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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources


Glossary of Military Terms

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radar
A radio detection device that provides information on range, azimuth, and/or elevation of objects.

radar advisory
The term used to indicate that the provision of advice and information is based on radar observation.

radar altimetry area
A large and comparatively level terrain area with a defined elevation which can be used in determining the altitude of airborne equipment by the use of radar.

radar beacon
A receiver-transmitter combination that sends out a coded signal when triggered by the proper type of pulse, enabling determination of range and bearing information by the interrogating station or aircraft. Also called RB.

radar camouflage
The use of radar absorbent or reflecting materials to change the radar echoing properties of a surface of an object.

radar clutter
Unwanted signals, echoes, or images on the face of the display tube which interfere with observation of desired signals.

radar countermeasures
See electronic warfare; chaff.

radar coverage
The limits within which objects can be detected by one or more radar stations.

radar danning
In naval mine warfare, a method of navigating by using radar to keep the required distance from a line of dan buoys.

radar deception
See electromagnetic deception.

radar exploitation report
A formatted statement of the results of a tactical radar imagery reconnaissance mission. The report includes the interpretation of the sensor imagery. Also called RADAREXREP.

radar fire
Gunfire aimed at a target which is tracked by radar. See also fire.

radar guardship
Any ship which has been assigned the task by the officer in tactical command of maintaining the radar watch.

radar horizon
The locus of points at which the rays from a radar antenna become tangential to the Earth's surface. On the open sea this locus is horizontal, but on land it varies according to the topographical features of the terrain.

radar imagery
Imagery produced by recording radar waves reflected from a given target surface.

radar intelligence
Intelligence derived from data collected by radar. Also called RADINT. See also intelligence.

radar netting
The linking of several radars to a single center to provide integrated target information.

radar netting station
A center which can receive data from radar tracking stations and exchange this data among other radar tracking stations, thus forming a radar netting system. See also radar netting unit; radar tracking station.

radar netting unit
Optional electronic equipment that converts the operations central of certain air defense fire distribution systems to a radar netting station. See also radar netting station.

radar picket
Any ship, aircraft, or vehicle, stationed at a distance from the force protected, for the purpose of increasing the radar detection range

radar reconnaissance
Reconnaissance by means of radar to obtain information on enemy activity and to determine the nature of terrain.

radarscope overlay
A transparent overlay for placing on the radarscope for comparison and identification of radar returns.

radarscope photography
A film record of the returns shown by a radar screen.

radar signal film
The film on which is recorded all the reflected signals acquired by a coherent radar, and that must be viewed or processed through an optical correlator to permit interpretation.

radar silence
An imposed discipline prohibiting the transmission by radar of electromagnetic signals on some or all frequencies.

radar spoking
Periodic flashes of the rotating time base on a radial display. Sometimes caused by mutual interference.

radar tracking station
A radar facility that has the capability of tracking moving targets.

radial
A magnetic bearing extending from a very high frequency omni-range and/or tactical air navigation station.

radial displacement
On vertical photographs, the apparent "leaning out," or the apparent displacement of the top of any object having height in relation to its base. The direction of displacement is radial from the principal point on a true vertical, or from the isocentre on a vertical photograph distorted by tip or tilt.

radiant exposure
See thermal exposure.

radiation dose
The total amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by material or tissues, expressed in centigrays. (DOD only) The term radiation dose is often used in the sense of the exposure dose expressed in roentgens, which is a measure of the total amount of ionization that the quantity of radiation could produce in air. This could be distinguished from the absorbed dose, also given in rads, which represents the energy absorbed from the radiation per gram of specified body tissue. Further, the biological dose, in rems, is a measure of the biological effectiveness of the radiation exposure. See also absorbed dose; exposure dose.

radiation dose rate
The radiation dose (dosage) absorbed per unit of time. (DOD only) A radiation dose rate can be set at some particular unit of time (e.g., H + 1 hour) and would be called H + 1 radiation dose rate.

radiation exposure state
The condition of a unit, or exceptionally an individual, deduced from the cumulative whole body radiation dose(s) received. It is expressed as a symbol which indicates the potential for future operations and the degree of risk if exposed to additional nuclear radiation.

radiation exposure status
Criteria to assist the commander in measuring unit exposure to radiation based on total past cumulative dose in centigray (cGy). Categories are as follows: (a) radiation exposure status-0--No previous exposure history. Also called RES-0; (b) radiation exposure status-1--Negligible radiation exposure history (greater than 0, but less than 70 cGy). Also called RES-1; (c) radiation exposure status-2--Significant but not a dangerous dose of radiation (greater than 70, but less than 150 cGy). Also called RES-2; (d) radiation exposure status-3--Unit has already received a dose of radiation which makes further exposure dangerous (greater then 150 cGy). Also called RES-3.

radiation intelligence
Intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of non-information-bearing elements extracted from the electromagnetic energy unintentionally emanated by foreign devices, equipments, and systems, excluding those generated by the detonation of atomic or nuclear weapons.

radiation intensity
The radiation dose rate at a given time and place. It may be used, coupled with a figure, to denote the radiation intensity at a given number of hours after a nuclear burst, e.g., RI-3 is the radiation intensity 3 hours after the time of burst. Also called RI.

radiation scattering
The diversion of radiation (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interaction or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media between the source of the radiation (e.g., a nuclear explosion) and a point at some distance away. As a result of scattering, radiation (especially gamma rays and neutrons) will be received at such a point from many directions instead of only from the direction of the source.

radiation sickness
An illness resulting from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The earliest symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be followed by loss of hair, hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy.

radioactive decay
The decrease in the radiation intensity of any radioactive material with respect to time.

radioactive decay curve
A graph line representing the decrease of radioactivity with the passage of time.

radioactive decay rate
The time rate of the disintegration of radioactive material generally accompanied by the emission of particles and/or gamma radiation.

radioactivity
The spontaneous emission of radiation, generally alpha or beta particles, often accompanied by gamma rays, from the nuclei of an unstable isotope.

radioactivity concentration guide
The amount of any specified radioisotope that is acceptable in air and water for continuous consumption.

radio and wire integration
The combining of wire circuits with radio facilities. Also called RWI.

radio approach aids
Equipment making use of radio to determine the position of an aircraft with considerable accuracy from the time it is in the vicinity of an airfield or carrier until it reaches a position from which landing can be carried out.

radio beacon
A radio transmitter which emits a distinctive or characteristic signal used for the determination of bearings, courses, or location.

radio countermeasures
See electronic warfare.

radio deception
The employment of radio to deceive the enemy. Radio deception includes sending false dispatches, using deceptive headings, employing enemy call signs, etc. See also electronic warfare.

radio detection
The detection of the presence of an object by radio-location without precise determination of its position.

radio direction finding
Radio-location in which only the direction of a station is determined by means of its emissions.

radio direction finding database
The aggregate of information, acquired by both airborne and surface means, necessary to provide support to radio direction-finding operations to produce fixes on target transmitters and/or emitters. The resultant bearings and fixes serve as a basis for tactical decisions concerning military operations, including exercises, planned or underway.

radio fix
The location of a ship or aircraft by determining the direction of radio signals coming to the ship or aircraft from two or more sending stations, the locations of which are known.

radio guard
A ship, aircraft, or radio station designated to listen for and record transmissions and to handle traffic on a designated frequency for a certain unit or units.

radiological defense
Defensive measures taken against the radiation hazards resulting from the employment of nuclear and radiological weapons.

radiological environment
Conditions found in an area resulting from the presence of a radiological hazard.

radiological monitoring
See monitoring.

radiological operation
The employment of radioactive materials or radiation producing devices to cause casualties or restrict the use of terrain. It includes the intentional employment of fallout from nuclear weapons.

radiological survey
The directed effort to determine the distribution and dose rates of radiation in an area.

radiological survey flight altitude
The altitude at which an aircraft is flown during an aerial radiological survey.

radio magnetic indicator
An instrument which displays aircraft heading and bearing to selected radio navigation aids.

radio navigation

radio range finding
Radio-location in which the distance of an object is determined by means of its radio emissions, whether independent, reflected, or retransmitted on the same or other wavelength.

radio range station
A radio navigation land station in the aeronautical radio navigation service providing radio equi-signal zones. (In certain instances a radio range station may be placed on board a ship.)

radio silence
A condition in which all or certain radio equipment capable of radiation is kept inoperative. (DOD only) (Note: In combined or United States Joint or intra-Service communications the frequency bands and/or types of equipment affected will be specified.)

radio telegraphy
The transmission of telegraphic codes by means of radio

radio telephony
The transmission of speech by means of modulated radio waves.

radius of action
The maximum distance a ship, aircraft, or vehicle can travel away from its base along a given course with normal combat load and return without refueling, allowing for all safety and operating factors.

radius of damage
The distance from ground zero at which there is a 0.50 probability of achieving the desired damage.

radius of integration
The distance from ground zero that indicates the area within which the effects of both the nuclear detonation and conventional weapons are to be integrated.

rradius of safety
The horizontal distance from ground zero beyond which the weapon effects on friendly troops are acceptable.

raid
An operation, usually small scale, involving a swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, confuse the enemy, or to destroy installations. It ends with a planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission.

railhead
A point on a railway where loads are transferred between trains and other means of transport. See also navigation head.

railway line capacity
The maximum number of trains which can be moved in each direction over a specified section of track in a 24 hour period. See also route capacity.

railway loading ramp
A sloping platform situated at the end or beside a track and rising to the level of the floor of the rail cars or wagons.

rainfall (nuclear)
The water that is precipitated from the base surge clouds after an underwater burst of a nuclear weapon. This rain is radioactive and presents an important secondary effect of such a burst.

rainout
Radioactive material in the atmosphere brought down by precipitation.

ramjet
A jet-propulsion engine containing neither compressor nor turbine which depends for its operation on the air compression accomplished by the forward motion of the engine. See also pulsejet.

random minelaying
In land mine warfare, the laying of mines without regard to pattern.

range
1. The distance between any given point and an object or target. 2. Extent or distance limiting the operation or action of something, such as the range of an aircraft, ship, or gun. 3. The distance that can be covered over a hard surface by a ground vehicle, with its rated payload, using the fuel in its tank and its cans normally carried as part of the ground vehicle equipment. 4. Area equipped for practice in shooting at targets. In this meaning, also called target range.

range marker
A single calibration blip fed onto the time base of a radial display. The rotation of the time base shows the single blips as a circle on the plan position indicator scope. It may be used to measure range

Rangers
Rapidly deployable airborne light infantry organized and trained to conduct highly complex joint direct action operations in coordination with or in support of other special operations units of all Services. Rangers also can execute direct action operations in support of conventional nonspecial operations missions conducted by a combatant commander and can operate as conventional light infantry when properly augmented with other elements of combined arms

Rangers
Rapidly deployable airborne light infantry organized and trained to conduct highly complex joint direct action operations in coordination with or in support of other special operations units of all Services. Rangers also can execute direct action operations in support of conventional nonspecial operations missions conducted by a combatant commander and can operate as conventional light infantry when properly augmented with other elements of combined arms

range spread
The technique used to place the mean point of impact of two or more units 100 meters apart on the gun-target line.

ranging
The process of establishing target distance. Types of ranging include echo, intermittent, manual, navigational, explosive echo, optical, radar, etc. See also spot.

rapid global mobility
The timely movement, positioning, and sustainment of military forces and capabilities across the range of military operations. See also mobility.

rated load
The designed safe operating load for the equipment under prescribed conditions.

rate of fire
The number of rounds fired per weapon per minute.

rate of march
The average number of miles or kilometers to be travelled in a given period of time, including all ordered halts. It is expressed in miles or kilometers in the hour. See also pace.

ratification
The declaration by which a nation formally accepts, with or without reservation, the content of a standardization agreement. See also implementation; reservation; subscription.

rationalization
Any action that increases the effectiveness of allied forces through more efficient or effective use of defense resources committed to the alliance. Rationalization includes consolidation, reassignment of national priorities to higher alliance needs, standardization, specialization, mutual support or improved interoperability, and greater cooperation. Rationalization applies to both weapons and/or materiel resources and non-weapons military matters.

ration dense
Foods that, through processing, have been reduced in volume and quantity to a small compact package without appreciable loss of food value, quality, or acceptance, with a high yield in relation to space occupied, such as dehydrates and concentrates.

ratio print
A print the scale of which has been changed from that of the negative by photographic enlargement or reduction.

ratline
An organized effort for moving personnel and/or material by clandestine means across a denied area or border.

R-day
See times.

reachback
The process of obtaining products, services, and applications, or forces, or equipment, or material from organizations that are not forward deployed.

reaction time
1. The elapsed time between the initiation of an action and the required response. 2. The time required between the receipt of an order directing an operation and the arrival of the initial element of the force concerned in the designated area.

readiness
The ability of US military forces to fight and meet the demands of the national military strategy. Readiness is the synthesis of two distinct but interrelated levels. a. unit readiness--The ability to provide capabilities required by the combatant commanders to execute their assigned missions. This is derived from the ability of each unit to deliver the outputs for which it was designed. b. joint readiness--The combatant commander's ability to integrate and synchronize ready combat and support forces to execute his or her assigned missions. See also military capability; national military strategy.

readiness condition
See operational readiness.

readiness planning
Operation planning required for peacetime operations. Its objective is the maintenance of high states of readiness and the deterrence of potential enemies. It includes planning activities that influence day-to-day operations and the peacetime posture of forces. As such, its focus is on general capabilities and readiness rather than the specifics of a particular crisis, either actual or potential. The assignment of geographic responsibilities to combatant commanders, establishment of readiness standards and levels, development of peacetime deployment patterns, coordination of reconnaissance and surveillance assets and capabilities, and planning of joint exercises are examples of readiness planning. No formal joint planning system exists for readiness planning such as exists for joint operation and execution planning.

ready position
In helicopter operations, a designated place where a helicopter load of troops and/or equipment waits for pick-up.

Ready Reserve
The Selected Reserve, Individual Ready Reserve, and Inactive National Guard liable for active duty as prescribed by law (US Code, title 10 (DOD), sections 10142, 12301, and 12302). See also active duty; Inactive National Guard; Individual Ready Reserve; Selected Reserve.

Ready Reserve Force
A force composed of ships acquired by the Maritime Administration (MARAD) with Navy funding and newer ships acquired by the MARAD for the National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF). Although part of the NDRF, ships of the Ready Reserve Force are maintained in a higher state of readiness and can be made available without mobilization or congressionally declared state of emergency. Also called RRF. See also National Defense Reserve Fleet.

ready-to-load date
The date when a unit will be ready to move from the origin, i.e., mobilization station. Also called RLD.

reallocation authority
The authority given to NATO commanders and normally negotiated in peacetime, to reallocate in an "emergency in war" national logistic resources controlled by the combat forces under their command, and made available by nations, in order to influence the battle logistically.

real property
Lands, buildings, structures, utilities systems, improvements, and appurtenances thereto. Includes equipment attached to and made part of buildings and structures (such as heating systems) but not movable equipment (such as plant equipment).

real time
Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed only by the time required for electronic communication. This implies that there are no noticeable delays. See also near real time.

rear area
For any particular command, the area extending forward from its rear boundary to the rear of the area assigned to the next lower level of command. This area is provided primarily for the performance of support functions. See also Army service area.

rear area operations center/rear tactical operations center
A command and control facility that serves as an area and/or subarea commander's planning, coordinating, monitoring, advising, and directing agency for area security operations.

rear echelon
Elements of a force which are not required in the objective area.

rear guard
1. The rearmost elements of an advancing or a withdrawing force. It has the following functions: to protect the rear of a column from hostile forces; during the withdrawal, to delay the enemy; during the advance, to keep supply routes open. 2. Security detachment that a moving ground force details to the rear to keep it informed and covered. See also guard.

rearming
1. An operation that replenishes the prescribed stores of ammunition, bombs, and other armament items for an aircraft, naval ship, tank, or armored vehicle (including replacement of defective ordnance equipment) in order to make it ready for combat service. 2. Resetting the fuze on a bomb or on an artillery, mortar, or rocket projectile so that it will detonate at the desired time.

reattack recommendation
An assessment, derived from the results of battle damageassessment and munitions effectiveness assessment, providing the commander systematic advice on reattack of targets and further target selection to achieve objectives. The reattack recommendation considers objective achievement, target, andaimpoint selection, attack timing, tactics, and weapon system and munitions selection. The reattack recommendation is a combined operations and intelligence function. Also called RR. See alsoassessment; battle damage assessment; munitions effectiveness assessment; target.

rebuild
The restoration of an item to a standard as nearly as possible to its original condition in appearance, performance, and life expectancy. See also overhaul; repair.

receipt
A transmission made by a receiving station to indicate that a message has been satisfactorily received.

receipt into the supply system
That point in time when the first item or first quantity of the item of the contract has been received at or is en route to point of first delivery after inspection and acceptance. See also procurement lead time.

receiving ship
The ship in a replenishment unit that receives the rig(s).

reception
1. All ground arrangements connected with the delivery and disposition of air or sea drops. Includes selection and preparation of site, signals for warning and approach, facilitation of secure departure of agents, speedy collection of delivered articles, and their prompt removal to storage places having maximum security. When a group is involved, it may be called a reception committee. 2. Arrangements to welcome and provide secure quarters or transportation for defectors, escapees, evaders, or incoming agents. 3. The process of receiving, offloading, marshalling, and transporting of personnel, equipment, and materiel from the strategic and/or intratheater deployment phase to a sea, air, or surface transportation point of debarkation to the marshalling area.

reclama
A request to duly constituted authority to reconsider its decision or its proposed action.

recognition
1. The determination by any means of the individuality of persons, or of objects such as aircraft, ships, or tanks, or of phenomena such as communications-electronics patterns. 2. In ground combat operations, the determination that an object is similar within a category of something already known; e.g., tank, truck, man.

recognition signal
Any prearranged signal by which individuals or units may identify each other.

recompression chamber
See hyperbaric chamber.

reconnaissance
A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. Also called RECON.

reconnaissance by fire
A method of reconnaissance in which fire is placed on a suspected enemy position to cause the enemy to disclose a presence by movement or return of fire.

reconnaissance exploitation report
A standard message format used to report the results of a tactical air reconnaissance mission. Whenever possible the report should include the interpretation of sensor imagery. Also called RECCEXREP.

reconnaissance in force
An offensive operation designed to discover and/or test the enemy's strength or to obtain other information.

reconnaissance patrol
See patrol.

reconnaissance photography
Photography taken to obtain information on the results of bombing, or on enemy movements, concentrations, activities, and forces. The primary purposes do not include making maps, charts, or mosaics

reconstitution site
A location selected by the surviving command authority as the site at which a damaged or destroyed headquarters can be reformed from survivors of the attack and/or personnel from other sources, predesignated as replacements.

record information
All forms (e.g., narrative, graphic, data, computer memory) of information registered in either temporary or permanent form so that it can be retrieved, reproduced, or preserved

recoverable item
An item that normally is not consumed in use and is subject to return for repair or disposal. See also reparable item.

recovery
1. In air (aviation) operations, that phase of a mission which involves the return of an aircraft to a land base or platform afloat. 2. The retrieval of a mine from the location where emplaced. 3. Actions taken to rescue or extract personnel for return to friendly control. 4. Actions taken to extricate damaged or disabled equipment for return to friendly control or repair at another location. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery force

recovery activation signal
In evasion and recovery operations, a precoordinated signal from an evader that indicates his or her presence in an area to a receiving or observing source that indicates "I am here, start the recovery planning." Also called RAS. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations; signal.

recovery airfield
Any airfield, military or civil, at which aircraft might land post-H-hour. It is not expected that combat missions would be conducted from a recovery airfield. See also airfield.

recovery and reconstitution
1. Those actions taken by one nation prior to, during, and following an attack by an enemy nation to minimize the effects of the attack, rehabilitate the national economy, provide for the welfare of the populace, and maximize the combat potential of remaining forces and supporting activities. 2. Those actions taken by a military force during or after operational employment to restore its combat capability to full operational readiness. See also recovery.

recovery force
In evasion and recovery operations, an organization consisting of personnel and equipment with a mission of seeking out evaders, contacting them, and returning them to friendly control. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations.

recovery operations
Operations conducted to search for, locate, identify, rescue, and return personnel, sensitive equipment, or items critical to national security.

recovery procedures
See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

recovery site
In evasion and escape usage, an area from which an evader or an escapee can be evacuated. See also escapee; evader; evasion; evasion and escape.

recovery vehicle
In combat search and rescue, the vehicle (aircraft, maritime, or land), on which isolated personnel are boarded and transported from the pickup site.

recovery zone
A designated geographic area from which special operations forces can be extracted by air, boat, or other means. Also called RZ.

rectification
In photogrammetry, the process of projecting a tilted or oblique photograph on to a horizontal reference plane.

recuperation
Not to be used. See recovery and reconstitution.

recurring demand
A request by an authorized requisitioner to satisfy a materiel requirement for consumption or stock replenishment that is anticipated to recur periodically. Demands for which the probability of future occurrence is unknown will be considered as recurring. Recurring demands will be considered by the supporting supply system in order to procure, store, and distribute materiel to meet similar demands in the future.

redeployment
The transfer of forces and materiel to support another joint force commander's operational requirements, or to return personnel, equipment, and materiel to the home and/or demobilization stations for reintegration and/or out-processing. See also deployment.

redeployment airfield
An airfield not occupied in its entirety in peacetime, but available immediately upon outbreak of war for use and occupation by units redeployed from their peacetime locations. It must have substantially the same standard of operational facilities as the main airfield. See also airfield; departure airfield; diversion airfield; main airfield.

RED HORSE
Air Force units are wartime-structured to provide a heavy engineer capability. They have a responsibility across the operational area, are not tied to a specific base, and are not responsible for base operation and maintenance. These units are mobile, rapidly deployable, and largely self-sufficient, for limited periods of time.

redistribution
The utilization of logistic resources after Transfer of Authority necessary for the fulfillment of the commander's combat missions. The logistic resources are designated in peacetime and will become assigned to the NATO commander in crisis and conflict.

reduced charge
1. The smaller of the two propelling charges available for naval guns. 2. Charge employing a reduced amount of propellant to fire a gun at short ranges as compared to a normal charge. See also normal charge.

reduced lighting
The reduction in brightness of ground vehicle lights by either reducing power or by screening in such a way that any visible light is limited in output. See also normal lighting.

reduced operational status
Applies to the Military Sealift Command ships withdrawn from full operational status (FOS) because of decreased operational requirements. A ship in reduced operational status is crewed in accordance with shipboard maintenance and possible future operational requirements, with crew size predetermined contractually. The condition of readiness in terms of calendar days required to attain FOS is designated by the numeral following the acronym ROS (i.e., ROS-5). Also called ROS. See also Military Sealift Command.

reduction
The creation of lanes through a minefield or obstacle to allow passage of the attacking ground force.

reduction (photographic)
The production of a negative, diapositive, or print at a scale smaller than the original.

reefer
1. A refrigerator. 2. A motor vehicle, railroad freight car, ship, aircraft, or other conveyance, so constructed and insulated as to protect commodities from either heat or cold.

reentry phase
That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile or space vehicle where there is a significant interaction of the vehicle and the Earth's atmosphere. See also boost phase; midcourse phase; terminal phase.

reentry vehicle
That part of a space vehicle designed to re-enter the Earth's atmosphere in the terminal portion of its trajectory. Also called RV. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle.

reference datum
As used in the loading of aircraft, an imaginary vertical plane at or near the nose of the aircraft from which all horizontal distances are measured for balance purposes. Diagrams of each aircraft show this reference datum as "balance station zero."

reference diversion point
One of a number of positions selected by the routing authority on both sides of the route of a convoy or independent to facilitate diversion at sea.

reference point
A prominent, easily located point in the terrain.

reflected shock wave
When a shock wave traveling in a medium strikes the interface between this medium and a denser medium, part of the energy of the shock wave induces a shock wave in the denser medium and the remainder of the energy results in the formation of a reflected shock wave that travels back through the less dense medium.

reflex sight
An optical or computing sight that reflects a reticle image (or images) onto a combining glass for superimposition on the target.

refraction
The process by which the direction of a wave is changed when moving into shallow water at an angle to the bathymetric contours. The crest of the wave advancing in shallower water moves more slowly than the crest still advancing in deeper water, causing the wave crest to bend toward alignment with the underwater contours.

refuge area
A coastal area considered safe from enemy attack to which merchant ships may be ordered to proceed when the shipping movement policy is implemented. See also safe anchorage

refugee
A person who, by reason of real or imagined danger, has left their home country or country of their nationality and is unwilling or unable to return. See also dislocated civilian; displaced person; evacuee; expellee; stateless person.

regimental landing team
A task organization for landing comprised of an infantry regiment reinforced by those elements that are required for initiation of its combat function ashore.

regional satellite communications support center
United States Strategic Command operational element responsible for providing the operational communications planners with a single all-spectrum (extremely high frequency, super-high frequency, ultrahigh frequency, Ku, and Ka) point of contact for accessing and managing satellite communications (SATCOM) resources. Specific tasks include: supporting combatant commanders' deliberate and crisis planning, assisting combatant commanders in day-to-day management of apportioned resources and allocating non-apportioned resources, assisting theater spectrum managers, and facilitating SATCOM interface to the defense information infrastructure. Also called RSSC.

register
In cartography, the correct position of one component of a composite map image in relation to the other components, at each stage of production.

registration
The adjustment of fire to determine firing data corrections.

registration fire
Fire delivered to obtain accurate data for subsequent effective engagement of targets. See also fire.

registration point
Terrain feature or other designated point on which fire is adjusted for the purpose of obtaining corrections to firing data.

regrade
To determine that certain classified information requires, in the interests of national defense, a higher or a lower degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure than currently provided, coupled with a changing of the classification designation to reflect such higher or lower degree.

regular drill
See unit training assembly.

regulated item
Any item whose issue to a user is subject to control by an appropriate authority for reasons that may include cost, scarcity, technical or hazardous nature, or operational significance. Also called controlled item. See also critical supplies and materiel.

regulating point
An anchorage, port, or ocean area to which assault and assault follow-on echelons and follow-up shipping proceed on a schedule, and at which they are normally controlled by the commander, amphibious task force, until needed in the transport area for unloading. See also assault; commander, amphibious task force.

regulating station
A command agency established to control all movements of personnel and supplies into or out of a given area.

rehabilitation
1. The processing, usually in a relatively quiet area, of units or individuals recently withdrawn from combat or arduous duty, during which units recondition equipment and are rested, furnished special facilities, filled up with replacements, issued replacement supplies and equipment, given training, and generally made ready for employment in future operations. 2. The action performed in restoring an installation to authorized design standards

rehearsal phase
In amphibious operations, the period during which the prospective operation is practiced for the purpose of: (1) testing adequacy of plans, the timing of detailed operations, and the combat readiness of participating forces; (2) ensuring that all echelons are familiar with plans; and (3) testing communications-information systems. See also amphibious operation.

reinforcement training unit
See voluntary training unit.

reinforcing
A support mission in which the supporting unit assists the supported unit to accomplish the supported unit's mission. Only like units (e.g., artillery to artillery, intelligence to intelligence, armor to armor, etc) can be given a reinforcing/reinforced mission.

reinforcing obstacles
Those obstacles specifically constructed, emplaced, or detonated through military effort and designed to strengthen existing terrain to disrupt, fix, turn, or block enemy movement. See also obstacle.

relateral tell
The relay of information between facilities through the use of a third facility. This type of telling is appropriate between automated facilities in a degraded communications environment. See also track telling.

relative altitude
See vertical separation.

relative bearing
The direction expressed as a horizontal angle normally measured clockwise from the forward point of the longitudinal axis of a vehicle, aircraft, or ship to an object or body. See also bearing; grid bearing.

relative biological effectiveness
The ratio of the number of rads of gamma (or X) radiation of a certain energy that will produce a specified biological effect to the number of rads of another radiation required to produce the same effect measures the "relative biological effectiveness" of the latter radiation.

release
In air armament, the intentional separation of a free-fall aircraft store, from its suspension equipment, for purposes of employment of the store.

release altitude
Altitude of an aircraft above the ground at the time of release of bombs, rockets, missiles, tow targets, etc.

release point (road)
A well-defined point on a route at which the elements composing a column return under the authority of their respective commanders, each one of these elements continuing its movement towards its own appropriate destination.

releasing commander (nuclear weapons)
A commander who has been delegated authority to approve the use of nuclear weapons within prescribed limits. See also executing commander (nuclear weapons).

releasing officer
A properly designated individual who may authorize the sending of a message for and in the name of the originator. See also originator.

reliability diagram
In cartography, a diagram showing the dates and quality of the source material from which a map or chart has been compiled. See also information box.

reliability of source
See evaluation.

relief
Inequalities of evaluation and the configuration of land features on the surface of the Earth which may be represented on maps or charts by contours, hypsometric tints, shading, or spot elevations.

relief in place
An operation in which, by direction of higher authority, all or part of a unit is replaced in an area by the incoming unit. The responsibilities of the replaced elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are transferred to the incoming unit. The incoming unit continues the operation as ordered.

religious support
The entire spectrum of professional duties that a chaplain provides and performs in the dual role of religious leader and staff officer assisted by enlisted support personnel. See also combatant command chaplain; command chaplain; lay leader; religious support plan; religious support team.

religious support plan
A plan that describes how religious support will be provided to all members of a joint force. When approved by the commander, it may be included as an annex to an operation plan. Also called RSP. See also combatant command chaplain; command chaplain; lay leader; religious support; religious support team.

religious support team
A team that is composed of at least one chaplain and one enlisted support person. Religious support teams assigned at Joint Staff and combatant command level may be from different Services; those assigned at joint task force and below are normally from the same Service. The team works together in designing, implementing, and executing the command religious program. Also called RST. See also combatant command chaplain; command chaplain; lay leader; religious support; religious support plan.

relocatable building
A building designed to be readily moved, erected, disassembled, stored, and reused. All types of buildings or building forms designed to provide relocatable capabilities are included in this definition. In classifying buildings as relocatable, the estimated funded and unfunded costs for average building disassembly, repackaging (including normal repair and refurbishment of components), and nonrecoverable building components, including typical foundations, may not exceed 20 percent of the building acquisition cost. Excluded from this definition are building types and forms that are provided as an integral part of a mobile equipment item and that are incidental portions of such equipment components, such as communications vans or trailers

remain-behind equipment
Unit equipment left by deploying forces at their bases when they deploy.

remaining forces
The total surviving United States forces at any given stage of combat operations.

remote delivery
In mine warfare, the delivery of mines to a target area by any means other than direct emplacement. The exact position of mines so laid may not be known.

remotely piloted vehicle
An unmanned vehicle capable of being controlled from a distant location through a communication link. It is normally designed to be recoverable. See also drone.

render safe procedures
See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

rendezvous area
In an amphibious operation, the area in which the landing craft and amphibious vehicles rendezvous to form waves after being loaded, and prior to movement to the line of departure.

reorder cycle
The interval between successive reorder (procurement) actions.

reorder point
1. That point at which time a stock replenishment requisition would be submitted to maintain the predetermined or calculated stockage objective. 2. The sum of the safety level of supply plus the level for order and shipping time equals the reorder point. See also level of supply.

repair
The restoration of an item to serviceable condition through correction of a specific failure or unserviceable condition. See also overhaul; rebuild.

repair and restoration
Repair, beyond emergency repair, of war-damaged facilities to restore operational capability in accordance with combatant command standards of construction, including repair and restoration of pavement surfaces. Normally, repairs to facilities will be made using materials similar to those of the original construction. For severely damaged facilities (i.e., essentially destroyed), restoration may require reconstruction.

repair cycle
The stages through which a reparable item passes from the time of its removal or replacement until it is reinstalled or placed in stock in a serviceable condition.

repair cycle aircraft
Aircraft in the active inventory that are in or awaiting depot maintenance, including those in transit to or from depot maintenance.

reparable item
An item that can be reconditioned or economically repaired for reuse when it becomes unserviceable. See also recoverable item.

repatriate
A person who returns to his or her country or citizenship, having left said native country either against his or her will, or as one of a group who left for reason of politics, religion, or other pertinent reasons.

repatriation
1. The procedure whereby American citizens and their families are officially processed back into the United States subsequent to an evacuation. See also evacuation. 2. The release and return of enemy prisoners of war to their own country in accordance with the 1949 Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.

repeater-jammer
A receiver transmitter device which amplifies, multiplies, and retransmits the signals received, for purposes of deception or jamming

replacement demand
A demand representing replacement of items consumed or worn out.

replacement factor
The estimated percentage of equipment or repair parts in use that will require replacement during a given period due to wearing out beyond repair, enemy action, abandonment, pilferage, and other causes except catastrophes.

replacements
Personnel required to take the place of others who depart a unit.

replenishment at sea
Those operations required to make a transfer of personnel and/or supplies when at sea.

reported unit
A unit designation that has been mentioned in an agent report, captured document, or interrogation report, but for which available information is insufficient to include the unit in accepted order of battle holdings.

reporting post
An element of the control and reporting system used to extend the radar coverage of the control and reporting center. It does not undertake the control of aircraft.

reporting time interval
1. In surveillance, the time interval between the detection of an event and the receipt of a report by the user. 2. In communications, the time for transmission of data or a report from the originating terminal to the end receiver. See also near real time.

representative downwind direction
During the forecast period, the mean surface downwind direction in the hazard area towards which the cloud travels.

representative downwind speed
The mean surface downwind speed in the hazard area during the forecast period.

representative fraction
The scale of a map, chart, or photograph expressed as a fraction or ratio. See also scale.

request for information
1. Any specific time-sensitive ad hoc requirement for intelligence information or products to support an ongoing crisis or operation not necessarily related to standing requirements or scheduled intelligence production. A request for information can be initiated to respond to operational requirements and will be validated in accordance with the theater command's procedures. 2. The National Security Agency/Central Security Service uses this term to state ad hoc signals intelligence requirements. Also called RFI. See also information; intelligence.

request modify
In artillery and naval gunfire support, a request by any person, other than the person authorized to make modifications to a fire plan, for a modification.

required delivery date
The date that a force must arrive at the destination and complete unloading. Also called RDD.

required supply rate (ammunition)
The amount of ammunition expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired by weapons (and in terms of other units of measure per day for bulk allotment and other items) estimated to be required to sustain operations of any designated force without restriction for a specified period. Tactical commanders use this rate to state their requirements for ammunition to support planned tactical operations at specified intervals. The required supply rate is submitted through command channels. It is consolidated at each echelon and is considered by each commander in subsequently determining the controlled supply rate within the command. Also called RSR. See also ammunition controlled supply rate.

requirements
See military requirement.

requirements capability
This capability provides a Joint Operation Planning and Execution System user with the ability to identify, update, review, and delete data on forces and sustainment required to support an operation plan or course of action.

requirements management system
A system for the management of theater and national imagery collection requirements that provides automated tools for users in support of submission, review, and validation of imagery nominations as requirements to be tasked on national or Department of Defense imagery collection, production, and exploitation resources. Also called RMS. See also imagery.

requisition
1. An authoritative demand or request especially for personnel, supplies, or services authorized but not made available without specific request. (DOD only) 2. To demand or require services from an invaded or conquered nation.

requisitioning objective
The maximum quantities of materiel to be maintained on hand and on order to sustain current operations. It will consist of the sum of stocks represented by the operating level, safety level, and the order and shipping time or procurement lead time, as appropriate. See also level of supply.

rescue combat air patrol
An aircraft patrol provided over a combat search and rescue objective area for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft. Its primary mission is to protect the search and rescue task forces during recovery operations. Also called RESCAP. See also combat air patrol.

rescue coordination center
A primary search and rescue facility suitably staffed by supervisory personnel and equipped for coordinating and controlling search and rescue and/or combat search and rescue operations. The facility is operated unilaterally by personnel of a single Service or component. For Navy component operations, this facility may be called a rescue coordination team. Also called RCC (or RCT for Navy component). See also combat search and rescue; joint search and rescue center; search and rescue.

rescue ship
In shipping control, a ship of a convoy stationed at the rear of a convoy column to rescue survivors.

research
All effort directed toward increased knowledge of natural phenomena and environment and toward the solution of problems in all fields of science. This includes basic and applied research.

reseau
A grid system of a standard size in the image plane of a photographic system used for mensuration purposes

reservation
The stated qualification by a nation that describes the part of a standardization agreement that it will not implement or will implement only with limitations. See also implementation; ratification; subscription.

reserve
1. Portion of a body of troops that is kept to the rear, or withheld from action at the beginning of an engagement, in order to be available for a decisive movement. 2. Members of the Military Services who are not in active service but who are subject to call to active duty. 3. Portion of an appropriation or contract authorization held or set aside for future operations or contingencies and, in respect to which, administrative authorization to incur commitments or obligations has been withheld. See also operational reserve; reserve supplies.

reserve aircraft
Those aircraft that have been accumulated in excess of immediate needs for active aircraft and are retained in the inventory against possible future needs. See also aircraft.

reserve component category
The category that identifies an individual's status in a reserve component. The three reserve component categories are Ready Reserve, Standby Reserve, and Retired Reserve. Each reservist is identified by a specific reserve component category designation.

Reserve Components
Reserve Components of the Armed Forces of the United States are: a. the Army National Guard of the United States; b. the Army Reserve; c. the Naval Reserve; d. the Marine Corps Reserve; e. the Air National Guard of the United States; f. the Air Force Reserve; and g. the Coast Guard Reserve. Also called RC. See also component; reserve.

reserved demolition target
A target for demolition, the destruction of which must be controlled at a specific level of command because it plays a vital part in the tactical, operational, or strategic plan, or because of the importance of the structure itself, or because the demolition may be executed in the face of the enemy. See also demolition target.

reserved obstacles
Those demolition obstacles that are deemed critical to the plan for which the authority to detonate is reserved by the designating commander. See also obstacle.

reserved route
In road traffic, a specific route allocated exclusively to an authority or formation. See also route.

reserve supplies
Supplies accumulated in excess of immediate needs for the purpose of ensuring continuity of an adequate supply. Also called reserves. See also battle reserves; beach reserves; contingency retention stock; economic retention stock; individual reserves; initial reserves; unit reserves.

residual capabilities assessment
Provides an automated or manual crisis action capability to assess the effects of weapons of mass destruction events for operations planning. Residual capabilities assessment tasks include, but are not limited to, assessment of infrastructure and facility damage, fallout prediction, weapons effect analysis, population impact assessment, and tracking strategic assets.

residual contamination
Contamination which remains after steps have been taken to remove it. These steps may consist of nothing more than allowing the contamination to decay normally.

residual forces
Unexpended portions of the remaining United States forces that have an immediate combat potential for continued military operations, and that have been deliberately withheld from utilization.

residual radiation
Nuclear radiation caused by fallout, artificial dispersion of radioactive material, or irradiation which results from a nuclear explosion and persists longer than one minute after burst. See also contamination; induced radiation; initial radiation.

residual radioactivity
Nuclear radiation that results from radioactive sources and persists for longer than one minute. Sources of residual radioactivity created by nuclear explosions include fission fragments and radioactive matter created primarily by neutron activation, but may also be created by gamma and other radiation activation. Other possible sources of residual radioactivity include radioactive material created and dispersed by means other than nuclear explosion. See also contamination; induced radiation; initial radiation.

resistance movement
An organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.

resolution
1. A measurement of the smallest detail that can be distinguished by a sensor system under specific conditions. 2. A formal expression of an official body such as Congress, the United Nations Security Council, or North Atlantic Treaty Organization North Atlantic Committee that may provide the basis for or set limits on a military operation.

resource management operations
The execution of the resource management mission that includes providing advice and guidance to the commander, developing command resource requirements, identifying sources of funding, determining cost, acquiring funds, distributing and controlling funds, tracking costs and obligations, cost capturing and reimbursement procedures, and establishing a management control process. See also financial management.

resources
The forces, materiel, and other assets or capabilities apportioned or allocated to the commander of a unified or specified command

response force
A mobile force with appropriate fire support designated, usually by the area commander, to deal with Level II threats in the rear area. Also called RF.

responsibility
1. The obligation to carry forward an assigned task to a successful conclusion. With responsibility goes authority to direct and take the necessary action to ensure success. 2. The obligation for the proper custody, care, and safekeeping of property or funds entrusted to the possession or supervision of an individual. See also accountability.

responsor
An electronic device used to receive an electronic challenge and display a reply thereto.

rest and recuperation
The withdrawal of individuals from combat or duty in a combat area for short periods of rest and recuperation. Also called R&R. See also rehabilitation.

restitution
The process of determining the true planimetric position of objects whose images appear on photographs.

restitution factor
See correlation factor.

restorative and rehabilitative care
A period of minimal care and increasing physical activity necessary to restore patients to functional health and allow their return to duty or useful and productive life. Restorative and rehabilitative treatment may be available in theater on a limited basis due to the theater evacuation policy. This treatment is normally provided in the continental United States. See also evacuation policy; patient; theater.

restraint of loads
The process of binding, lashing, and wedging items into one unit or into its transporter in a manner that will ensure immobility during transit.

restricted area
1. An area (land, sea, or air) in which there are special restrictive measures employed to prevent or minimize interference between friendly forces. 2. An area under military jurisdiction in which special security measures are employed to prevent unauthorized entry. See also air surface zone; controlled firing area; restricted areas (air).

restricted areas (air)
Designated areas established by appropriate authority over which flight of aircraft is restricted. They are shown on aeronautical charts, published in notices to airmen, and provided in publications of aids to air navigation. See also restricted area.

restricted dangerous air cargo
Cargo which does not belong to the highly dangerous category but which is hazardous and requires, for transport by cargo or passenger aircraft, extra precautions in packing and handling.

restricted data
All data (information) concerning: a. design, manufacture, or use of atomic weapons; b. the production of special nuclear material; or c. the use of special nuclear material in the production of energy, but shall not include data declassified or removed from the restricted data category pursuant to Section 142 of the Atomic Energy Act. (Section 11w, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.) See also formerly restricted data.

restricted items list
A document listing those logistic goods and services for which nations must coordinate any contracting activity with a commander's centralized contracting organization.

restricted operations area
Airspace of defined dimensions, designated by the airspace control authority, in response to specific operational situations/requirements within which the operation of one or more airspace users is restricted. Also called ROA

restricted target list
A list of restricted targets nominated by elements of the joint force and approved by the joint force commander. This list also includes restricted targets directed by higher authorities. Also called RTL. See also restricted targets; target.

restricted targets
Targets that have specific restrictions imposed upon them. Actions that exceed specified restrictions are prohibited until coordinated and approved by the establishing headquarters. See also target

restrictive fire area
An area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions will not be delivered without coordination with the establishing headquarters. Also called RFA. See also fires.

restrictive fire line
A line established between converging friendly surface forces that prohibits fires or their effects across that line. Also called RFL. See also fires.

restrictive fire plan
A safety measure for friendly aircraft which establishes airspace that is reasonably safe from friendly surface delivered non-nuclear fires.

resupply
The act of replenishing stocks in order to maintain required levels of supply.

resuscitative care
The aggressive management of life- and limb-threatening injuries. Interventions include emergency medical treatment, advanced trauma management, and lifesaving surgery to enable the patient to tolerate evacuation to the next level of care. See also evacuation; patient.

retain
1. When used in the context of deliberate planning, the directed command will keep the referenced operation plan or operation plan in concept format, and any associated joint operation planning system or Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing files in an inactive library or status. The plan and its associated files will not be maintained unless directed by follow-on guidance. See also archive; maintain. 2. A tactical task to occupy and hold a terrain feature to ensure that it is free of enemy occupation or use.

retained personnel
Enemy personnel who come within any of the categories below are eligible to be certified as retained personnel. a. Medical personnel exclusively engaged in the: (1) Search for collection, transport, or treatment of the wounded or sick; (2) Prevention of disease; and/or (3) Staff administration of medical units and establishments exclusively. b. Chaplains attached to enemy armed forces. c. Staff of national Red Cross societies and other voluntary aid societies duly recognized and authorized by their governments. The staffs of such societies must be subject to military laws and regulations. Also called RP. See also personnel.

reticle
A mark such as a cross or a system of lines lying in the image plane of a viewing apparatus. It may be used singly as a reference mark on certain types of monocular instruments or as one of a pair to form a floating mark as in certain types of stereoscopes. See also graticule.

Retired Reserve
All Reserve members who receive retirement pay on the basis of their active duty and/or Reserve service; those members who are otherwise eligible for retirement pay but have not reached age 60 and who have not elected discharge and are not voluntary members of the Ready or Standby Reserve. See also active duty; Ready Reserve; Standby Reserve.

retirement
An operation in which a force out of contact moves away from the enemy.

retrofit action
Action taken to modify inservice equipment.

retrograde cargo
Cargo evacuated from a theater.

retrograde movement
Any movement of a command to the rear, or away from the enemy. It may be forced by the enemy or may be made voluntarily. Such movements may be classified as withdrawal, retirement, or delaying action.

retrograde operation
See retrograde movement.

retrograde personnel
Personnel evacuated from a theater who may include medical patients, noncombatants, and civilians.

returned to military control
The status of a person whose casualty status of "duty status - whereabouts unknown" or "missing" has been changed due to the person's return or recovery by US military authority. Also called RMC. See also casualty status; duty status - whereabouts unknown; missing.

return load
Personnel and/or cargo to be transported by a returning carrier.

return to base
An order to proceed to the point indicated by the displayed information or by verbal communication. This point is being used to return the aircraft to a place at which the aircraft can land. Command heading, speed, and altitude may be used, if desired. Also called RTB.

revolutionary
An individual attempting to effect a social or political change through the use of extreme measures. See also antiterrorism.

revolving fund
A fund established to finance a cycle of operations to which reimbursements and collections are returned for reuse in a manner such as will maintain the principal of the fund, e.g., working capital funds, industrial funds, and loan funds.

riding off
Maneuvering one's unit in order to cause an opposing force to turn away. Also known as blocking; defensive blocking.

right (left) bank
See left (right) bank.

right (or left)
See left (or right).

riot control agent
Any chemical, that is not listed in the Chemical Weapons Convention, which can produce rapidly in humans sensory irritate or disabling physical effects which disappear within a short time following termination of exposure. See also chemical warfare.

riot control operations
The employment of riot control agents and/or special tactics, formations, and equipment in the control of violent disorders

rising mine
In naval mine warfare, a mine having positive buoyancy which is released from a sinker by a ship influence or by a timing device. The mine may fire by contact, hydrostatic pressure, or other means.

risk
1. Probability and severity of loss linked to hazards. 2. See degree of risk. See also hazard; risk management.

risk assessment
The identification and assessment of hazards (first two steps of risk management process).

risk management
The process of identifying, assessing, and controlling, risks arising from operational factors and making decisions thatbalance risk cost with mission benefits. Also called RM. See also risk.

riverine area
An inland or coastal area comprising both land and water, characterized by limited land lines of communication, with extensive water surface and/or inland waterways that provide natural routes for surface transportation and communications.

riverine operations
Operations conducted by forces organized to cope with and exploit the unique characteristics of a riverine area, to locate and destroy hostile forces, and/or to achieve or maintain control of the riverine area. Joint riverine operations combine land, naval, and air operations, as appropriate, and are suited to the nature of the specific riverine area in which operations are to be conducted.

road block
A barrier or obstacle (usually covered by fire) used to block or limit the movement of hostile vehicles along a route.

road capacity
The maximum traffic flow obtainable on a given roadway using all available lanes; usually expressed in vehicles per hour or vehicles per day.

road clearance time
The total time a column requires to travel over and clear a section of the road.

road hazard sign
A sign used to indicate traffic hazards. Military hazard signs should be used in a communications zone area only in accordance with existing agreements with national authorities.

road net
The system of roads available within a particular locality or area.

road space
The length of roadway allocated to and/or actually occupied by a column on a route, expressed in miles or kilometers.

rocket propulsion
Reaction propulsion wherein both the fuel and the oxidizer, generating the hot gases expended through a nozzle, are carried as part of the rocket engine. Specifically, rocket propulsion differs from jet propulsion in that jet propulsion utilizes atmospheric air as an oxidizer, whereas rocket propulsion utilizes nitric acid or a similar compound as an oxidizer. See also jet propulsion.

roentgen
A unit of exposure dose of gamma (or X-) radiation. In field dosimetry, one roentgen is essentially equal to one rad.

roentgen equivalent mammal
One roentgen equivalent mammal is the quantity of ionizing radiation of any type which, when absorbed by man or other mammal, produces a physiological effect equivalent to that produced by the absorption of 1 roentgen of X-ray or gamma radiation. Also called REM.

role number
In the medical field, the classification of treatment facilities according to their different capabilities.

role specialist nation
A nation that has agreed to assume responsibility for providing a particular class of supply or service for all or part of the multinational force. Also called RSN. See also lead nation; multinational force.

roll back
The process of progressive destruction and/or neutralization of the opposing defenses, starting at the periphery and working inward, to permit deeper penetration of succeeding defense positions.

roll-in-point
The point at which aircraft enter the final leg of the attack, e.g., dive, glide.

roll-on/roll-off discharge facility
Provides a means of disembarking vehicles from a roll-on and roll-off ship to lighterage. The roll-on/roll-off discharge facility consists of six causeway sections, nonpowered assembled into a platform that is two sections long and three sections wide. When use of landing craft, utility, as lighters is being considered, a seventh "sea end" causeway section, on-powered, fitted with a rhino horn is required. The roll-on/roll-off discharge facility assembly includes fendering, lighting, and a ramp for vehicle movement from ship to the platform. Also called RRDF. See also facility; lighterage.

roll-up
The process for orderly dismantling of facilities no longer required in support of operations and available for transfer to other areas.

romper
A ship which has moved more than 10 nautical miles ahead of its convoy, and is unable to rejoin it. See also straggler.

rope
An element of chaff consisting of a long roll of metallic foil or wire which is designed for broad, low-frequency responses. See also chaff.

rough terrain container handler
A piece of materials handling equipment used to pick up and move containers. Also called RTCH. See also materials handling equipment.

route
The prescribed course to be traveled from a specific point of origin to a specific destination. See also axial route; controlled route; dispatch route; lateral route; reserved route; signed route; supervised route

route capacity
1. The maximum traffic flow of vehicles in one direction at the most restricted point on the route. 2. The maximum number of metric tons which can be moved in one direction over a particular route in one hour. It is the product of the maximum traffic flow and the average payload of the vehicles using the route. See also railway line capacity.

route classification
Classification assigned to a route using factors of minimum width, worst route type, least bridge, raft, or culvert military load classification, and obstructions to traffic flow. See also military load classification.

route lanes
A series of parallel tracks for the routing of independently sailed ships.

routine message
A category of precedence to be used for all types of messages that justify transmission by rapid means unless of sufficient urgency to require a higher precedence. See also precedence.

routine supplies
Those items delivered as a result of normal requisitioning procedures to replace expended supplies or to build up reserve stocks. See also follow-up supplies; supplies.

routing indicator
A group of letters assigned to indicate: a. the geographic location of a station; b. a fixed headquarters of a command, activity, or unit at a geographic location; and c. the general location of a tape relay or tributary station to facilitate the routing of traffic over the tape relay networks.

row marker
In land mine warfare, a natural, artificial, or specially installed marker, located at the start or finish of a mine row where mines are laid by individual rows. See also marker.

rules of engagement
Directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Also called ROE. See also law of war.

run
1. That part of a flight of one photographic reconnaissance aircraft during which photographs are taken. 2. The transit of a sweeper-sweep combination or of a mine-hunter operating its equipment through a lap. This term may also be applied to a transit of any formation of sweepers.

runway visual range
The maximum distance in the direction of takeoff or landing at which the runway, or specified lights or markers delineating it, can be seen from a position above a specified point on its center line at a height corresponding to the average eye level of pilots at touch-down.

rupture zone
The region immediately adjacent to the crater boundary in which the stresses produced by the explosion have exceeded the ultimate strength of the medium. It is characterized by the appearance of numerous radial cracks of various sizes. See also plastic zone.

ruse
In military deception, a trick of war designed to deceive the adversary, usually involving the deliberate exposure of false information to the adversary's intelligence collection system.

 
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