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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources


Glossary of Military Terms

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sabotage
An act or acts with intent to injure, interfere with, or obstruct the national defense of a country by willfully injuring or destroying, or attempting to injure or destroy, any national defense or war materiel, premises, or utilities, to include human and natural resources.

sabotage alert team
See security alert team.

saboteur
One who commits sabotage. See also antiterrorism; countersabotage; sabotage.

safe anchorage
An anchorage considered safe from enemy attack to which merchant ships may be ordered to proceed when the shipping movement policy is implemented. See also refuge area.

safe area
A designated area in hostile territory that offers the evader or escapee a reasonable chance of avoiding capture and of surviving until he or she can be evacuated.

safe burst height
The height of burst at or above which the level of fallout or damage to ground installations is at a predetermined level acceptable to the military commander. See also types of burst.

safe current
In naval mine warfare, the maximum current that can be supplied to a sweep in a given waveform and pulse cycle which does not produce a danger area with respect to the mines being swept for.

safe depth
In naval mine warfare, the shallowest depth of water in which a ship will not actuate a bottom mine of the type under consideration. Safe depth is usually quoted for conditions of ship upright, calm sea, and a given speed.

safe distance
In naval mine warfare, the horizontal range from the edge of the explosion damage area to the center of the sweeper.

safe haven
1. Designated area(s) to which noncombatants of the United States Government's responsibility and commercial vehicles and materiel may be evacuated during a domestic or other valid emergency. 2. Temporary storage provided to Department of Energy classified shipment transporters at Department of Defense facilities in order to assure safety and security of nuclear material and/or nonnuclear classified material. Also includes parking for commercial vehicles containing Class A or Class B explosives. 3. A protected body of water or the well deck of an amphibious ship used by small craft operating offshore for refuge from storms or heavy seas.

safe house
An innocent-appearing house or premises established by an organization for the purpose of conducting clandestine or covert activity in relative security.

safe separation distance
The minimum distance between the delivery system and the weapon beyond which the hazards associated with functioning (detonation) are acceptable.

safety and arming mechanism
A dual function device which prevents the unintended activation of a main charge or propulsion unit prior to arming, but allows activation thereafter upon receipt of the appropriate stimuli.

safety device
A device which prevents unintentional functioning.

safety distance
In road transport, the distance between vehicles traveling in column specified by the command in light of safety requirements.

safety fuze
A pyrotechnic contained in a flexible and weather-proof sheath burning at a timed and constant rate; used to transmit a flame to the detonator.

safety height
See altitude; minimum safe altitude.

safety lane
Specified sea lane designated for use in transit by submarine and surface ships to prevent attack by friendly forces.

safety level of supply
The quantity of materiel, in addition to the operating level of supply, required to be on hand to permit continuous operations in the event of minor interruption of normal replenishment or unpredictable fluctuations in demand. See also level of supply.

safety line
In land mine warfare, demarcation line for trip wire or wire-actuated mines in a minefield. It serves to protect the laying personnel. After the minefield is laid, this line is neither marked on the ground nor plotted on the minefield record.

safety wire
A cable, wire, or lanyard attached to the aircraft and routed to an expendable aircraft store to prevent arming initiation prior to store release. See also arming wire.

safety zone
An area (land, sea, or air) reserved for noncombat operations of friendly aircraft, surface ships, submarines, or ground forces. (Note: DOD does not use the word "submarines".)

safing
As applied to weapons and ammunition, the changing from a state of readiness for initiation to a safe condition. Also called de-arming.

safing and arming mechanism
A mechanism whose primary purpose is to prevent an unintended functioning of the main charge of the ammunition prior to completion of the arming delay and, in turn, allow the explosive train of the ammunition to function after arming.

salted weapon
A nuclear weapon which has, in addition to its normal components, certain elements or isotopes which capture neutrons at the time of the explosion and produce radioactive products over and above the usual radioactive weapon debris. See also minimum residual radioactivity weapon.

salvage
1. Property that has some value in excess of its basic material content but is in such condition that it has no reasonable prospect of use for any purpose as a unit and its repair or rehabilitation for use as a unit is clearly impractical. 2. The saving or rescuing of condemned, discarded, or abandoned property, and of materials contained therein for reuse, refabrication, or scrapping.

salvage group
In an amphibious operation, a naval task organization designated and equipped to rescue personnel and to salvage equipment and material.

salvage operation
1. The recovery, evacuation, and reclamation of damaged, discarded, condemned, or abandoned allied or enemy materiel, ships, craft, and floating equipment for reuse, repair, refabrication, or scrapping. 2. Naval salvage operations include harbor and channel clearance, diving, hazardous towing and rescue tug services, and the recovery of materiel, ships, craft, and floating equipment sunk offshore or elsewhere stranded.

salvo
1. In naval gunfire support, a method of fire in which a number of weapons are fired at the same target simultaneously. 2. In close air support or air interdiction operations, a method of delivery in which the release mechanisms are operated to release or fire all ordnance of a specific type simultaneously.

sanction enforcement and maritime intercept operations
Operations that employ coercive measures to interdict the movement of certain types of designated items into or out of a nation or specified area.

sanctuary
A nation or area near or contiguous to the combat area that, by tacit agreement between the warring powers, is exempt from attack and therefore serves as a refuge for staging, logistic, or other activities of the combatant powers.

sanitize
To revise a report or other document in such a fashion as to prevent identification of sources, or of the actual persons and places with which it is concerned, or of the means by which it was acquired. Usually involves deletion or substitution of names and other key details.

satellite and missile surveillance
The systematic observation of aerospace for the purpose of detecting, tracking, and characterizing objects, events, and phenomena associated with satellites and inflight missiles, friendly and enemy. See also surveillance.

S-bend distortion
See S-curve distortion.

scale
The ratio or fraction between the distance on a map, chart, or photograph and the corresponding distance on the surface of the Earth. See also conversion scale; graphic scale; photographic scale; principal scale.

scale (photographic)
See photographic scale.

scaling law
A mathematical relationship which permits the effects of a nuclear explosion of given energy yield to be determined as a function of distance from the explosion (or from ground zero) provided the corresponding effect is known as a function of distance for a reference explosion, e.g., of 1-kiloton energy yield.

scan
1. The path periodically followed by a radiation beam. 2. In electronic intelligence, the motion of an electronic beam through space looking for a target. Scanning is produced by the motion of the antenna or by lobe switching. See also electronic intelligence.

scan line
The line produced on a recording medium frame by a single sweep of a scanner.

scan period
The period taken by a radar, sonar, etc., to complete a scan pattern and return to a starting point.

scan rate
The rate at which individual scans are recorded.

scan type
The path made in space by a point on the radar beam; for example, circular, helical, conical, spiral, or sector.

scatterable mine
In land mine warfare, a mine laid without regard to classical pattern and which is designed to be delivered by aircraft, artillery, missile, ground dispenser, or by hand. Once laid, it normally has a limited life. See also mine.

scene of action commander
In antisubmarine warfare, the commander at the scene of contact. The commander is usually in a ship, or may be in a fixed-wing aircraft, helicopter, or submarine.

scheduled arrival date
The projected arrival date of a specified movement requirement at a specified location.

scheduled fire
A type of prearranged fire executed at a predetermined time.

scheduled maintenance
Periodic prescribed inspection and/or servicing of equipment accomplished on a calendar, mileage, or hours of operation basis. See also organizational maintenance.

scheduled service (air transport)
A routine air transport service operated in accordance with a timetable.

scheduled speed
The planned sustained speed of a convoy through the water which determines the speed classification of that convoy. See also convoy speed; critical speed; declared speed.

scheduled target (nuclear)
A planned target on which a nuclear weapon is to be delivered at a specific time during the operation of the supported force. The time is specified in terms of minutes before or after a designated time or in terms of the accomplishment of a predetermined movement or task. Coordination and warning of friendly troops and aircraft are mandatory.

scheduled targets
Planned targets upon which fires will be delivered at a specific time. See also planned targets; target.

scheduled wave
See wave.

schedule of fire
Groups of fires or series of fires fired in a definite sequence according to a definite program. The time of starting the schedule may be ON CALL. For identification purposes, schedules may be referred to by a code name or other designation.

schedule of targets
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, individual targets, groups, or series of targets to be fired on, in a definite sequence according to a definite program.

scheduling and movement
Joint Operation Planning and Execution System application software providing the capability to create, update, allocate, manifest, and review organic carrier information before and during deployment. It provides the ability to review, analyze, and generate several predefined reports on an extensive variety of scheduling and movement information. Also called S&M.

scheduling and movement capability
The capability required by Joint Operation Planning and Execution System planners and operators to allow for review and update of scheduling and movement data before and during implementation of a deployment operation.

scheme of maneuver
Description of how arrayed forces will accomplish the commander's intent. It is the central expression of the commander's concept for operations and governs the design of supporting plans or annexes.

scientific and technical intelligence
The product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign scientific and technical information that covers: a. foreign developments in basic and applied research and in applied engineering techniques; and b. scientific and technical characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of all foreign military systems, weapons, weapon systems, and materiel; the research and development related thereto; and the production methods employed for their manufacture. Also called S&TI. See also intelligence; research; scientific intelligence; technical intelligence.

scientific intelligence
See scientific and technical intelligence.

screen
1. An arrangement of ships, aircraft and/or submarines to protect a main body or convoy. 2. In cartography, a sheet of transparent film, glass, or plastic carrying a "ruling" or other regularly repeated pattern which may be used in conjunction with a mask, either photographically or photomechanically, to produce areas of the pattern. 3. In surveillance, camouflage and concealment, any natural or artificial material, opaque to surveillance sensor(s), interposed between the sensor(s) and the object to be camouflaged or concealed. See also concealment. 4. A security element whose primary task is to observe, identify, and report information, and which only fights in self-protection. See also flank guard; guard. 5. (DOD only) A task to maintain surveillance; provide early warning to the main body; or impede, destroy, and harass enemy reconnaissance within its capability without becoming decisively engaged. See also security operations.

screening group
In amphibious operations, a task organization of ships that furnishes protection to the task force en route to the objective area and during operations in the objective area.

scribing
In cartography, a method of preparing a map or chart by cutting the lines into a prepared coating.

S-curve distortion
The distortion in the image produced by a scanning sensor which results from the forward displacement of the sensor during the time of lateral scan.

S-Day
See times.

sea-air-land team
US Navy forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations in maritime, littoral, and riverine environments. Also called SEAL.

sea areas
Areas in the amphibious objective area designated for the stationing of amphibious task force ships. Sea areas include inner transport area, sea echelon area, fire support area, etc. See also amphibious objective area; fire support area; inner transport area; sea echelon area.

sea barge
A type of barge-ship that can carry up to 38 loaded barges. It may also carry tugs, stacked causeway sections, various watercraft, or heavy lift equipment to better support joint logistics over-the-shore operations.

seabasing
In amphibious operations, a technique of basing certain landing force support functions aboard ship which decreases shore-based presence. See also amphibious operation.

seaborne forces
US or foreign combatants or auxiliary ships, including aircraft and ground forces assigned to or emanating from such vessels and other military forces operating in support of such forces and operating in, on, or over the sea.

sea control operations
The employment of naval forces, supported by land and air forces as appropriate, in order to achieve military objectives in vital sea areas. Such operations include destruction of enemy naval forces, suppression of enemy sea commerce, protection of vital sea lanes, and establishment of local military superiority in areas of naval operations. See also land control operations.

sea echelon
A portion of the assault shipping which withdraws from or remains out of the transport area during an amphibious landing and operates in designated areas to seaward in an on-call or unscheduled status.

sea echelon area
In amphibious operations, an area to seaward of a transport area from which assault shipping is phased into the transport area, and to which assault shipping withdraws from the transport area.

sea echelon plan
In amphibious operations, the distribution plan for amphibious shipping in the transport area to minimize losses due to enemy attack by weapons of mass destruction and to reduce the area to be swept of mines. See also amphibious operation.

sea frontier
The naval command of a coastal frontier, including the coastal zone in addition to the land area of the coastal frontier and the adjacent sea areas.

sealed cabin
The occupied space of an aircraft characterized by walls which do not allow any gaseous exchange between the ambient atmosphere and the inside atmosphere and containing its own ways of regenerating the inside atmosphere.

sealift enhancement program
Special equipment and modifications that adapt merchant-type dry cargo ships and tankers to specific military missions. They are typically installed on Ready Reserve Force ships or ships under Military Sealift Command control. Sealift enhancements fall into three categories: productivity, survivability, and operational enhancements. Also called SEP. See also Military Sealift Command; Ready Reserve; Ready Reserve Force.

Sealift Readiness Program
A standby contractual agreement between Military Sealift Command and US ship operators for voluntary provision of private ships for defense use. Call-up of ships may be authorized by joint approval of the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of Transportation. Also called SRP. See also Military Sealift Command.

sea port
A land facility designated for reception of personnel or materiel moved by sea, and that serves as an authorized port of entrance into or departure from the country in which located. See also port of debarkation; port of embarkation.

search
1. An operation to locate an enemy force known or believed to be at sea. 2. A systematic reconnaissance of a defined area, so that all parts of the area have passed within visibility. 3. To distribute gunfire over an area in depth by successive changes in gun elevation.

search and rescue
The use of aircraft, surface craft (land or water), submarines, specialized rescue teams, and equipment to search for and rescue personnel in distress on land or at sea. Also called SAR. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescue mission coordinator; component search and rescue controller; isolated personnel; joint combat search and rescue operation; joint search and rescue center; joint search and rescue center director; rescue coordination center; search and rescue mission coordinator.

search and rescue alert notice
An alerting message used for United States domestic flights. It corresponds to the declaration of the alert phase. Also called ALNOT. See also search and rescue incident classification, subpart b.

search and rescue incident classification
Three emergency phases into which an incident may be classified or progress, according to the seriousness of the incident and its requirement for rescue service. a. uncertainty phase--Doubt exists as to the safety of a craft or person because of knowledge of possible difficulties or because of lack of information concerning progress or position. b. alert phase--Apprehension exists for the safety of a craft or person because of definite information that serious difficulties exist that do not amount to a distress or because of a continued lack of information concerning progress or position. c. distress phase--Immediate assistance is required by a craft or person because of being threatened by grave or imminent danger or because of continued lack of information concerning progress or position after procedures for the alert phase have been executed.

search and rescue mission coordinator
The designated person or organization selected to direct and coordinate support for a specific search and rescue mission. Also called SAR mission coordinator. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescuer mission coordinator; component search and rescue controller; search and rescue.

search and rescue region
See inland search and rescue region; maritime search and rescue region; overseas search and rescue region.

search attack unit
The designation given to one or more ships and/or aircraft separately organized or detached from a formation as a tactical unit to search for and destroy submarines. Also called SAU.

searched channel
In naval mine warfare, the whole or part of a route or a path which has been searched, swept, or hunted, the width of the channel being specified.

searching fire
Fire distributed in depth by successive changes in the elevation of a gun. See also fire.

search jammer
See automatic search jammer.

search mission
In air operations, an air reconnaissance by one or more aircraft dispatched to locate an object or objects known or suspected to be in a specific area.

search radius
In search and rescue operations, a radius centered on a datum point having a length equal to the total probable error plus an additional safety length to ensure a greater than 50 percent probability that the target is in the search area.

search sweeping
In naval mine warfare, the operation of sweeping a sample of route or area to determine whether poised mines are present.

SEASHED
A temporary deck in container ships for transport of large military vehicles and outsized breakbulk cargo that will not fit into containers. See also outsized cargo.

sea state
A scale that categorizes the force of progressively higher seas by wave height. This scale is mathematically co-related to the Pierson-Moskowitz scale and the relationship of wind to waves. See also Pierson-Moskowitz scale.

sea surveillance
The systematic observation of surface and subsurface sea areas by all available and practicable means primarily for the purpose of locating, identifying and determining the movements of ships, submarines, and other vehicles, friendly and enemy, proceeding on or under the surface of the world's seas and oceans. See also surveillance.

sea surveillance system
A system for collecting, reporting, correlating, and presenting information supporting and derived from the task of sea surveillance.

seaward launch point
A designated point off the coast from which special operations forces will launch to proceed to the beach to conduct operations. Also called SLP. See also seaward recovery point.

seaward recovery point
A designated point off the coast to which special operations forces will proceed for recovery by submarine or other means of recovery. Also called SRP. See also seaward launch point.

secondary censorship
Armed forces censorship performed on the personal communications of officers, civilian employees, and accompanying civilians of the Armed Forces of the United States, and on those personal communications of enlisted personnel of the Armed Forces not subject to Armed Forces primary censorship or those requiring reexamination. See also censorship.

secondary imagery dissemination
See electronic imagery dissemination.

secondary imagery dissemination system
See electronic imagery dissemination.

secondary loads
Unit equipment, supplies, and major end items that are transported in the beds of organic vehicles.

secondary port
A port with one or more berths, normally at quays, which can accommodate ocean-going ships for discharge.

secondary rescue facilities
Local airbase-ready aircraft, crash boats, and other air, surface, subsurface, and ground elements suitable for rescue missions, including government and privately operated units and facilities.

secondary road
A road supplementing a main road, usually wide enough and suitable for two-way, all-weather traffic at moderate or slow speeds.

secondary targets
Alternative targets of lower publicity value that are attacked when the primary target is unattainable. See also antiterrorism; primary target.

secondary wave breaker system
A series of waves superimposed on another series and differing in height, period, or angle of approach to the beach.

second strike
The first counterblow of a war. (Generally associated with nuclear operations.)

secret
See security classification.

Secretary of a Military Department
The Secretary of the Air Force, Army, or Navy.

SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network
Worldwide SECRET level packet switch network that uses high-speed internet protocol routers and high-capacity Defense Information Systems Network circuitry. Also called SIPRNET. See also Defense Information Systems Network.

section
1. As applied to ships or naval aircraft, a tactical subdivision of a division. It is normally one-half of a division in the case of ships, and two aircraft in the case of aircraft. 2. A subdivision of an office, installation, territory, works, or organization; especially a major subdivision of a staff. 3. A tactical unit of the Army and Marine Corps. A section is smaller than a platoon and larger than a squad. In some organizations the section, rather than the squad, is the basic tactical unit. 4. An area in a warehouse extending from one wall to the next; usually the largest subdivision of one floor.

sector
1. An area designated by boundaries within which a unit operates, and for which it is responsible. 2. One of the subdivisions of a coastal frontier. See also area of influence; zone of action.

sector of fire
A defined area which is required to be covered by the fire of individual or crew served weapons or the weapons of a unit.

sector scan
Scan in which the antenna oscillates through a selected angle.

secure
In an operational context, to gain possession of a position or terrain feature, with or without force, and to make such disposition as will prevent, as far as possible, its destruction or loss by enemy action. See also denial measure.

security
1. Measures taken by a military unit, activity, or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness. 2. A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences. 3. With respect to classified matter, the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security. See also national security.

security alert team
Two or more security force members who form the initial reinforcing element responding to security alarms, emergencies, or irregularities. Also called SAT.

security assistance
Group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives. Also called SA. See also security assistance organization; security cooperation.

security assistance organization
All Department of Defense elements located in a foreign country with assigned responsibilities for carrying out security assistance management functions. It includes military assistance advisory groups, military missions and groups, offices of defense and military cooperation, liaison groups, and defense attache personnel designated to perform security assistance functions. Also called SAO. See also security assistance; security cooperation.

security certification
A certification issued by competent authority to indicate that a person has been investigated and is eligible for access to classified matter to the extent stated in the certification.

security classification
A category to which national security information and material is assigned to denote the degree of damage that unauthorized disclosure would cause to national defense or foreign relations of the United States and to denote the degree of protection required. There are three such categories. a. top secret--National security information or material that requires the highest degree of protection and the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security. Examples of "exceptionally grave damage" include armed hostilities against the United States or its allies; disruption of foreign relations vitally affecting the national security; the compromise of vital national defense plans or complex cryptologic and communications intelligence systems; the revelation of sensitive intelligence operations; and the disclosure of scientific or technological developments vital to national security. b. secret--National security information or material that requires a substantial degree of protection and the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause serious damage to the national security. Examples of "serious damage" include disruption of foreign relations significantly affecting the national security; significant impairment of a program or policy directly related to the national security; revelation of significant military plans or intelligence operations; and compromise of significant scientific or technological developments relating to national security. c. confidential--National security information or material that requires protection and the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause damage to the national security. See also classification; security.

security clearance
An administrative determination by competent authority that an individual is eligible, from a security stand-point, for access to classified information

security cooperation
All Department of Defense interactions with foreign defense establishments to build defense relationships that promote specific US security interests, develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations, and provide US forces with peacetime and contingency access to a host nation. See also security assistance; security assistance organization.

security countermeasures
Those protective activities required to prevent espionage, sabotage, theft, or unauthorized use of classified or controlled information, systems, or material of the Department of Defense. See also counterintelligence.

security intelligence
Intelligence on the identity, capabilities, and intentions of hostile organizations or individuals who are or may be engaged in espionage, sabotage, subversion, or terrorism. See also counterintelligence; intelligence; security.

security review
The process of reviewing news media products at some point, usually before transmission, to ensure that no oral, written, or visual information is filed for publication or broadcast that would divulge national security information or would jeopardize ongoing or future operations or that would threaten the safety of the members of the force. See also security.

sedition
Willfully advocating or teaching the duty or necessity of overthrowing the US government or any political subdivision by force or violence. See also counterintelligence.

seize
To employ combat forces to occupy physically and to control a designated area. See also combat forces.

seizures
In counterdrug operations, includes drugs and conveyances seized by law enforcement authorities and drug-related assets (monetary instruments, etc.) confiscated based on evidence that they have been derived from or used in illegal narcotics activities. See also counterdrug operations; law enforcement agency.

selected area for evasion
A designated area in hostile territory that offers evaders or escapees a reasonable chance of avoiding capture and of surviving until they can be evacuated. Also called SAFE. See also escapee; evader; hostile.

selected area for evasion area intelligence description
In evasion and recovery operations, an in-depth, all-source evasion study designed to assist the recovery of military personnel from a selected area for evasion under hostile conditions. Also called SAID. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; hostile; recovery operations; selected area for evasion.

Selected Reserve
Those units and individuals within the Ready Reserve designated by their respective Services and approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff as so essential to initial wartime missions that they have priority over all other Reserves. All Selected Reservists are in an active status. The Selected Reserve also includes persons performing initial active duty for training. See also Ready Reserve.

Selected Reserve strength
The total number of guardsmen and reservists in the Selected Reserve who are subject to the 200K Presidential recall or mobilization under declaration of war or national emergency.

selective identification feature
A capability that, when added to the basic identification friend or foe system, provides the means to transmit, receive, and display selected coded replies

selective jamming
See spot jamming.

selective loading
The arrangement and stowage of equipment and supplies aboard ship in a manner designed to facilitate issues to units. See also loading.

selective mobilization
See mobilization, Part 2.

selective release process
The process involving requesting, analyzing, and obtaining approval for release of weapons to obtain specific, limited damage on selected targets.

selective unloading
In an amphibious operation, the controlled unloading from assault shipping, and movement ashore, of specific items of cargo at the request of the landing force commander. Normally, selective unloading parallels the landing of nonscheduled units during the initial unloading period of the ship-to-shore movement.

selenodesy
That branch of applied mathematics that determines, by observation and measurement, the exact positions of points and the figures and areas of large portions of the moon's surface, or the shape and size of the moon.

self-defense
A commander has the authority and obligation to use all necessary means available and to take all appropriate action to defend that commander's unit and other US forces in the vicinity from a hostile act or hostile intent. Force used should not exceed that which is necessary to decisively counter the hostile act or intent and ensure the continued safety of US forces or other persons and property they are ordered to protect. US forces may employ such force in self-defense only so long as the hostile force continues to present an imminent threat.

self-destroying fuze
A fuze designed to burst a projectile before the end of its flight.

self-protection depth
The depth of water where the aggregate danger width relative to mines affected by a minesweeping technique is zero. Safe depth is a particular self-protection depth.

self-sustaining containership
A containership with shipboard-installed cranes capable of loading and off-loading containers without assistance of port crane service. See also containership.

semi-active homing guidance
A system of homing guidance wherein the receiver in the missile utilizes radiations from the target which has been illuminated by an outside source

semi-controlled mosaic
A mosaic composed of corrected or uncorrected prints laid so that major ground features match their geographical coordinates. See also mosaic.

semi-permanent joint task force
A joint task force that has been assigned an expanded or follow-on mission and will continue to conduct these operations in a specified area for an undetermined period of time. See also joint task force; mission; operation.

senior meteorological and oceanographic officer
Meteorological and oceanographic officer responsible for assisting the combatant commander and staff in developing and executing operational meteorological and oceanographic service concepts in support of a designated joint force. Also called SMO. See also meteorological and oceanographic.

senior officer present afloat
The senior line officer of the Navy, on active service, eligible for command at sea, who is present and in command of any unit of the operating forces afloat in the locality or within an area prescribed by competent authority. This officer is responsible for the administration of matters which collectively affect naval units of the operating forces afloat in the locality prescribed. Also called SOPA.

sensitive
Requiring special protection from disclosure that could cause embarrassment, compromise, or threat to the security of the sponsoring power. May be applied to an agency, installation, person, position, document, material, or activity.

sensitive compartmented information
All information and materials bearing special community controls indicating restricted handling within present and future community intelligence collection programs and their end products for which community systems of compartmentation have been or will be formally established. (These controls are over and above the provisions of DOD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation.) Also called SCI.

sensitive compartmented information facility
An accredited area, room, group of rooms, or installation where sensitive compartmented information (SCI) may be stored, used, discussed, and/or electronically processed. Sensitive compartmented information facility (SCIF) procedural and physical measures prevent the free access of persons unless they have been formally indoctrinated for the particular SCI authorized for use or storage within the SCIF. Also called SCIF. See also sensitive compartmented information.

sensitive site exploitation
A related series of activities inside a captured sensitive site to exploit personnel documents, electronic data, and material captured at the site, while neutralizing any threat posed by the site or its contents. Also called SSE.

separation zone
An area between two adjacent horizontal or vertical areas into which units are not to proceed unless certain safety measures can be fulfilled.

sequel
A major operation that follows the current major operation. Plans for a sequel are based on the possible outcomes (success, stalemate, or defeat) associated with the current operation. See also branch.

sequence circuit
In mine warfare, a circuit which requires actuation by a predetermined sequence of influences of predetermined magnitudes.

sequenced ejection system
See ejection systems.

serial
1. An element or a group of elements within a series which is given a numerical or alphabetical designation for convenience in planning, scheduling, and control. 2. (DOD only) A serial can be a group of people, vehicles, equipment, or supplies and is used in airborne, air assault, amphibious operations, and convoys.

serial assignment table
A table that is used in amphibious operations and shows the serial number, the title of the unit, the approximate number of personnel; the material, vehicles, or equipment in the serial; the number and type of landing craft and/or amphibious vehicles required to boat the serial; and the ship on which the serial is embarked.

seriously ill or injured
The casualty status of a person whose illness or injury is classified by medical authority to be of such severity that there is cause for immediate concern, but there is not imminent danger to life. Also called SII. See also casualty status.

seriously wounded
A casualty whose injuries or illness are of such severity that the patient is rendered unable to walk or sit, thereby requiring a litter for movement and evacuation. See also evacuation; litter; patient.

service ammunition
Ammunition intended for combat rather than for training purposes.

Service-common
Equipment, material, supplies, and services adopted by a Military Service for use by its own forces and activities. These include standard military items, base operating support, and the supplies and services provided by a Military Service to support and sustain its own forces, including those assigned to the combatant commands. Items and services defined as Service-common by one Military Service are not necessarily Service-common for all other Military Services. See also special operations-peculiar.

Service component command
A command consisting of the Service component commander and all those Service forces, such as individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations under that command, including the support forces that have been assigned to a combatant command or further assigned to a subordinate unified command or joint task force. See also component; functional component command.

service environment
All external conditions, whether natural or induced, to which items of materiel are likely to be subjected throughout their life cycle.

Service force module
A hypothetical force module built per Service doctrine composed of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces and sustainment for an estimated period, e.g., 30 days.

service group
A major naval administration and/or tactical organization, consisting of the commander and the staff, designed to exercise operational and administrative control of assigned squadrons and units in executing their tasks of providing logistic support of fleet operations.

service mine
A mine capable of a destructive explosion.

Service-organic transportation assets
Transportation assets that are: a. Assigned to a Military Department for functions of the Secretaries of the Military Departments set forth in Sections 3013(b), 5013(b), and 8013(b) of Title 10 of the United States Code, including administrative functions (such as motor pools), intelligence functions, training functions, and maintenance functions; b. Assigned to the Department of the Army for the execution of the missions of the Army Corps of Engineers; c. Assigned to the Department of the Navy as the special mission support force of missile range instrumentation ships, ocean survey ships, cable ships, oceanographic research ships, acoustic research ships, and naval test support ships; the naval fleet auxiliary force of fleet ammunition ships, fleet stores ships, fleet ocean tugs, and fleet oilers; hospital ships; and Navy Unique Fleet Essential Airlift Aircraft to provide delivery of passengers and/or cargo from forward Air Mobility Command channel hubs to mobile fleet units; Marine Corps intermediate maintenance activity ships, Marine Corps helicopter support to senior Federal officials; and, prior to the complete discharge of cargo, maritime pre-positioning ships; d. Assigned to the Department of the Air Force for search and rescue, weather reconnaissance, audiovisual services, and aeromedical evacuation functions, and transportation of senior Federal officials.

service squadron
An administrative and/or tactical subdivision of a naval service force or service group, consisting of the commander and the staff and organized to exercise operational and administrative control of assigned units in providing logistic support of fleet units as directed.

service test
A test of an item, system of materiel, or technique conducted under simulated or actual operational conditions to determine whether the specified military requirements or characteristics are satisfied. See also troop test.

service troops
Those units designed to render supply, maintenance, transportation, evacuation, hospitalization, and other services required by air and ground combat units to carry out effectively their mission in combat. See also combat service support elements; troops.

Service-unique container
Any 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container procured or leased by a Service to meet Service-unique requirements. Also called component-owned container. See also common-use container; component-owned container.

servicing
See common servicing; cross-servicing; joint servicing. See also inter-Service support.

severe damage
See nuclear damage, Part 3.

shaded relief
A cartographic technique that provides an apparent three-dimensional configuration of the terrain on maps and charts by the use of graded shadows that would be cast by high ground if light were shining from the northwest. Shaded relief is usually used in combination with contours. See also hill shading.

shadowing
To observe and maintain contact (not necessarily continuously) with a unit or force.

shallow fording
The ability of a self-propelled gun or ground vehicle equipped with built-in waterproofing, with its wheels or tracks in contact with the ground, to negotiate a water obstacle without the use of a special waterproofing kit. See also flotation.

shaped charge
A charge shaped so as to concentrate its explosive force in a particular direction.

shared data environment
Automation services that support the implementation and maintenance of data resources that are used by two or more combat support applications. Services provided include: identification of common data, physical data modeling, database segmentation, development of data access and maintenance routines, and database reengineering to use the common data environment. See also data.

shear link assembly
A device designed to break at a specified mechanical load.

sheet explosive
Plastic explosive provided in a sheet form.

sheetlines
Those lines defining the geographic limits of the map or chart detail.

shelf life
The length of time during which an item of supply, subject to deterioration or having a limited life which cannot be renewed, is considered serviceable while stored. See also storage life

shell (specify)
A command or request indicating the type of projectile to be used.

shelter
An International Organization for Standardization container outfitted with live- or work-in capability. See also International Organization for Standardization.

shielding
1. Material of suitable thickness and physical characteristics used to protect personnel from radiation during the manufacture, handling, and transportation of fissionable and radioactive materials. 2. Obstructions which tend to protect personnel or materials from the effects of a nuclear explosion.

shifting fire
Fire delivered at constant range at varying deflections; used to cover the width of a target that is too great to be covered by an open sheaf.

ship counter
In naval mine warfare, a device in a mine which prevents the mine from detonating until a preset number of actuations has taken place.

ship haven
See moving havens.

ship influence
In naval mine warfare, the magnetic, acoustic, and pressure effects of a ship, or a minesweep simulating a ship, which is detectable by a mine or other sensing devices.

shipping configuration
The manner in which an item is prepared for shipment.

shipping control
See naval control of shipping.

shipping designator
A code word assigned to a particular overseas base, port, or area for specific use as an address on shipments to the overseas location concerned. The code word is usually four letters and may be followed by a number to indicate a particular addressee.

shipping lane
A term used to indicate the general flow of merchant shipping between two departure/terminal areas.

shipping time
The time elapsing between the shipment of materiel by the supplying activity and receipt of materiel by the requiring activity. See also order and shipping time.

ship-to-shore movement
That portion of the assault phase of an amphibious operation which includes the deployment of the landing force from the assault shipping to designated landing areas.

shoal
A sandbank or bar that makes water shoal; i.e., a sand-bank that is not rocky and on which there is a water depth of 6 fathoms or less.

shock front
The boundary between the pressure disturbance created by an explosion (in air, water, or earth) and the ambient atmosphere, water, or earth.

shore fire control party
A specially trained unit for control of naval gunfire in support of troops ashore. It consists of a spotting team to adjust fire and a naval gunfire liaison team to perform liaison functions for the supported battalion commander. Also called SFCP.

shoreline effect
See coastal refraction.

shore party
A task organization of the landing force, formed for the purpose of facilitating the landing and movement off the beaches of troops, equipment, and supplies; for the evacuation from the beaches of casualties and enemy prisoners of war; and for facilitating the beaching, retraction, and salvaging of landing ships and craft. It comprises elements of both the naval and landing forces. Also called beach group. See also beachmaster unit; beach party; naval beach group.

shore-to-shore movement
The assault movement of personnel and materiel directly from a shore staging area to the objective, involving no further transfers between types of craft or ships incident to the assault movement.

shortfall
The lack of forces, equipment, personnel, materiel, or capability, reflected as the difference between the resources identified as a plan requirement and those apportioned to a combatant commander for planning, that would adversely affect the command's ability to accomplish its mission.

short-range air defense engagement zone
See weapon engagement zone.

short-range ballistic missile
A ballistic missile with a range capability up to about 600 nautical miles. Also called SRBM.

short-range transport aircraft
See transport aircraft.

short scope buoy
A buoy used as a navigational reference which remains nearly vertical over its sinker.

short supply
An item is in short supply when the total of stock on hand and anticipated receipts during a given period are less than the total estimated demand during that period.

short takeoff and landing
The ability of an aircraft to clear a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle within 1,500 feet (450 meters) of commencing takeoff or in landing, to stop within 1,500 feet (450 meters) after passing over a 50-foot (15 meters) obstacle. Also called STOL.

short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft
Fixed-wing aircraft capable of clearing a 15-meter (50-foot) obstacle within 450 meters (1,500 feet) of commencing takeoff run, and capable of landing vertically. Also called STOVL. See also short takeoff and landing.

short title
A short, identifying combination of letters, and/or numbers assigned to a document or device for purposes of brevity and/or security.

short ton
2,000 pounds. Also called S/T or STON.

shouldering
Maneuvering a vessel in contact with an opposing vessel to cause the opposing vessel to turn away. Shouldering is undertaken with the intent of minimizing damage to the opposing vessel.

show of force
An operation designed to demonstrate US resolve that involves increased visibility of US deployed forces in an attempt to defuse a specific situation that, if allowed to continue, may be detrimental to US interests or national objectives.

shuttered fuze
A fuze in which inadvertent initiation of the detonator will not initiate either the booster or the burst charge.

side-looking airborne radar
An airborne radar, viewing at right angles to the axis of the vehicle, which produces a presentation of terrain or moving targets. Also called SLAR

side oblique air photograph
An oblique photograph taken with the camera axis at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

side overlap
See overlap.

sighting
Actual visual contact. Does not include other contacts, which must be reported by type, e.g., radar and sonar contacts. See also contact report.

SIGINT direct service
A reporting procedure to provide signals intelligence (SIGINT) to a military commander or other authorized recipient in response to SIGINT requirements. The product may vary from recurring, serialized reports produced by the National Security Agency/Central Security Service to instantaneous aperiodic reports provided to the command or other recipient, usually from a fixed SIGINT activity engaged in collection and processing. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT direct service activity
A signals intelligence (SIGINT) activity composed of collection and associated resources that normally performs in a direct service role under the SIGINT operational control of the Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT direct support
The provision of signals intelligence (SIGINT) information to a military commander by a SIGINT direct support unit in response to SIGINT operational tasking levied by that commander. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT direct support unit
A signals intelligence (SIGINT) unit, usually mobile, designed to perform a SIGINT direct support role for a military commander under delegated authority from the Director, National Security Agency/Chief, Central Security Service. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT operational control
The authoritative direction of signals intelligence (SIGINT) activities, including tasking and allocation of effort, and the authoritative prescription of those uniform techniques and standards by which SIGINT information is collected, processed, and reported. See also signals intelligence

SIGINT operational tasking
The authoritative operational direction of and direct levying of signals intelligence (SIGINT) information needs by a military commander on designated SIGINT resources. These requirements are directive, irrespective of other priorities, and are conditioned only by the capability of those resources to produce such information. Operational tasking includes authority to deploy all or part of the SIGINT resources for which SIGINT operational tasking authority has been delegated. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT operational tasking authority
A military commander's authority to operationally direct and levy signals intelligence (SIGINT) requirements on designated SIGINT resources; includes authority to deploy and redeploy all or part of the SIGINT resources for which SIGINT operational tasking authority has been delegated. Also called SOTA. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT resources
Personnel and equipment of any unit, activity, or organizational element engaged in signals intelligence activities. See also signals intelligence.

SIGINT support plans
Plans prepared by the National Security Agency/Central Security Service, in coordination with concerned elements of the United States SIGINT system, which specify how the resources of the system will be aligned in crisis or war to support military operations covered by certain Joint Chiefs of Staff and unified and specified command operation plans. See also signals intelligence

signal
1. As applied to electronics, any transmitted electrical impulse. 2. Operationally, a type of message, the text of which consists of one or more letters, words, characters, signal flags, visual displays, or special sounds with prearranged meaning, and which is conveyed or transmitted by visual, acoustical, or electrical means.

signal center
A combination of signal communication facilities operated by the Army in the field and consisting of a communications center, telephone switching central and appropriate means of signal communications. See also communications center.

signal letters
See international call sign.

signal operation instructions
A series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of the signal communication activities of a command. In Marine Corps usage, these instructions are designated communication operation instructions.

signal security
A generic term that includes both communications security and electronics security. See also security.

signals intelligence
1. A category of intelligence comprising either individually or in combination all communications intelligence, electronic intelligence, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, however transmitted. 2. Intelligence derived from communications, electronic, and foreign instrumentation signals. Also called SIGINT. See also communications intelligence; electronic intelligence; intelligence; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence.

signal-to-noise ratio
The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in time.

signature equipment
Any item of equipment which reveals the type and nature of the unit or formation to which it belongs.

signed route
A route along which a unit has placed directional signs bearing its unit identification symbol. The signs are for the unit's use only and must comply with movement regulations.

significant wave height
The average height of the third of waves observed during a given period of time. Significant wave height is used for evaluating the impact of waves and breakers on watercraft in the open sea and surf zones. See also surf zone.

Silver Triangle
The South American region consisting of Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia that is historically known to be a major illegal drug production area.

simulative electromagnetic deception
See electromagnetic deception.

simultaneous engagement
The concurrent engagement of hostile targets by combination of interceptor aircraft and surface-to-air missiles.

single-anchor leg mooring
A mooring facility dedicated to the offshore petroleum discharge system. Once installed, it permits a tanker to remain on station and pump in much higher sea states than is possible with a spread moor. Also called SALM. See also offshore petroleum discharge system.

single department purchase
A method of purchase whereby one Military Department buys commodities for another Military Department or Departments.

single flow route
A route at least one-and-a-half lanes wide allowing the passage of a column of vehicles, and permitting isolated vehicles to pass or travel in the opposite direction at predetermined points. See also double flow route.

single integrated theater logistic manager
Service component or agency, usually in a mature theater, that is designated by the combatant commander or subunified commander as the single in-theater manager for planning and execution of a specific common-user logistic (CUL) item or related items. Single integrated logistic managers are normally long-term in nature with responsibilities that include planning, coordination, control and execution of a specific CUL function (or similar CUL functions) at the theater level, in both peacetime and during actual operations, within the parameters of combatant commander's directives. Also called SITLM. See also agency.

single manager
A Military Department or Agency designated by the Secretary of Defense to be responsible for management of specified commodities or common service activities on a Department of Defense-wide basis.

single manager for transportation
The United States Transportation Command is the Department of Defense single manager for transportation, other than Service-organic or theater-assigned transportation assets. See also Service-organic transportation assets; theater-assigned transportation assets; United States Transportation Command.

single port manager
Through its transportation component commands, the US Transportation Command is the Department of Defense-designated single port manager for all common-user aerial and sea ports worldwide. The single port manager performs those functions necessary to support the strategic flow of the deploying forces' equipment and sustainment from the aerial and sea port of embarkation and hand-off to the combatant commander in the aerial and sea port of debarkation (APOE and SPOD). The single port manager is responsible for providing strategic deployment status information to the combatant commander and to manage workload of the APOD and SPOD operator based on the commander's priorities and guidance. The single port manager is responsible through all phases of the theater aerial and sea port operations continuum, from a unimproved airfield and bare beach deployment to a commercial contract supported deployment. Also called SPM. See also Military Traffic Management Command; transportation component command; United States Transportation Command.

single-service manager
A component commander, designated by the combatant commander, who has been assigned responsibility and delegated the authority to coordinate specific theater personnel support activities such as theater postal operations. See also component.

single-spot ship
Those ships certified to have less than three adjacent landing areas. See also spot.

sinker
In naval mine warfare, a heavy weight to which a buoyant mine is moored. The sinker generally houses the mooring rope drum and depth-setting mechanism and for mines laid by ships, it also serves as a launching trolley.

situation map
A map showing the tactical or the administrative situation at a particular time. See also map.

situation report
A report giving the situation in the area of a reporting unit or formation. Also called SITREP.

situation template
A depiction of assumed adversary dispositions, based on adversary doctrine and the effects of the battlespace if the adversary should adopt a particular course of action. In effect, situation templates are the doctrinal templates depicting a particular operation modified to account for the effects of the battlespace environment and the adversary's current situation (training and experience levels, logistic status, losses, dispositions). Normally, the situation template depicts adversary units two levels of command below the friendly force, as well as the expected locations of high-value targets. Situation templates use time-phase lines to indicate movement of forces and the expected flow of the operation. Usually, the situation template depicts a critical point in the course of action. Situation templates are one part of an adversary course of action model. Models may contain more than one situation template. See also course of action; doctrinal template.

skim sweeping
In naval mine warfare, the technique of wire sweeping to a fixed depth over deep-laid moored mines to cut any shallow enough to endanger surface shipping.

skin paint
A radar indication caused by the reflected radar signal from an object.

skin tracking
The tracking of an object by means of a skin paint.

slant range
The line of sight distance between two points, not at the same level relative to a specific datum.

slated items
Bulk petroleum and packaged bulk petroleum items that are requisitioned for overseas use by means of a consolidated requirement document, prepared and submitted through joint petroleum office channels. Packaged petroleum items are requisitioned in accordance with normal requisitioning procedures.

slice
An average logistic planning factor used to obtain estimates of requirements for personnel and materiel. (e.g., a personnel slice generally consists of the total strength of the stated basic combatant elements, plus its proportionate share of all supporting and higher headquarters personnel.)

slightly wounded
A casualty whose injuries or illness are relatively minor, permitting the patient to walk and/or sit. See also patient; walking patient.

small arms
Man portable, individual, and crew-served weapon systems used mainly against personnel and lightly armored or unarmored equipment.

small arms ammunition
Ammunition for small arms, i.e., all ammunition up to and including 20 millimeters (.787 inches).

small austere airfield
Unsophisticated airfield, usually with a short runway, that is limited in one or a combination of the following: taxiway systems, ramp space, security, materials handling equipment, aircraft servicing, maintenance, navigation aids, weather observing sensors, and communications. Also called SAAF. See also airfield.

small-lot storage
Generally considered to be a quantity of less than one pallet stack, stacked to maximum storage height. Thus, the term refers to a lot consisting of from one container to two or more pallet loads, but is not of sufficient quantity to form a complete pallet column. See also storage.

small-scale map
A map having a scale smaller than 1:600,000. See also map.

smoke screen
A cloud of smoke used to conceal ground maneuver, obstacle breaching, recovery operations, and amphibious assault operations as well as key assembly areas, supply routes, and logistic facilities

snagline mine
A contact mine with a buoyant line attached to one of the horns or switches which may be caught up and pulled by the hull or propellers of a ship.

soft missile base
A launching base that is not protected against a nuclear explosion.

soil shear strength
The maximum resistance of a soil to shearing stresses.

solatium payments
Monetary compensation given to alleviate grief, suffering, and anxiety resulting from injuries, and property or personal loss.

solenoid sweep
In naval mine warfare, a magnetic sweep consisting of a horizontal axis coil wound on a floating iron tube.

sonar
A sonic device used primarily for the detection and location of underwater objects. (This term is derived from the words "sound navigation and ranging.")

sonic
Of or pertaining to sound or the speed of sound. See also speed of sound.

sonobuoy
A sonar device used to detect submerged submarines that, when activated, relays information by radio. It may be active directional or nondirectional, or it may be passive directional or nondirectional.

sortie
In air operations, an operational flight by one aircraft.

sortie allotment message
The means by which the joint force commander allots excess sorties to meet requirements of subordinate commanders that are expressed in their air employment and/or allocation plan. Also called SORTIEALOT.

sortie number
A reference used to identify the images taken by all the sensors during one air reconnaissance sortie

sortie plot
An overlay representing the area on a map covered by imagery taken during one sortie.

sortie reference
See sortie number.

sorting
In counterdrug operations, the process involved in differentiating traffic that could be involved in drug trafficking from legitimate air traffic. Initial sorting criteria are established jointly by the US Coast Guard and US Customs Service, coordinated with Department of Defense counterparts, and disseminated as required. See also counterdrug operations

source
1. A person, thing, or activity from which information is obtained. 2. In clandestine activities, a person (agent), normally a foreign national, in the employ of an intelligence activity for intelligence purposes. 3. In interrogation activities, any person who furnishes information, either with or without the knowledge that the information is being used for intelligence purposes. In this context, a controlled source is in the employment or under the control of the intelligence activity and knows that the information is to be used for intelligence purposes. An uncontrolled source is a voluntary contributor of information and may or may not know that the information is to be used for intelligence purposes. See also agent; collection agency.

space
A medium like the land, sea, and air within which military activities shall be conducted to achieve US national securityobjectives.

space asset
Any individual part of a space system as follows. (1) Equipment that is or can be placed in space (e.g., a satellite or a launch vehicle). (2) Terrestrially-based equipment that directly supports space activity (e.g., a satellite ground station).

space assignment
An assignment to the individual Departments/Services by the appropriate transportation operating agency of movement capability which completely or partially satisfies the stated requirements of the Departments/Services for the operating month and that has been accepted by them without the necessity for referral to the Joint Transportation Board for allocation.

space available mail
A transportation category for military mail transported to and from overseas bases by air on a space-available basis. Also called SAM.

space capability
1. The ability of a space asset to accomplish a mission. 2. The ability of a terrestrial-based asset to accomplisha mission in space (e.g., a ground-based or airborne laser capable of negating a satellite). See also space; space asset.

space control
Combat, combat support, and combat service support operations to ensure freedom of action in space for theUnited States and its allies and, when directed, deny an adversary freedom of action in space. The space control missionarea includes: surveillance of space; protection of US and friendly space systems; prevention of an adversary's ability to use space systems and services for purposes hostile to US national security interests; negation of space systems and services used for purposes hostile to US national security interests; and directly supporting battle management, command, control, communications, and intelligence. See also combat service support; combat support; negation; space; space systems.

space defense
All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy vehicles (including missiles) while in space, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. See also aerospace defense.

space environment
The region beginning at the lower boundary of the Earth's ionosphere (approximately 50 km) and extending outward that contains solid particles (asteroids and meteoroids), energetic charged particles (ions, protons, electrons, etc.), and electromagnetic and ionizing radiation (x-rays, extreme ultraviolet, gamma rays, etc.). See also ionosphere.

space-faring nation
A nation with the ability to access space capabilities using their indigenous space systems. See also space capability; space systems.

space force application
Combat operations in, through, and from space to influence the course and outcome of conflict. The space force application mission area includes ballistic missile defense and force projection. See also ballistic missile; force protection; space.

space force enhancement
Combat support operations to improve the effectiveness of military forces as well as support other intelligence, civil, and commercial users. The space force enhancement mission area includes: intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; integrated tactical warning and attack assessment; command, control, and communications; position, velocity, time, and navigation; and environmental monitoring. See also combat support; space.

space forces
The space and terrestrial systems, equipment, facilities, organizations, and personnel necessary to access, use and, if directed, control space for national security. See also national security; space; space systems.

space power
The total strength of a nation's capabilities to conduct and influence activities to, in, through, and from space to achieve its objectives. See also space.

space sensor
An instrument or mechanical device mounted on a space platform or space vehicle for collecting information or detecting activity or conditions either in space or in a terrestrial medium. See also space.

space superiority
The degree of dominance in space of one force over another that permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea, air, space, and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force. See also space.

space support
Combat service support operations to deploy and sustain military and intelligence systems in space. The spacesupport mission area includes launching and deploying space vehicles, maintaining and sustaining spacecraft on-orbit, anddeorbiting and recovering space vehicles, if required. See also combat service support; space.

space support team
A team of space operations experts provided by the Commander, US Strategic Command (or one of the space component commands and augmented by national agencies, as required) upon request of a geographic combatant commander to assist the supported commander in integrating space power into the terrestrial campaign. Also called SST. See also space; space power; space support.

space surveillance
The observation of space and of the activities occurring in space. This mission is normally accomplished with the aid of ground-based radars and electro-optical sensors. This term is separate and distinct from the intelligence collection mission conducted by space-based sensors which surveil terrestrial activity. See also space; space control.

space systems
All of the devices and organizations forming the space network. These consist of: spacecraft; mission packages(s);ground stations; data links among spacecraft, mission or user terminals, which may include initial reception, processing, andexploitation; launch systems; and directly related supporting infrastructure, including space surveillance and battle management and/or command, control, communications and computers. See also space.

space weather
The conditions and phenomena in space and specifically in the near-earth environment that may affect spaceassets or space operations. Space weather may impact spacecraft and ground-based systems. Space weather is influencedby phenomena such as solar flare activity, ionospheric variability, energetic particle events, and geophysical events. See also space; space asset.

span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment)
That total period of time, resulting from a timer error, between the earliest and the latest possible detonation time. 1. early time--The earliest possible time that an atomic demolition munition can detonate; 2. fire time--That time the atomic demolition munition will detonate should the timers function precisely without error; 3. late time--The latest possible time that an atomic demolition munition can detonate.

special access program
A sensitive program, approved in writing by a head of agency with original top secret classification authority, that imposes need-to-know and access controls beyond those normally provided for access to confidential, secret, or top secret information. The level of controls is based on the criticality of the program and the assessed hostile intelligence threat. The program may be an acquisition program, an intelligence program, or an operations and support program. Also called SAP.

special activities
Activities conducted in support of national foreign policy objectives that are planned and executed so that the role of the US Government is not apparent or acknowledged publicly. They are also functions in support of such activities but are not intended to influence US political processes, public opinion, policies, or media and do not include diplomatic activities or the collection and production of intelligence or related support functions.

special agent
A person, either United States military or civilian, who is a specialist in military security or the collection of intelligence or counterintelligence information

special air operation
An air operation conducted in support of special operations and other clandestine, covert, and psychological activities.

special ammunition supply point
A mobile supply point where special ammunition is stored and issued to delivery units.

special assignment airlift requirements
Airlift requirements, including Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff -directed or -coordinated exercises, that require special consideration due to the number of passengers involved, weight or size of cargo, urgency of movement, sensitivity, or other valid factors that preclude the use of channel airlift. See also airlift requirement; channel airlift.

special boat squadron
A permanent Navy echelon III major command to which two or more special boat units are assigned for some operational and all administrative purposes. The squadron is tasked with the training and deployment of these special boat units and may augment naval special warfare task groups and task units. Also called SBS.

special boat team
US Navy forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct or support special operations with patrol boats or other combatant craft. Also called SBT.

special cargo
Cargo that requires special handling or protection, such as pyrotechnics, detonators, watches, and precision instruments.

special-equipment vehicle
A vehicle consisting of a general-purpose chassis with special-purpose body and/or mounted equipments designed to meet a specialized requirement.

special forces
US Army forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations with an emphasis on unconventional warfare capabilities. Also called SF.

special forces group
A combat arms organization capable of planning, conducting, and supporting special operations activities in all operational environments in peace, conflict, and war. It consists of a group headquarters and headquarters company, a support company, and special forces battalions. The group can operate as a single unit, but normally the battalions plan and conduct operations from widely separated locations. The group provides general operational direction and synchronizes the activities of subordinate battalions. Although principally structured for unconventional warfare, special forces group units are capable of task-organizing to meet specific requirements. Also called SFG.

special forces operations base
A command, control, and support base established and operated by a special forces group or battalion from organic and attached resources. The base commander and his staff coordinate and synchronize the activities of subordinate and forward-deployed forces. A special forces operations base is normally established for an extended period of time to support a series of operations. Also called SFOB.

special hazard
In aircraft crash rescue and fire-fighting activities: fuels, materials, components, or situations that could increase the risks normally associated with military aircraft accidents and could require special procedures, equipment, or extinguishing agents.

special information operations
Information operations that by their sensitive nature and due to their potential effect or impact, security requirements, or risk to the national security of the United States, require a special review and approval process. Also called SIO. See also information; information operations; operation.

special interest target
In counterdrug operations, a contact that may be outside initial sorting criteria but still requires special handling, such as controlled deliveries or other unusual situations. Also called SIT. See also suspect; track of interest.

specialist intelligence report
A category of specialized, technical reports used in the dissemination of intelligence. Also called SPIREP. See also intelligence reporting.

specialization
An arrangement within an alliance wherein a member or group of members most suited by virtue of technical skills, location, or other qualifications assume(s) greater responsibility for a specific task or significant portion thereof for one or more other members.

special mission unit
A generic term to represent a group of operations and support personnel from designated organizations that is task-organized to perform highly classified activities. Also called SMU.

special operations
Operations conducted in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments to achieve military, diplomatic, informational, and/or economic objectives employing military capabilities for which there is no broad conventional force requirement. These operations often require covert, clandestine, or low visibility capabilities. Special operations are applicable across the range of military operations. They can be conducted independently or in conjunction with operations of conventional forces or other government agencies and may include operations through, with, or by indigenous or surrogate forces. Special operations differ from conventional operations in degree of physical and political risk, operational techniques, mode of employment, independence from friendly support, and dependence on detailed operational intelligence and indigenous assets. Also called SO.

special operations combat control team
A team of Air Force personnel organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Under clandestine, covert, or low-visibility conditions, these teams establish and control air assault zones; assist aircraft by verbal control, positioning, and operating navigation aids; conduct limited offensive direct action and special reconnaissance operations; and assist in the insertion and extraction of special operations forces. Also called SOCCT. See also combat control team.

special operations command
A subordinate unified or other joint command established by a joint force commander to plan, coordinate, conduct, and support joint special operations within the joint force commander's assigned operational area. Also called SOC. See also special operations.

special operations command and control element
A special operations command and control element (SOCCE) that is the focal point for the synchronization of special operations forces activities with conventional forces operations. It performs command and control or liaison functions according to mission requirements and as directed by the establishing special operations forces commander. Its level of authority and responsibility may vary widely. It normally collocates with the command post of the supported force. The SOCCE can also receive special operations forces operational, intelligence, and target acquisition reports directly from deployed special operations elements and provide them to the supported component headquarters. The SOCCE remains under the operational control of the joint force special operations component commander or commander, joint special operations task force. Also called SOCCE. See also command and control; joint force special operations component commander; special operations; special operations forces.

special operations forces
Those Active and Reserve Component forces of the Military Services designated by the Secretary of Defense and specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called SOF. See also Air Force special operations forces; Army special operations forces; naval special warfare forces.

special operations liaison element
A special operations liaison team provided by the joint force special operations component commander to the joint force air component commander (if designated), or appropriate Service component air command and control organization, to coordinate, deconflict, and integrate special operations air, surface, and subsurface operations with conventional air operations. Also called SOLE. See also joint force air component commander; joint force special operations component commander; special operations.

special operations mission planning folder
The package that contains the materials required to execute a given special operations mission. It will include the mission tasking letter, mission tasking package, original feasibility assessment (as desired), initial assessment (as desired), target intelligence package, plan of execution, infiltration and exfiltration plan of execution, and other documentation as required or desired. Also called SOMPF.

special operations naval mobile environment team
A team of Navy personnel organized, trained, and equipped to support naval special warfare forces by providing weather, oceanographic, mapping, charting, and geodesy support. Also called SONMET.

special operations-peculiar
Equipment, material, supplies, and services required for special operations missions for which there is no Service-common requirement. These are limited to items and services initially designed for, or used by, special operations forces until adopted for Service-common use by one or more Military Service; modifications approved by the Commander, US Special Operations Command for application to standard items and services used by the Military Services; and items and services approved by the Commander, US Special Operations Command as critically urgent for the immediate accomplishment of a special operations mission. Also called SO-peculiar. See also Service-common; special operations.

special operations terminal attack controller
United States Air Force combat control personnel certified to perform the terminal attack control function in support of special operations forces missions. Special operations terminal attack controller operations emphasize the employment of night infrared, laser, and beacon tactics and equipment. Also called SOTAC. See also special operations; special tactics team; terminal.

special operations weather team/tactical element
A task-organized team of Air Force personnel organized, trained, and equipped to collect critical weather observations from data-sparse areas. These teams are trained to operate independently in permissive or uncertain environments, or as augmentation to other special operations elements in hostile environments, in direct support of special operations. Also called SOWT/TE.

special operations wing
An Air Force special operations wing. Also called SOW.

special (or project) equipment
Equipment not authorized in standard equipment publications but determined as essential in connection with a contemplated operation, function, or mission. See also equipment.

special purpose Marine air-ground task force
A Marine air-ground task force organized, trained, and equipped with narrowly focused capabilities. It is designed to accomplish a specific mission, often of limited scope and duration. It may be any size, but normally it is a relatively small force--the size of a Marine expeditionary unit or smaller. Also called SPMAGTF. See also aviation combat element; combat service support element; command element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary unit; task force.

special-purpose vehicle
A vehicle incorporating a special chassis and designed to meet a specialized requirement.

special reconnaissance
Reconnaissance and surveillance actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments to collect or verify information of strategic or operational significance, employing military capabilities not normally found in conventional forces. These actions provide an additive capability for commanders and supplement other conventional reconnaissance and surveillance actions. Also called SR.

special staff
All staff officers having duties at a headquarters and not included in the general (coordinating) staff group or in the personal staff group. The special staff includes certain technical specialists and heads of services, e.g., quartermaster officer, antiaircraft officer, transportation officer, etc. See also staff.

special tactics
US Air Force special operations forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations. They include combat control team, pararescue, and combat weather personnel who provide the interface between air and ground combat operations. Also called ST. See also special tactics team.

special tactics team
A task-organized element of special tactics that may include combat control, pararescue, and combat weather personnel. Functions include austere airfield and assault zone reconnaissance, surveillance, establishment, and terminal control; terminal attack control; combat search and rescue; combat casualty care and evacuation staging; and tactical weather observations and forecasting. Also called STT. See also combat search and rescue; special operations; special operations forces; special tactics; terminal attack control.

special unloading berth
Berths established in the vicinity of the approach lanes into which transports may move for unloading, thus reducing the running time for landing craft and assisting in the dispersion of transports.

special weapons
A term sometimes used to indicate weapons grouped for special procedures, for security, or other reasons. Specific terminology, e.g., "nuclear weapons" or "guided missiles," is preferable.

specific intelligence collection requirement
An identified gap in intelligence holdings that may be satisfied only by collection action, and that has been validated by the appropriate requirements control authority. Also called SICR.

specific search
Reconnaissance of a limited number of points for specific information.

specified combatant command
See specified command.

specified command
A command that has a broad, continuing mission, normally functional, and is established and so designated by the President through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It normally is composed of forces from a single Military Department. Also called specified combatant command

spectrozonal photography
A photographic technique whereby the natural spectral emissions of all objects are selectively filtered in order to image only those objects within a particular spectral band or zone and eliminate the unwanted background.

spectrum management
Planning, coordinating, and managing joint use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures. The objective of spectrum management is to enable electronic systems to perform their functions in the intended environment without causing or suffering unacceptable interference. See also electromagnetic spectrum.

speed of advance
In naval usage, the speed expected to be made good over the ground. Also called SOA. See also pace; rate of march.

speed of sound
The speed at which sound travels in a given medium under specified conditions. The speed of sound at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere is 1108 ft/second, 658 knots, 1215 km/hour. See also hypersonic; sonic; subsonic; supersonic; transonic.

spillover
The part of the laser spot that is not on the target because of beam divergence or standoff range, improper boresighting of laser designator, or poor operator illuminating procedures. See also laser spot.

spin stabilization
Directional stability of a projectile obtained by the action of gyroscopic forces that result from spinning of the body about its axis of symmetry.

split cameras
An assembly of two cameras disposed at a fixed overlapping angle relative to each other.

split-up
See break-up.

split vertical photography
Photographs taken simultaneously by two cameras mounted at an angle from the vertical, one tilted to the left and one to the right, to obtain a small side overlap.

spoiling attack
A tactical maneuver employed to seriously impair a hostile attack while the enemy is in the process of forming or assembling for an attack. Usually employed by armored units in defense by an attack on enemy assembly positions in front of a main line of resistance or battle position.

spoke
The portion of the hub and spoke distribution system that refers to transportation mode operators responsible for scheduled delivery to a customer of the "hub." See also distribution; distribution system; hub; hub and spoke distribution.

sponsor
Military member or civilian employee with dependents.

spot
1. To determine by observation, deviations of ordnance from the target for the purpose of supplying necessary information for the adjustment of fire. 2. To place in a proper location. 3. (DOD only) An approved shipboard helicopter landing site. See also ordnance.

spot elevation
A point on a map or chart whose elevation is noted.

spot jamming
The jamming of a specific channel or frequency. See also barrage jamming; electronic warfare; jamming.

spot net
Radio communication net used by a spotter in calling fire.

spot report
A concise narrative report of essential information covering events or conditions that may have an immediate and significant effect on current planning and operations that is afforded the most expeditious means of transmission consistent with requisite security. Also called SPOTREP. (Note: In reconnaissance and surveillance usage, spot report is not to be used.) See Joint Tactical Air Reconnaissance/Surveillance Mission Report

spot size
The size of the electron spot on the face of the cathode ray tube.

spotter
An observer stationed for the purpose of observing and reporting results of naval gunfire to the firing agency and who also may be employed in designating targets. See also field artillery observer; naval gunfire spotting team.

spotting line
Any straight line to which the fall of shot of projectiles is related or fire is adjusted by an observer or a spotter. See also gun-target line; observer-target line.

spray dome
The mound of water spray thrown up into the air when the shock wave from an underwater detonation of a nuclear weapon reaches the surface.

spreader bar
A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers or vehicles and breakbulk cargo.

spreading fire
A notification by the spotter or the naval gunfire ship, depending on who is controlling the fire, to indicate that fire is about to be distributed over an area.

sprocket
In naval mine warfare, an anti-sweep device included in a mine mooring to allow a sweep wire to pass through the mooring without parting the mine from its sinker.

squadron
1. An organization consisting of two or more divisions of ships, or two or more divisions (Navy) or flights of aircraft. It is normally but not necessarily composed of ships or aircraft of the same type. 2. The basic administrative aviation unit of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. 3. Battalion-sized ground or aviation units in US Army cavalry regiments.

squib
A small pyrotechnic device that may be used to fire the igniter in a rocket or for some similar purpose. Not to be confused with a detonator that explodes.

squirt
In air-to-air refuelling, a means of providing visual detection of a nearby aircraft. In practice this is achieved by the donor aircraft dumping fuel and/or the receiver aircraft selecting afterburners, if so equipped.

staballoy
Metal alloys made from high-density depleted uranium mixed with other metals for use in kinetic energy penetrators for armor-piercing munitions. Several different metals, such as titanium or molybdenum, can be used for the purpose. The various staballoy metals have low radioactivity that is not considered to be a significant health hazard.

stabilized glide slope indicator
An electrohydraulic optical landing aid for use on air-capable ships. With it, a pilot can visually establish and maintain the proper glide slope for a safe approach and landing. The visual acquisition range is approximately 3 miles at night under optimal conditions. Also called SGSI. See also air-capable ship.

stabilized patient
A patient whose airway is secured, hemorrhage is controlled, shock treated, and fractures are immobilized. See also patient.

stable base film
A particular type of film having a high stability in regard to shrinkage and stretching.

stable patient
A patient for whom no inflight medical intervention is expected but the potential for medical intervention exists. See also patient.

staff
See multinational staff; general staff; integrated staff; joint staff; parallel staff; special staff.

staff estimates
Assessments of courses of action by the various staff elements of a command that serve as the foundation of the commander's estimate.

staff supervision
The process of advising other staff officers and individuals subordinate to the commander of the commander's plans and policies, interpreting those plans and policies, assisting such subordinates in carrying them out, determining the extent to which they are being followed, and advising the commander thereof.

stage
1. An element of the missile or propulsion system that generally separates from the missile at burnout or cut-off. Stages are numbered chronologically in order of burning. 2. To process, in a specified area, troops which are in transit from one locality to another. See also marshalling; staging area. 3

staged crews
Aircrews specifically positioned at intermediate airfields to take over aircraft operating on air routes, thus relieving complementary crews of flying fatigue and speeding up the flow rate of the aircraft concerned.

staging
Assembling, holding, and organizing arriving personnel, equipment, and sustaining materiel in preparation for onward movement. The organizing and preparation for movement of personnel, equipment, and materiel at designated areas to incrementally build forces capable of meeting the operational commander's requirements. See also staging area.

staging area
1. Amphibious or airborne-A general locality between the mounting area and the objective of an amphibious or airborne expedition, through which the expedition or parts thereof pass after mounting, for refueling, regrouping of ships, and/or exercise, inspection, and redistribution of troops. 2. Other movements-A general locality established for the concentration of troop units and transient personnel between movements over the lines of communications. Also called SA. See also airborne; marshalling; stage; staging.

staging base
1. An advanced naval base for the anchoring, fueling, and refitting of transports and cargo ships as well as replenishment of mobile service squadrons. 2. A landing and takeoff area with minimum servicing, supply, and shelter provided for the temporary occupancy of military aircraft during the course of movement from one location to another.

standard advanced base units
Personnel and materiel organized to function as advanced base units, including the functional components that are employed in the establishment of naval advanced bases. Such advanced base units may establish repair bases, supply bases, supply depots, airfields, air bases, or other naval shore establishments at overseas locations.

standardization
The process by which the Department of Defense achieves the closest practicable cooperation among the Services and Defense agencies for the most efficient use of research, development, and production resources, and agrees to adopt on the broadest possible basis the use of: a. common or compatible operational, administrative, and logistic procedures; b. common or compatible technical procedures and criteria; c. common, compatible, or interchangeable supplies, components, weapons, or equipment; and d. common or compatible tactical doctrine with corresponding organizational compatibility.

standard operating procedure
See standing operating procedure.

standard parallel
A parallel on a map or chart along which the scale is as stated for that map or chart

standard pattern
In land mine warfare, the agreed pattern to which mines are normally laid.

standard positioning system
One of two levels of service provided by the global positioning system, the standard positioning system normally offers users a horizontal accuracy of 100 meters or better with a 95% probability. Also called SPS.

standard route
In naval control of shipping, a pre-planned single track that is assigned a code name and connects positions within the main shipping lanes.

standard unit
A type unit whose unit-type code and movement characteristics are described in the type unit characteristics file.

standard use Army aircraft flight route
Routes established below the coordinating altitude to facilitate the movement of Army aviation assets. Routes are normally located in the corps through brigade rear areas of operation and do not require approval by the airspace control authority. Also called SAAFR.

Standby Reserve
Those units and members of the Reserve Components (other than those in the Ready Reserve or Retired Reserve) who are liable for active duty only, as provided in the US Code, title 10 (DOD), sections 10151, 12301, and 12306. See also active duty; Ready Reserve; Reserve Components; Retired Reserve.

stand fast
In artillery, the order at which all action on the position ceases immediately.

standing operating procedure
A set of instructions covering those features of operations which lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure without loss of effectiveness. The procedure is applicable unless ordered otherwise. Also called SOP.

standing order
A promulgated order which remains in force until amended or cancelled.

state and regional defense airlift
The program for use during an emergency of civil aircraft other than air carrier aircraft.

stateless person
Civilian who has been denationalized or whose country of origin cannot be determined or who cannot establish a right to the nationality claimed. See also dislocated civilian; displaced person; evacuee; expellee; refugee.

state of readiness
See defense readiness condition; weapons readiness state.

state of readiness--state 1--safe
The state of a demolition target upon or within which the demolition charge has been placed and secured. The firing or initiating circuits have been installed, but not connected to the demolition charge. Detonators or initiators have not been connected nor installed. See also state of readiness--state 2--armed.

state of readiness--state 2--armed
The state of a demolition target in which the demolition charges are in place, the firing and priming circuits are installed and complete, and the charge is ready for immediate firing. See also state of readiness--state 1--safe.

static air temperature
The temperature at a point at rest relative to the ambient air.

static line (air transport)
A line attached to a parachute pack and to a strop or anchor cable in an aircraft so that, when the load is dropped, the parachute is deployed automatically.

static line cable
See anchor cable.

static marking
Marks on photographic negatives and other imagery caused by unwanted discharges of static electricity.

station
1. A general term meaning any military or naval activity at a fixed land location. 2. A particular kind of activity to which other activities or individuals may come for a specific service, often of a technical nature, e.g., aid station. 3. An assigned or prescribed position in a naval formation or cruising disposition; or an assigned area in an approach, contact, or battle disposition. 4. Any place of duty or post or position in the field to which an individual, group of individuals, or a unit may be assigned. 5. One or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment necessary at one location, for carrying on radio communication service. Each station will be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily.

station authentication
A security measure designed to establish the authenticity of a transmitting or receiving station.

station time
In air transport operations, the time at which crews, passengers, and cargo are to be on board and ready for the flight.

status-of-forces agreement
An agreement that defines the legal position of a visiting military force deployed in the territory of a friendly state. Agreements delineating the status of visiting military forces may be bilateral or multilateral. Provisions pertaining to the status of visiting forces may be set forth in a separate agreement, or they may form a part of a more comprehensive agreement. These provisions describe how the authorities of a visiting force may control members of that force and the amenability of the force or its members to the local law or to the authority of local officials. To the extent that agreements delineate matters affecting the relations between a military force and civilian authorities and population, they may be considered as civil affairs agreements. Also called SOFA. See also civil affairs agreement.

stay behind
Agent or agent organization established in a given country to be activated in the event of hostile overrun or other circumstances under which normal access would be denied.

stay behind force
A force which is left in position to conduct a specified mission when the remainder of the force withdraws or retires from the area.

stellar guidance
A system wherein a guided missile may follow a predetermined course with reference primarily to the relative position of the missile and certain preselected celestial bodies.

stepped-up separation
The vertical separation in a formation of aircraft measured from an aircraft ahead upward to the next aircraft behind or in echelon.

stereographic coverage
Photographic coverage with overlapping air photographs to provide a three-dimensional presentation of the picture; 60 percent overlap is considered normal and 53 percent is generally regarded as the minimum.

sterilize
1. In naval mine warfare, to permanently render a mine incapable of firing by means of a device (e.g., sterilizer) within the mine. 2. (DOD only) To remove from material to be used in covert and clandestine operations, marks or devices which can identify it as emanating from the sponsoring nation or organization.

sterilizer
In mine warfare, a device included in mines to render the mine permanently inoperative on expiration of a pre-determined time after laying.

stick (air transport)
A number of paratroopers who jump from one aperture or door of an aircraft during one run over a drop zone.

stick commander (air transport)
A designated individual who controls paratroops from the time they enter the aircraft until their exit. See also jumpmaster

stimulants
Controlled drugs that make the user feel stronger, more decisive, and self-possessed; includes cocaine and amphetamines.

stockage objective
The maximum quantities of materiel to be maintained on hand to sustain current operations. It will consist of the sum of stocks represented by the operating level and the safety level. See also level of supply.

stock control
Process of maintaining inventory data on the quantity, location, and condition of supplies and equipment due-in, on-hand, and due-out, to determine quantities of material and equipment available and/or required for issue and to facilitate distribution and management of materiel. See also inventory control.

stock coordination
A supply management function exercised usually at department level that controls the assignment of material cognizance for items or categories of material to inventory managers.

stock level
See level of supply.

Stock Number
See National Stock Number.

stockpile to target sequence
1. The order of events involved in removing a nuclear weapon from storage and assembling, testing, transporting, and delivering it on the target. 2. A document that defines the logistic and employment concepts and related physical environments involved in the delivery of a nuclear weapon from the stockpile to the target. It may also define the logistic flow involved in moving nuclear weapons to and from the stockpile for quality assurance testing, modification and retrofit, and the recycling of limited life components

stock record account
A basic record showing by item the receipt and issuance of property, the balances on hand, and such other identifying or stock control data as may be required by proper authority.

stop-loss
Presidential authority under Title 10 US Code 12305 to suspend laws relating to promotion, retirement, or separation of any member of the Armed Forces determined essential to the national security of the United States ("laws relating to promotion" broadly includes, among others, grade tables, current general or flag officer authorizations, and E8 and 9 limits). This authority may be exercised by the President only if Reservists are serving on active duty under Title 10 authorities for Presidential Reserve Callup Authority, partial mobilization, or full mobilization. See also mobilization; partial mobilization; Presidential Reserve Callup Authority.

storage
1. The retention of data in any form, usually for the purpose of orderly retrieval and documentation. 2. A device consisting of electronic, electrostatic, electrical, hardware, or other elements into which data may be entered, and from which data may be obtained as desired. See also ammunition and toxic material open space; bin storage; bulk storage; igloo space; large-lot storage; medium-lot storage; open improved storage space; open unimproved wet space; small-lot storage.

storage life
The length of time for which an item of supply, including explosives, given specific storage conditions, may be expected to remain serviceable and, if relevant, safe. See also shelf life

storage or stowage
Storage is the act of placing material or ammunition and other supplies onboard the vessel. Stowage relates to the act of securing those items stored in such a manner that they do not shift or move during at-sea periods, using methods and equipment as approved by higher authority. See also storage; stowage.

stores
See naval stores; supplies.

stowage
The method of placing cargo into a single hold or compartment of a ship to prevent damage, shifting, etc.

stowage diagram
A scaled drawing included in the loading plan of a vessel for each deck or platform showing the exact location of all cargo. See also stowage plan.

stowage factor
The number that expresses the space, in cubic feet, occupied by a long ton of any commodity as prepared for shipment, including all crating or packaging.

stowage plan
A completed stowage diagram showing what materiel has been loaded and its stowage location in each hold, between-deck compartment, or other space in a ship, including deck space. Each port of discharge is indicated by colors or other appropriate means. Deck and between-deck cargo normally is shown in perspective, while cargo stowed in the lower hold is shown in profile, except that vehicles usually are shown in perspective regardless of stowage. See also stowage diagram.

strafing
The delivery of automatic weapons fire by aircraft on ground targets

straggler
1. Any personnel, vehicles, ships, or aircraft which, without apparent purpose or assigned mission, become separated from their unit, column, or formation. 2. A ship separated from its convoy by more than 5 nautical miles, through inability to keep up, and unable to rejoin before dark, or over 10 nautical miles from its convoy whether or not it can rejoin before dark. See also romper.

strapping
1. An operation by which supply containers, such as cartons or boxes, are reinforced by bands, metal straps, or wire, placed at specified intervals around them, drawn taut, and then sealed or clamped by a machine. 2. Measurement of storage tanks and calculation of volume to provide tables for conversion of depth of product in linear units of measurement to volume of contents.

strategic advantage
The overall relative power relationship of opponents that enables one nation or group of nations effectively to control the course of a military or political situation.

strategic airlift
See intertheater airlift.

strategic air transport
The movement of personnel and materiel by air in accordance with a strategic plan.

strategic air transport operations
The carriage of passengers and cargo between theaters by means of: a. scheduled service; b. special flight; c. air logistic support; d. aeromedical evacuation.

strategic air warfare
Air combat and supporting operations designed to effect, through the systematic application of force to a selected series of vital targets, the progressive destruction and disintegration of the enemy's war-making capacity to a point where the enemy no longer retains the ability or the will to wage war. Vital targets may include key manufacturing systems, sources of raw material, critical material, stockpiles, power systems, transportation systems, communication facilities, concentration of uncommitted elements of enemy armed forces, key agricultural areas, and other such target systems.

strategic concentration
The assembly of designated forces in areas from which it is intended that operations of the assembled force shall begin so that they are best disposed to initiate the plan of campaign.

strategic concept
The course of action accepted as the result of the estimate of the strategic situation. It is a statement of what is to be done in broad terms sufficiently flexible to permit its use in framing the military, diplomatic, economic, informational, and other measures which stem from it. See also basic undertakings.

strategic estimate
The estimate of the broad strategic factors that influence the determination of missions, objectives, and courses of action. The estimate is continuous and includes the strategic direction received from the President or Secretary of Defense or the authoritative body of an alliance or coalition. See also commander's estimate of the situation; estimate; logistic estimate of the situation; national intelligence estimate.

strategic intelligence
Intelligence that is required for the formulation of strategy, policy, and military plans and operations at national and theater levels. See also intelligence; operational intelligence; tactical intelligence.

strategic level of war
The level of war at which a nation, often as a member of a group of nations, determines national or multinational (alliance or coalition) security objectives and guidance, and develops and uses national resources to accomplish these objectives. Activities at this level establish national and multinational military objectives; sequence initiatives; define limits and assess risks for the use of military and other instruments of national power; develop global plans or theater war plans to achieve these objectives; and provide military forces and other capabilities in accordance with strategic plans. See also operational level of war; tactical level of war.

strategic map
A map of medium scale or smaller used for planning of operations, including the movement, concentration, and supply of troops. See also map.

strategic material (critical)
Material required for essential uses in a war emergency, the procurement of which in adequate quantity, quality, or time, is sufficiently uncertain, for any reason, to require prior provision of the supply thereof.

strategic mining
A long-term mining operation designed to deny the enemy the use of specific sea routes or sea areas.

strategic mission
A mission directed against one or more of a selected series of enemy targets with the purpose of progressive destruction and disintegration of the enemy's warmaking capacity and will to make war. Targets include key manufacturing systems, sources of raw material, critical material, stockpiles, power systems, transportation systems, communication facilities, and other such target systems. As opposed to tactical operations, strategic operations are designed to have a long-range rather than immediate effect on the enemy and its military forces.

strategic mobility
The capability to deploy and sustain military forces worldwide in support of national strategy. See also mobility.

strategic plan
A plan for the overall conduct of a war.

strategic psychological activities
Planned psychological activities in peace, crisis, and war which pursue objectives to gain the support and cooperation of friendly and neutral countries and to reduce the will and the capacity of hostile or potentially hostile countries to wage war.

strategic sealift
The afloat pre-positioning and ocean movement of military materiel in support of US and multinational forces. Sealift forces include organic and commercially acquired shipping and shipping services, including chartered foreign-flag vessels and associated shipping services.

strategic sealift forces
Sealift forces composed of ships, cargo handling and delivery systems, and the necessary operating personnel. They include US Navy, US Marine Corps, and US Army elements with Active and Reserve components. Merchant marine vessels manned by civilian mariners may constitute part of this force. See also force.

strategic sealift shipping
Common-user ships of the Military Sealift Command (MSC) force, including pre-positioned ships after their pre-positioning mission has been completed and they have been returned to the operational control of MSC. See also Military Sealift Command; Military Sealift Command force.

strategic transport aircraft
Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or cargo over long distances.

strategic vulnerability
The susceptibility of vital instruments of national power to being seriously decreased or adversely changed by the application of actions within the capability of another nation to impose. Strategic vulnerability may pertain to political, geographic, economic, informational, scientific, sociological, or military factors.

strategic warning
A warning prior to the initiation of a threatening act. See also strategic warning lead time; strategic warning post-decision time; strategic warning pre-decision time; tactical warning; warning; warning of war.

strategic warning lead time
That time between the receipt of strategic warning and the beginning of hostilities. This time may include two action periods: strategic warning pre-decision time and strategic warning post-decision time. See also commander's estimate of the situation; strategic concept; strategic warning.

strategic warning post-decision time
That time beginning after the decision, made at the highest levels of government(s) in response to strategic warning, is ordered executed and ending with the start of hostilities or termination of the threat. It is that part of strategic warning lead time available for executing pre-hostility actions to strengthen the national strategic posture; however, some preparatory actions may be initiated in the predecision period. See also strategic warning; strategic warning lead time

strategic warning pre-decision time
That time which begins upon receipt of strategic warning and ends when a decision is ordered executed. It is that part of strategic warning lead time available to the highest levels of government(s) to determine that strategic course of action to be executed. See also strategic warning; strategic warning lead time

strategy
The art and science of developing and employing instruments of national power in a synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve theater, national, and/or multinational objectives. See also military strategy; national strategy.

strategy determination
The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System function in which analysis of changing events in the international environment and the development of national strategy to respond to those events is conducted. In joint operation planning, the responsibility for recommending military strategy to the President and Secretary of Defense lies with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and in concert with supported commanders. In the deliberate planning process, the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan is produced as a result of this process. In the crisis assessment phase of the crisis action planning process, crisis action planning procedures are used to formulate decisions for direct development of possible military courses of action.

stretcher
See litter.

stretch out
A reduction in the delivery rate specified for a program without a reduction in the total quantity to be delivered.

strike
An attack which is intended to inflict damage on, seize, or destroy an objective.

strikedown
A term used to describe the movement of aircraft from the flight deck to the hangar deck level. See also aircraft; flight deck.

strike photography
Air photographs taken during an air strike.

strip marker
In land mine warfare, a marker, natural, artificial, or specially installed, located at the start and finish of a mine strip. See also marker.

strip plot
A portion of a map or overlay on which a number of photographs taken along a flight line is delineated without defining the outlines of individual prints.

strong point
A key point in a defensive position, usually strongly fortified and heavily armed with automatic weapons, around which other positions are grouped for its protection.

structured message text
A message text composed of paragraphs ordered in a specified sequence, each paragraph characterized by an identifier and containing information in free form. It is designed to facilitate manual handling and processing. See also formatted message text; free form message text.

stuffing
Packing of cargo into a container. See also unstuffing.

subassembly
In logistics, a portion of an assembly, consisting of two or more parts, that can be provisioned and replaced as an entity. See also assembly; component.

subgravity
A condition in which the resultant ambient acceleration is between 0 and 1 G.

subkiloton weapon
A nuclear weapon producing a yield below one kiloton. See also kiloton weapon; megaton weapon; nominal weapon.

submarine operating authority
The naval commander exercising operational control of submarines. Also called SUBOPAUTH.

submarine operations area
A geographic area defined for submarine operations for peacetime or warfare activities.

submarine patrol area
A restricted area established to allow submarine operations: a. unimpeded by the operation of, or possible attack from, friendly forces in wartime; b. without submerged mutual interference in peacetime.

submunition
Any munition that, to perform its task, separates from a parent munition.

subordinate command
A command consisting of the commander and all those individuals, units, detachments, organizations, or installations that have been placed under the command by the authority establishing the subordinate command.

subordinate unified command
A command established by commanders of unified commands, when so authorized through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to conduct operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the criteria set forth for unified commands. A subordinate unified command may be established on an area or functional basis. Commanders of subordinate unified commands have functions and responsibilities similar to those of the commanders of unified commands and exercise operational control of assigned commands and forces within the assigned operational area. Also called subunified command. See also area command; functional component command; operational control; subordinate command; unified command.

subscription
An agreement by a nation's Military Services to agree to accept and abide by, with or without reservation, the details of a standardization agreement. See also implementation; ratification; reservation.

subsidiary landing
In an amphibious operation, a landing usually made outside the designated landing area, the purpose of which is to support the main landing.

subsonic
Of or pertaining to speeds less than the speed of sound. See also speed of sound.

substitute transport-type vehicle
A wheeled vehicle designed to perform, within certain limitations, the same military function as military transport vehicles, but not requiring all the special characteristics thereof. They are developed from civilian designs by addition of certain features, or from military designs by deletion of certain features.

subunified command
See subordinate unified command.

subversion
Action designed to undermine the military, economic, psychological, or political strength or morale of a regime. See also unconventional warfare.

subversion of Department of Defense personnel
Actions designed to undermine the loyalty, morale, or discipline of Department of Defense military and civilian personnel.

subversive activity
Anyone lending aid, comfort, and moral support to individuals, groups or organizations that advocate the overthrow of incumbent governments by force and violence is subversive and is engaged in subversive activity. All willful acts that are intended to be detrimental to the best interests of the government and that do not fall into the categories of treason, sedition, sabotage, or espionage will be placed in the category of subversive activity.

subversive political action
A planned series of activities designed to accomplish political objectives by influencing, dominating, or displacing individuals or groups who are so placed as to affect the decisions and actions of another government.

summit
The highest altitude above mean sea level that a projectile reaches in its flight from the gun to the target; the algebraic sum of the maximum ordinate and the altitude of the gun.

sun-synchronous orbit
An orbit in which the satellite's orbital plane is at a fixed orientation to the sun, i.e., the orbit precesses about the earth at the same rate that the earth orbits the sun. It has the characteristics of maintaining similar sun angles along its ground trace for all orbits, and typically has an inclination from 96 to 98 degrees, depending on the orbit altitude and orbit shape (eccentricity). See also synchronous orbit.

supercargo
Personnel that accompany cargo on board a ship for the purpose of accomplishing en route maintenance and security.

supersonic
Of or pertaining to speed in excess of the speed of sound. See also speed of sound.

supervised route
In road traffic, a roadway over which limited control is exercised by means of traffic control posts, traffic patrols, or both. Movement credit is required for its use by a column of vehicles or a vehicle of exceptional size or weight. See also route.

supplementary facilities
Facilities required at a particular location to provide a specified minimum of support for reinforcing forces, which exceed the facilities required to support in-place forces.

supplies
In logistics, all materiel and items used in the equipment, support, and maintenance of military forces. See also assembly; component; equipment; subassembly.

supply
The procurement, distribution, maintenance while in storage, and salvage of supplies, including the determination of kind and quantity of supplies. a. producer phase--That phase of military supply that extends from determination of procurement schedules to acceptance of finished supplies by the Military Services. b. consumer phase--That phase of military supply which extends from receipt of finished supplies by the Military Services through issue for use or consumption.

supply by air
See airdrop; air movement.

supply chain
The linked activities associated with providing materiel from a raw materiel stage to an end user as a finished product. See also supply; supply chain management.

supply chain management
A cross-functional approach to procuring, producing, and delivering products and services to customers. The broad management scope includes sub-suppliers, suppliers, internal information, and funds flow. See also supply; supply chain.

supply control
The process by which an item of supply is controlled within the supply system, including requisitioning, receipt, storage, stock control, shipment, disposition, identification, and accounting.

supplying ship
The ship in a replenishment unit that provides the personnel and/or supplies to be transferred.

supply management
See inventory control.

supply point
A location where supplies, services, and materiels are located and issued. These locations are temporary and mobile, normally being occupied for up to 72 hours.

supply support activity
Activities assigned a Department of Defense activity address code and that have a supply support mission, i.e., direct support supply units, missile support elements, and maintenance support units. Also called SSA

supply transaction reporting
Reporting on individual transactions affecting the stock status of materiel to the appropriate supply accounting activity as they occur.

support
1. The action of a force that aids, protects, complements, or sustains another force in accordance with a directive requiring such action. 2. A unit that helps another unit in battle. 3. An element of a command that assists, protects, or supplies other forces in combat. See also close support; direct support; general support; interdepartmental or agency support; international logistic support; inter-Service support; mutual support.

supported commander
1. The commander having primary responsibility for all aspects of a task assigned by the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or other joint operation planning authority. In the context of joint operation planning, this term refers to the commander who prepares operation plans or operation orders in response torequirements of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 2. Inthe context of a support command relationship, the commander whoreceives assistance from another commander's force orcapabilities, and who is responsible for ensuring that thesupporting commander understands the assistance required. See also support; supporting commander.

supporting aircraft
All active aircraft other than unit aircraft. See also aircraft.

supporting arms
Weapons and weapons systems of all types employed to support forces by indirect or direct fire.

supporting arms coordination center
A single location on board an amphibious command ship in which all communication facilities incident to the coordination of fire support of the artillery, air, and naval gunfire are centralized. This is the naval counterpart to the fire support coordination center utilized by the landing force. Also called SACC. See also fire support coordination center.

supporting artillery
Artillery that executes fire missions in support of a specific unit, usually infantry, but remains under the command of the next higher artillery commander.

supporting attack
An offensive operation carried out in conjunction with a main attack and designed to achieve one or more of the following: a. deceive the enemy; b. destroy or pin down enemy forces which could interfere with the main attack; c. control ground whose occupation by the enemy will hinder the main attack; or d. force the enemy to commit reserves prematurely or in an indecisive area.

supporting commander
1. A commander who provides augmentation forces or other support to a supported commander or who develops a supporting plan. Includes the designated combatant commands and Defense agencies as appropriate. 2. In the context of a support commandrelationship, the commander who aids, protects, complements, orsustains another commander's force, and who is responsible forproviding the assistance required by the supported commander. See also support; supported commander.

supporting fire
Fire delivered by supporting units to assist or protect a unit in combat. See also direct supporting fire.

supporting forces
Forces stationed in or to be deployed to an operational area to provide support for the execution of an operation order. Combatant command (command authority) of supporting forces is not passed to the supported commander.

supporting operations
In amphibious operations, those operations conducted by forces other than those conducted by the amphibious force. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation.

supporting plan
An operation plan prepared by a supporting commander or a subordinate commander to satisfy the requests or requirements of the supported commander's plan. See also supported commander; supporting commander.

support items
Items subordinate to or associated with an end item (i.e., spares, repair parts, tools, test equipment, and sundry materiel) and required to operate, service, repair, or overhaul an end item.

support to counterinsurgency
Support provided to a government in the military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions it undertakes to defeat insurgency. See also support to insurgency.

support to insurgency
Support provided to an organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted government through use of subversion and armed conflict. See also support to counterinsurgency.

suppression
Temporary or transient degradation by an opposing force of the performance of a weapons system below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives.

suppression mission
A mission to suppress an actual or suspected weapons system for the purpose of degrading its performance below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives at a specific time for a specified duration.

suppression of enemy air defenses
That activity which neutralizes, destroys, or temporarily degrades surface-based enemy air defenses by destructive and/or disruptive means. Also called SEAD. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare.

suppressive fire
Fires on or about a weapons system to degrade its performance below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives, during the conduct of the fire mission. See also fire.

surface action group
A temporary or standing organization of combatant ships, other than carriers, tailored for a specific tactical mission. Also called SAG. See group; mission.

surface code
See panel code.

surface combatant
A ship constructed and armed for combat use with the capability to conduct operations in multiple maritime roles against air, surface and subsurface threats, and land targets.

surface smuggling event
In counterdrug operations, the sighting of a suspected drug smuggling vessel or arrival of a suspected drug smuggling vessel. See also arrival zone; counterdrug operations; transit zone.

surface-to-air guided missile
A surface-launched guided missile for use against air targets.

surface-to-air missile envelope
That air space within the kill capabilities of a specific surface-to-air missile system.

surface-to-air missile installation
A surface-to-air missile site with the surface-to-air missile system hardware installed.

surface-to-air missile site
A plot of ground prepared in such a manner that it will readily accept the hardware used in surface-to-air missile system.

surface-to-air weapon
A surface-launched weapon for use against airborne targets. Examples include missiles, rockets, and air defense guns.

surface-to-surface guided missile
A surface-launched guided missile for use against surface targets.

surface warfare
That portion of maritime warfare in which operations are conducted to destroy or neutralize enemy naval surface forces and merchant vessels. Also called SUW.

surface zero
See ground zero.

surf line
The point offshore where waves and swells are affected by the underwater surface and become breakers. See also breaker.

surf zone
The area of water from the surf line to the beach. See also surf line.

surplus property
Any excess property not required for the needs and for the discharge of the responsibilities of all federal agencies, including the Department of Defense, as determined by the General Services Administration.

surprise dosage attack
A chemical operation which establishes on target a dosage sufficient to produce the desired casualties before the troops can mask or otherwise protect themselves.

surveillance
The systematic observation of aerospace, surface, or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means. See also air surveillance; satellite and missile surveillance; sea surveillance.

surveillance approach
An instrument approach conducted in accordance with directions issued by a controller referring to the surveillance radar display.

survey
The directed effort to determine the location and the nature of a chemical, biological, and radiological hazard in an area.

survey control point
A survey station used to coordinate survey control.

survey information center
A place where survey data are collected, correlated, and made available to subordinate units.

survey, liaison, and reconnaissance party
A task organization formed from the Marine air-ground task force and Navy support element, which is introduced into the objective area prior to arrival of the fly-in echelon (FIE). The survey, liaison, and reconnaissance party conducts initial reconnaissance, establishes liaison with in theater authorities and initiates preparations for arrival of the main body of the FIE and the maritime pre-positioning ships squadron. Also called SLRP.

survey photography
See air cartographic photography.

survivability
Concept which includes all aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies while simultaneously deceiving the enemy. Survivability tactics include building a good defense; employing frequent movement; using concealment, deception, and camouflage; and constructing fighting and protective positions for both individuals and equipment.

suspect
1. In counterdrug operations, a track of interest where correlating information actually ties the track of interest to alleged illegal drug operations. See also counterdrug operations; special interest target; track of interest. 2. An identity applied to a track that is potentially hostile because of its characteristics, behavior, origin, or nationality. See also assumed friend; hostile; neutral; unknown.

suspension equipment
All aircraft devices such as racks, adapters, missile launchers, and pylons used for carriage, employment, and jettison of aircraft stores

suspension strop
A length of webbing or wire rope between the helicopter and cargo sling.

sustainability
See military capability.

sustained attrition minefield
In naval mine warfare, a minefield which is replenished to maintain its danger to the enemy in the face of countermeasures.

sustained rate of fire
Actual rate of fire that a weapon can continue to deliver for an indefinite length of time without seriously overheating.

sustaining stocks
Stocks to support the execution of approved operation plans beyond the initial predetermined period covered by basic stocks until resupply is available for support of continued operations.

sustainment
The provision of personnel, logistic, and other support required to maintain and prolong operations or combat until successful accomplishment or revision of the mission or of the national objective.

sweep
To employ technical means to uncover planted microphones or other surveillance devices. See also technical survey.

sweeper track
See hunter track.

sweep jamming
A narrow band of jamming that is swept back and forth over a relatively wide operating band of frequencies.

swell
Ocean waves that have traveled out of their fetch. Swell characteristically exhibits a more regular and longer period and has flatter crests than waves within their fetch.

swept path
In naval mine warfare, the width of the lane swept by the mechanical sweep at all depths less than the sweep depth.

switch horn
In naval mine warfare, a switch in a mine operated by a projecting spike. See also horn.

ssympathetic detonation
Detonation of a charge by exploding another charge adjacent to it.

synchronization
1. The arrangement of military actions in time, space, and purpose to produce maximum relative combat power at a decisive place and time. 2. In the intelligence context, application of intelligence sources and methods in concert with the operation plan.

synchronized clock
A technique of timing the delivery of fires by placing all units on a common time. The synchronized clock uses a specific hour and minute based on either local or universal time. Local time is established using the local time zone.

synchronous orbit
A satellite orbit where the orbital period is equal to, or multiples of, the Earth's rotational period; i.e. makingone, two, three, etc., orbits in a 24-hour period. Examples include geosynchronous (period equals Earth's rotation),semisynchronous (two orbits per day); and geostationary (geosynchronous orbit where satellite maintains a fixed positionon the equator). See also sun-synchronous orbit.

synthesis
In intelligence usage, the examining and combining of processed information with other information and intelligence for final interpretation.

synthetic exercise
An exercise in which enemy and/or friendly forces are generated, displayed, and moved by electronic or other means on simulators, radar scopes, or other training devices.

systems architecture
Descriptions, including graphics, of systems and interconnections providing for or supporting warfighting functions.

systems design
The preparation of an assembly of methods, procedures, or techniques united by regulated interaction to form an organized whole.

systems support contractors
Contract personnel, normally with high levels of technical expertise, hired to support specific military systems. See also external support contractors; theater support contractors.

 

 
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