to friendly forces or are highly lucrative, fleeting targets of opportunity. Also called TSTs.

time slot
Period of time during which certain activities are governed by specific regulations.

time to target
The number of minutes and seconds to elapse before aircraft ordnance impacts on target. Also called TTT.

tip
See pitch.

tips
External fuel tanks.

title block
See information box.

TNT equivalent
A measure of the energy released from the detonation of a nuclear weapon, or from the explosion of a given quantity of fissionable material, in terms of the amount of TNT (trinitrotoluene) which could release the same amount of energy when exploded.

tolerance dose
The amount of radiation that may be received by an individual within a specified period with negligible results.

tone down
See attenuation.

tophandler
A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers from the top with rough terrain container handlers. See also container.

topographic base
See chart base.

topographic engineering
Those engineering tasks that provide geospatial information and services to commanders and staffs across the range of military operations. These tasks include terrain analyses, terrain visualization, digitized terrain products, nonstandard map products, and baseline survey data. See also geospatial information and services.

topographic map
A map that presents the vertical position of features in measurable form as well as their horizontal positions. See also map.

topography
The configuration of the ground to include its relief and all features. Topography addresses both dry land and the sea floor (underwater topography).

top secret
See security classification.

torpedo defense net
A net employed to close an inner harbor to torpedoes fired from seaward or to protect an individual ship at anchor or underway.

toss bombing
A method of bombing where an aircraft flies on a line towards the target, pulls up in a vertical plane, releasing the bomb at an angle that will compensate for the effect of gravity drop on the bomb. Similar to loft bombing; unrestricted as to altitude. See also loft bombing.

total active aircraft authorization
The sum of the primary and backup aircraft authorizations.

total active aircraft inventory
The sum of the primary and backup aircraft assigned to meet the total active aircraft authorization.

total asset visibility
The capability to provide users with timely and accurate information on the location, movement, status, and identity of units, personnel, equipment, materiel, and supplies. It also includes the capability to act upon that information to improve overall performance of Department of Defense's logistic practices. Also called TAV. See also automated identification technology; in-transit visibility; joint total asset visibility.

total dosage attack
A chemical operation which does not involve a time limit within which to produce the required toxic level.

total materiel assets
The total quantity of an item available in the military system worldwide and all funded procurement of the item with adjustments to provide for transfers out of or into the inventory through the appropriation and procurement lead-time periods. It includes peacetime force materiel assets and war reserve stock

total materiel requirement
The sum of the peacetime force material requirement and the war reserve material requirement.

total mobilization
See mobilization.

total overall aircraft inventory
The sum of the total active aircraft inventory and the inactive aircraft inventory. Also called TOAI.

total pressure
The sum of dynamic and static pressures.

touchdown zone
1. For fixed wing aircraft--The first 3,000 feet or 1,000 meters of runway beginning at the threshold. 2. For rotary wings and vectored thrust aircraft--That portion of the helicopter landing area or runway used for landing.

toxic chemical
Any chemical which, through its chemical action on life processes, can cause death, temporary incapacitation, or permanent harm to humans or animals. This includes all such chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, and regardless of whether they are produced in facilities, in munitions or elsewhere.

toxic chemical, biological, or radiological attack
An attack directed at personnel, animals, or crops, using injurious agents of chemical, biological, or radiological origin.

toxin
See toxin agent.

toxin agent
A poison formed as a specific secretion product in the metabolism of a vegetable or animal organism, as distinguished from inorganic poisons. Such poisons can also be manufactured by synthetic processes.

track
1. A series of related contacts displayed on a data display console or other display device. 2. To display or record the successive positions of a moving object. 3. To lock onto a point of radiation and obtain guidance therefrom. 4. To keep a gun properly aimed, or to point continuously a target-locating instrument at a moving target. 5. The actual path of an aircraft above or a ship on the surface of the Earth. The course is the path that is planned; the track is the path that is actually taken. 6. One of the two endless belts on which a full-track or half-track vehicle runs. 7. A metal part forming a path for a moving object; e.g., the track around the inside of a vehicle for moving a mounted machine gun.

track correlation
Correlating track information for identification purposes using all available data.

track management
Defined set of procedures whereby the commander ensures accurate friendly and enemy unit and/or platform locations, and a dissemination procedure for filtering, combining, and passing that information to higher, adjacent, and subordinate commanders.

track of interest
In counterdrug operations, contacts that meet the initial sorting criteria applicable in the area where the contacts are detected. Also called TOI. See also special interest target; suspect.

track production area
An area in which tracks are produced by one radar station.

track symbology
Symbols used to display tracks on a data display console or other display device.

track telling
The process of communicating air surveillance and tactical data information between command and control systems or between facilities within the systems. Telling may be classified into the following types: back tell; cross tell; forward tell; lateral tell; overlap tell; and relateral tell.

trafficability
Capability of terrain to bear traffic. It refers to the extent to which the terrain will permit continued movement of any or all types of traffic.

traffic circulation map
A map showing traffic routes and the measures for traffic regulation. It indicates the roads for use of certain classes of traffic, the location of traffic control stations, and the directions in which traffic may move. Also called circulation map. See also map.

traffic control police
Any persons ordered by a military commander and/or by national authorities to facilitate the movement of traffic and to prevent and/or report any breach of road traffic regulations.

traffic density
The average number of vehicles that occupy one mile or one kilometer of road space, expressed in vehicles per mile or per kilometer.

traffic flow
The total number of vehicles passing a given point in a given time. Traffic flow is expressed as vehicles per hour.

traffic flow security
The protection resulting from features, inherent in some cryptoequipment, that conceal the presence of valid messages on a communications circuit, normally achieved by causing the circuit to appear busy at all times.

traffic information (radar)
Information issued to alert an aircraft to any radar targets observed on the radar display that may be in such proximity to its position or intended route of flight to warrant its attention.

traffic management
The direction, control, and supervision of all functions incident to the procurement and use of freight and passenger transportation services.

traffic pattern
The traffic flow that is prescribed for aircraft landing at, taxiing on, and taking off from an airport. The usual components of a traffic pattern are upwind leg, crosswind leg, downwind leg, base leg, and final approach.

train
1. A service force or group of service elements that provides logistic support, e.g., an organization of naval auxiliary ships or merchant ships or merchant ships attached to a fleet for this purpose; similarly, the vehicles and operating personnel that furnish supply, evacuation, and maintenance services to a land unit. 2. Bombs dropped in short intervals or sequence.

trained strength in units
Those reservists assigned to units who have completed initial active duty for training of 12 weeks or its equivalent and are eligible for deployment overseas on land when mobilized under proper authority. Excludes personnel in non-deployable accounts or a training pipeline.

train headway
The interval of time between two trains boarded by the same unit at the same point.

training aids
Any item developed or procured with the primary intent that it shall assist in training and the process of learning.

training and readiness oversight
The authority that combatant commanders may exercise over assigned Reserve Component (RC) forces when not on active duty or when on active duty for training. As a matter of Department of Defense policy, this authority includes: a. Providing guidance to Service component commanders on operational requirements and priorities to be addressed in Military Department training and readiness programs; b. Commenting on Service component program recommendations and budget requests; c. Coordinating and approving participation by assigned RC forces in joint exercises and other joint training when on active duty for training or performing inactive duty for training; d. Obtaining and reviewing readiness and inspection reports on assigned RC forces; and e. Coordinating and reviewing mobilization plans (including post-mobilization training activities and deployability validation procedures) developed for assigned RC forces. Also called TRO. See also combatant commander.

training and retirement category
The category identifying (by specific training and retirement category designator) a reservist's training or retirement status in a reserve component category and Reserve Component.

training-pay category
A designation identifying the number of days of training and pay required for members of Reserve Components.

training period
An authorized and scheduled regular inactive duty training period. A training period must be at least two hours for retirement point credit and four hours for pay. Previously used interchangeably with other common terms such as drills, drill period, assemblies, periods of instruction, etc.

training pipeline
A Reserve Component category designation that identifies untrained officer and enlisted personnel who have not completed initial active duty for training of 12 weeks or its equivalent. See also nondeployable account.

training unit
A unit established to provide military training to individual reservists or to Reserve Component units.

train path
In railway terminology, the timing of a possible movement of a train along a given route. All the train paths on a given route constitute a timetable.

trajectory
See ballistic trajectory.

transattack period
1. In nuclear warfare, the period from the initiation of the attack to its termination. 2. As applied to the Single Integrated Operational Plan, the period that extends from execution (or enemy attack, whichever is sooner) to termination of the Single Integrated Operational Plan. See also postattack period.

transfer loader
A wheeled or tracked vehicle with a platform capable of vertical and horizontal adjustment used in the loading and unloading of aircraft, ships, or other vehicles.

transient
1. Personnel, ships, or craft stopping temporarily at a post, station, or port to which they are not assigned or attached, and having destination elsewhere. 2. An independent merchant ship calling at a port and sailing within 12 hours, and for which routing instructions to a further port have been promulgated. 3. An individual awaiting orders, transport, etc., at a post or station to which he or she is not attached or assigned.

transient forces
Forces that pass or stage through, or base temporarily within, the operational area of another command but are not under its operational control. See also force; transient.

transit area
See staging area.

transit bearing
A bearing determined by noting the time at which two features on the Earth's surface have the same relative bearing.

transition altitude
The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is controlled by reference to true altitude.

transition layer
The airspace between the transition altitude and the transition level.

transition level
The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude. See also altitude; transition altitude.

transit passage
The nonsuspendable right of continuous and expeditious navigation and/or overflight in the normal mode through an international strait linking one part of the high seas (or exclusive economic zone) with another.

transit route
A sea route which crosses open waters normally joining two coastal routes.

transit zone
The path taken by either airborne or seaborne smugglers. Zone can include transfer operations to another carrier (airdrop, at-sea transfer, etc.). See also arrival zone.

transmission factor (nuclear)
The ratio of the dose inside the shielding material to the outside (ambient) dose. Transmission factor is used to calculate the dose received through the shielding material. See also half thickness; shielding.

transmission security
See communications security.

transonic
Of or pertaining to the speed of a body in a surrounding fluid when the relative speed of the fluid is subsonic in some places and supersonic in others. This is encountered when passing from subsonic to supersonic speed and vice versa. See also speed of sound.

transponder
A receiver-transmitter which will generate a reply signal, upon proper interrogation. See also responsor.

transportability
The capability of material to be moved by towing, self-propulsion, or carrier via any means, such as railways, highways, waterways, pipelines, oceans, and airways.

transport aircraft
Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo. Transport aircraft may be classed according to range, as follows: a. Short-range--Not to exceed 1200 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (2222 Km). b. Medium-range--Between 1200 and 3500 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (2222 and 6482 Km). c. Long-range--Exceeds 3500 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (6482 Km). See also strategic transport aircraft; tactical transport aircraft.

transport area
In amphibious operations, an area assigned to a transport organization for the purpose of debarking troops and equipment. See also inner transport area; outer transport area

transportation closure
The actual arrival date of a specified movement requirement at port of debarkation.

transportation component command
The three component commands of United States Transportation Command: Air Force Air Mobility Command; Navy Military Sealift Command; and Army Military Traffic Management Command. Each transportation component command remains a major command of its parent Service and continues to organize, train, and equip its forces as specified by law. Each transportation component command also continues to perform Service-unique missions. Also called TCC. See also United States Transportation Command.

transportation emergency
A situation created by a shortage of normal transportation capability and of a magnitude sufficient to frustrate military movement requirements, and which requires extraordinary action by the President or other designated authority to ensure continued movement of essential Department of Defense traffic.

transportation feasibility
Operation plans and operation plans in concept format are considered transportation feasible when the capability to move forces, equipment, and supplies exists from the point of origin to the final destination according to the plan. Transportation feasibility determination will require concurrent analysis and assessment of available strategic and theater lift assets, transportation infrastructure, and competing demands and restrictions. a. The supported commander of a combatant command will analyze deployment, joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (JRSOI), and theater distribution of forces, equipment, and supplies to final destination. b. Supporting combatant commanders will provide an assessment on movement of forces from point of origin to aerial port of embarkation and/or seaport of embarkation. c. The Commander, United States Transportation Command will assess the strategic leg of the time-phased force and deployment data for transportation feasibility, indicating to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and supported combatant commander that movements arrive at the port of debarkation consistent with the supported combatant commander's assessment of JRSOI and theater distribution. d. Following analysis of all inputs, the supported combatant commander is responsible for declaring a plan end-to-end executable. See also operation plan.

transportation movement requirement
The need for transport of units, personnel, or materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination within a specified timeframe.

transportation operating agencies
Those Federal agencies having responsibilities under national emergency conditions for the operational direction of one or more forms of transportation. Also called federal modal agencies; federal transport agencies.

transportation priorities
Indicators assigned to eligible traffic that establish its movement precedence. Appropriate priority systems apply to the movement of traffic by sea and air. In times of emergency, priorities may be applicable to continental United States movements by land, water, or air.

transportation system
All the land, water, and air routes and transportation assets engaged in the movement of US forces and their supplies across the range of military operations, involving both mature and immature theaters and at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of war.

transport control center (air transport)
The operations center through which the air transport force commander exercises control over the air transport system

transport group
An element that directly deploys and supports the landing of the landing force (LF), and is functionally designated as a transport group in the amphibious task force organization. A transport group provides for the embarkation, movement to the objective, landing, and logistic support of the LF. Transport groups comprise all sealift and airlift in which the LF is embarked. They are categorized as follows: a. airlifted groups; b. Navy amphibious ship transport groups; and c. strategic sealift shipping groups.

transporting (ordnance)
The movement or repositioning of ordnance or explosive devices along established explosive routes (does not apply to the aircraft flight line). See also ordnance.

transshipment point
A location where material is transferred between vehicles.

traverse
1. To turn a weapon to the right or left on its mount. 2. A method of surveying in which lengths and directions of lines between points on the earth are obtained by or from field measurements, and used in determining positions of the points.

traverse level
That vertical displacement above low-level air defense systems, expressed both as a height and altitude, at which aircraft can cross the area.

traverse racking test load value
Externally applied force in pounds or kilograms at the top-corner fitting that will strain or stretch end structures of the container sideways.

treason
Violation of the allegiance owed to one's sovereign or state; betrayal of one's country.

trench interment
A method of interment in which remains are placed head-to-toe. Used only for temporary multiple burials. See also emergency interment; group interment; mortuary affairs, temporary interment

trend
The straying of the fall of shot, such as might be caused by incorrect speed settings of the fire support ship.

triangulation station
A point on the Earth, the position of which is determined by triangulation. Also called trig point.

tri-camera photography
Photography obtained by simultaneous exposure of three cameras systematically disposed in the air vehicle at fixed overlapping angles relative to each other in order to cover a wide field. See also fan camera photography.

trig list
A list published by certain Army units that includes essential information of accurately located survey points.

trim
The difference in draft at the bow and stern of a vessel or the manner in which a vessel floats in the water based on the distribution of cargo, stores and ballast aboard the vessel. See also draft; watercraft.

triple point
The intersection of the incident, reflected, and fused (or Mach) shock fronts accompanying an air burst. The height of the triple point above the surface, i.e., the height of the Mach stem, increases with increasing distance from a given explosion.

troop basis
An approved list of those military units and individuals (including civilians) required for the performance of a particular mission by numbers, organization and equipment and, in the case of larger commands, by deployment.

troops
A collective term for uniformed military personnel (usually not applicable to naval personnel afloat). See also airborne troops; combat service support elements; combat support troops; service troops; tactical troops.

troop safety (nuclear)
An element that defines a distance from the proposed burst location beyond which personnel meeting the criteria described under degree of risk will be safe to the degree prescribed. It is expressed as a combination of a degree of risk and vulnerability category. See also emergency risk (nuclear); negligible risk (nuclear); unwarned exposed; warned protected.

troop space cargo
Cargo such as sea or barracks bags, bedding rolls or hammocks, locker trunks, and office equipment, normally stowed in an accessible place. This cargo will also include normal hand-carried combat equipment and weapons to be carried ashore by the assault troops.

troop test
A test conducted in the field for the purpose of evaluating operational or organizational concepts, doctrine, tactics, and techniques, or to gain further information on material. See also service test.

tropical storm
A tropical cyclone in which the surface wind speed is at least 34, but not more than 63 knots.

tropopause
The transition zone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. The tropopause normally occurs at an altitude of about 25,000 to 45,000 feet (8 to 15 kilometers) in polar and temperate zones, and at 55,000 feet (20 kilometers) in the tropics.

true airspeed indicator
An instrument which displays the speed of the aircraft relative to the ambient air.

true altitude
The height of an aircraft as measured from mean sea level.

true bearing
The direction to an object from a point; expressed as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from true north.

true convergence
The angle at which one meridian is inclined to another on the surface of the Earth. See also convergence.

true horizon
1. The boundary of a horizontal plane passing through a point of vision. 2. In photogrammetry, the boundary of a horizontal plane passing through the perspective center of a lens system.

true north
The direction from an observer's position to the geographic North Pole. The north direction of any geographic meridian.

turbojet
A jet engine whose air is supplied by a turbine-driven compressor, the turbine being activated by exhaust gases.

turnaround
The length of time between arriving at a point and being ready to depart from that point. It is used in this sense for the loading, unloading, re-fueling, and re-arming, where appropriate, of vehicles, aircraft, and ships. See also turnaround cycle.

turnaround cycle
A term used in conjunction with vehicles, ships, and aircraft, and comprising the following: loading time at departure point; time to and from destination; unloading and loading time at destination; unloading time at returning point; planned maintenance time; and, where applicable, time awaiting facilities. See also turnaround.

turning movement
A variation of the envelopment in which the attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive positions to secure objectives deep in the enemy's rear to force the enemy to abandon his position or divert major forces to meet the threat.

turning point
In land mine warfare, a point on the centerline of a mine strip or row where it changes direction.

turn-off guidance
Information which enables the pilot of a landing aircraft to select and follow the correct taxiway from the time the aircraft leaves the runway until it may safely be brought to a halt clear of the active runway.

two-person control
The continuous surveillance and control of positive control material at all times by a minimum of two authorized individuals, each capable of detecting incorrect or unauthorized procedures with respect to the task being performed and each familiar with established security requirements. Also called TPC.

two-person rule
A system designed to prohibit access by an individual to nuclear weapons and certain designated components by requiring the presence at all times of at least two authorized persons, each capable of detecting incorrect or unauthorized procedures with respect to the task to be performed.

types of burst
See airburst; fallout safe height of burst; height of burst; high airburst; high altitude burst; low airburst; nuclear airburst; nuclear exoatmospheric burst; nuclear contact-surface burst; nuclear proximity-surface burst; nuclear underground burst; nuclear underwater burst; optimum height of burst; safe burst height.

type unit
A type of organizational or functional entity established within the Armed Forces and uniquely identified by a five-character, alphanumeric code called a unit type code.

type unit data file
A file that provides standard planning data and movement characteristics for personnel, cargo, and accompanying supplies associated with type units.


 
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