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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources


Glossary of Military Terms

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pace
For ground forces, the speed of a column or element regulated to maintain a prescribed average speed.

pace setter
An individual, selected by the column commander, who travels in the lead vehicle or element to regulate the column speed and establish the pace necessary to meet the required movement order.

packaged forces
Forces of varying size and composition preselected for specific missions in order to facilitate planning and training.

packaged petroleum product
A petroleum product (generally a lubricant, oil, grease, or specialty item) normally packaged by a manufacturer and procured, stored, transported, and issued in containers having a fill capacity of 55 United States gallons (or 45 Imperial gallons, or 205 liters) or less.

packup kit
Service-provided maintenance gear including spare parts and consumables most commonly needed by the deployed helicopter detachment. Supplies are sufficient for a short-term deployment but do not include all material needed for every maintenance task. Also called PUK.

padding
Extraneous text added to a message for the purpose of concealing its beginning, ending, or length.

pallet
1. A flat base for combining stores or carrying a single item to form a unit load for handling, transportation, and storage by materials handling equipment. 2. (DOD only) 463L pallet - An 88" x 108" aluminum flat base used to facilitate the upload and download of aircraft.

palletized load system
A truck with hydraulic load handling mechanism, trailer, and flatrack system capable of self-loading and -unloading. Truck and companion trailer each have a 16.5 ton payload capacity. Also called PLS. See also flatrack.

palletized load system flatrack
Topless, sideless container component of palletized load system, some of which conform to International Organization for Standardization specifications. See also palletized load system.

palletized unit load
Quantity of any item, packaged or unpackaged, which is arranged on a pallet in a specified manner and securely strapped or fastened thereto so that the whole is handled as a unit.

panel code
A prearranged code designed for visual communications, usually between friendly units, by making use of marking panels. See also marking panel.

panoramic camera
1. In aerial photography, a camera which, through a system of moving optics or mirrors, scans a wide area of the terrain, usually from horizon to horizon. The camera may be mounted vertically or obliquely within the aircraft, to scan across or along the line of flight. 2. In ground photography, a camera which photographs a wide expanse of terrain by rotating horizontally about the vertical axis through the center of the camera lens.

parachute deployment height
The height above the intented impact point at which the parachute or parachutes are fully deployed.

paradrop
Delivery by parachute of personnel or cargo from an aircraft in flight.

parallel chains of command
In amphibious operations, a parallel system of command, responding to the interrelationship of Navy, landing force, Air Force, and other major forces assigned, wherein corresponding commanders are established at each subordinate level of all components to facilitate coordinated planning for, and execution of, the amphibious operation.

parallel sheaf
In artillery and naval gunfire support, a sheaf in which the planes (lines) of fire of all pieces are parallel. See also converged sheaf.

parallel staff
A staff in which one officer from each nation, or Service, working in parallel is appointed to each post. See also multinational staff; integrated staff; joint staff.

paramilitary forces
Forces or groups distinct from the regular armed forces of any country, but resembling them in organization, equipment, training, or mission.

pararescue team
Specially trained personnel qualified to penetrate to the site of an incident by land or parachute, render medical aid, accomplish survival methods, and rescue survivors. Also called PRT.

parlimentaire
An agent employed by a commander of belligerent forces in the field to go in person within the enemy lines for the purpose of communicating or negotiating openly and directly with the enemy commander.

parrot
Identification friend or foe transponder equipment.

partial mission-capable
Material condition of an aircraft or training device indicating that it can perform at least one but not all of its missions. Also called PMC. See also full mission-capable; mission-capable; partial mission-capable, maintenance; partial mission-capable, supply.

partial mission-capable, maintenance
Material condition of an aircraft or training device indicating that it can perform at least one but not all of its missions because of maintenance requirements existing on the inoperable subsystem(s). Also called PMCM. See also full mission-capable; mission-capable; partial mission-capable; partial mission-capable, supply.

partial mission-capable, supply
Material condition of an aircraft or training device indicating it can perform at least one but not all of its missions because maintenance required to clear the discrepancy cannot continue due to a supply shortage. Also called PMCS. See also full mission-capable; mission-capable; partial mission-capable; partial mission-capable, maintenance.

partial mobilization
See mobilization, Part 2.

partial storage monitoring
A periodic inspection of major assemblies or components for nuclear weapons, consisting mainly of external observation of humidity, temperatures, and visual damage or deterioration during storage. This type of inspection is also conducted prior to and upon completion of a movement.

partisan warfare
Not to be used. See guerrilla warfare.

part number
A combination of numbers, letters, and symbols assigned by a designer, a manufacturer, or vendor to identify a specific part or item of materiel.

pass
1. A short tactical run or dive by an aircraft at a target. 2. A single sweep through or within firing range of an enemy air formation.

passage of lines
An operation in which a force moves forward or rearward through another force's combat positions with the intention of moving into or out of contact with the enemy. A passage may be designated as a forward or rearward passage of lines.

passenger mile
One passenger transported one mile. For air and ocean transport, use nautical miles; for rail, highway, and inland waterway transport in the continental United States, use statute miles.

passive
In surveillance, an adjective applied to actions or equipments which emit no energy capable of being detected.

passive air defense
All measures, other than active air defense, taken to minimize the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. These measures include camouflage, concealment, deception, dispersion, reconstitution, redundancy, detection and warning systems, and the use of protective construction. See also air defense; concealment, deception, dispersion.

passive defense
Measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative. See also active defense.

passive homing guidance
A system of homing guidance wherein the receiver in the missile utilizes radiation from the target.

passive mine
1. A mine whose anticountermining device has been operated preventing the firing mechanism from being actuated. The mine will usually remain passive for a comparatively short time. 2. A mine which does not emit a signal to detect the presence of a target. See also active mine.

pass time
In road transport, the time that elapses between the moment when the leading vehicle of a column passes a given point and the moment when the last vehicle passes the same point.

password
A secret word or distinctive sound used to reply to a challenge. See also challenge; countersign.

pathfinder drop zone control
The communication and operation center from which pathfinders exercise aircraft guidance.

pathfinder landing zone control
See pathfinder drop zone control.

pathfinders
1. Experienced aircraft crews who lead a formation to the drop zone, release point, or target. 2. Teams dropped or air landed at an objective to establish and operate navigational aids for the purpose of guiding aircraft to drop and landing zones. 3. A radar device used for navigating or homing to an objective when visibility precludes accurate visual navigation. 4. Teams air delivered into enemy territory for the purpose of determining the best approach and withdrawal lanes, landing zones, and sites for helicopterborne forces.

pathogen
A disease-producing microorganism.

patient
A sick, injured, wounded, or other person requiring medical and/or dental care or treatment.

patient movement
The act or process of moving a sick, injured, wounded, or other person to obtain medical and/or dental care or treatment. Functions include medical regulating, patient evacuation, and en route medical care. See also patient; patient movement items; patient movement requirements center.

patient movement items
The medical equipment and supplies required to support patients during aeromedical evacuation. Also called PMIs.

patient movement requirements center
A joint activity that coordinates patient movement. It is the functional merging of joint medical regulating processes, Services' medical regulating processes, and coordination with movement components for patient evacuation. This may be joint, reporting to the joint task force surgeon; theater, reporting to the theater surgeon; or global, reporting to the United States Transportation Command surgeon. Also called PMRC. See also patient.

patrol
A detachment of ground, sea, or air forces sent out for the purpose of gathering information or carrying out a destructive, harassing, mopping-up, or security mission. See also combat air patrol.

pattern bombing
The systematic covering of a target area with bombs uniformly distributed according to a plan.

pattern laying
In land mine warfare, the laying of mines in a fixed relationship to each other.

payload
1. The sum of the weight of passengers and cargo that an aircraft can carry. See also load. 2. The warhead, its container, and activating devices in a military missile. 3. The satellite or research vehicle of a space probe or research missile. 4. The load (expressed in tons of cargo or equipment, gallons of liquid, or number of passengers) which the vehicle is designed to transport under specified conditions of operation, in addition to its unladen weight.

payload build-up (missile and space)
The process by which the scientific instrumentation (sensors, detectors, etc.) and necessary mechanical and electronic subassemblies are assembled into a complete operational package capable of achieving the scientific objectives of the mission.

payload integration (missile and space)
The compatible installation of a complete payload package into the spacecraft and space vehicle.

payload (missile)
See payload, Part 2.

P-day
That point in time at which the rate of production of an item available for military consumption equals the rate at which the item is required by the Armed Forces.

peace building
Post-conflict actions, predominately diplomatic and economic, that strengthen and rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid a relapse into conflict. See also peace enforcement; peacekeeping; peacemaking; peace operations.

peace enforcement
Application of military force, or the threat of its use, normally pursuant to international authorization, to compel compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to maintain or restore peace and order. See also peace building; peacekeeping; peacemaking; peace operations.

peacekeeping
Military operations undertaken with the consent of all major parties to a dispute, designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement (ceasefire, truce, or other such agreement) and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement. See also peace building; peace enforcement; peacemaking; peace operations.

peacemaking
The process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlements that arranges an end to a dispute and resolves issues that led to it. See also peace building; peace enforcement; peacekeeping; peace operations.

peace operations
A broad term that encompasses peacekeeping operations and peace enforcement operations conducted in support of diplomatic efforts to establish and maintain peace. Also called PO. See also peace building; peace enforcement; peacekeeping; and peacemaking.

peacetime force materiel assets
That portion of total materiel assets that is designated to meet the peacetime force materiel requirement. See also war reserves.

peacetime force materiel requirement
The quantity of an item required to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain the United States force structure (active and reserve) and those allied forces designated for United States peacetime support in current Secretary of Defense guidance (including approved supply support arrangements with foreign military sales countries) and to support the scheduled establishment through normal appropriation and procurement leadtime periods.

peacetime materiel consumption and losses
The quantity of an item consumed, lost, or worn out beyond economical repair through normal appropriation and procurement leadtime periods.

peacetime operating stocks
Logistic resources on hand or on order necessary to support day-to-day operational requirements, and which, in part, can also be used to offset sustaining requirements. Also called POS.

peak overpressure
The maximum value of overpressure at a given location which is generally experienced at the instant the shock (or blast) wave reaches that location.

pecuniary liability
A personal, joint, or corporate monetary obligation to make good any lost, damaged, or destroyed property resulting from fault or neglect. It may also result under conditions stipulated in a contract or bond.

pencil beam
A searchlight beam reduced to, or set at, its minimum width.

penetration
In land operations, a form of offensive which seeks to break through the enemy's defense and disrupt the defensive system.

penetration aids
Techniques and/or devices employed by offensive aerospace weapon systems to increase the probability of penetration of enemy defenses.

penetration (air traffic control)
That portion of a published high altitude instrument approach procedure that prescribes a descent path from the fix on which the procedure is based to a fix or altitude from which an approach to the airport is made.

penetration (intelligence)
The recruitment of agents within or the infiltration of agents or technical monitoring devices in an organization or group for the purpose of acquiring information or of influencing its activities.

percentage clearance
In mine warfare, the estimated percentage of mines of specified characteristics which have been cleared from an area or channel.

perception management
Actions to convey and/or deny selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, and objective reasoning as well as to intelligence systems and leaders at all levels to influence official estimates, ultimately resulting in foreign behaviors and official actions favorable to the originator's objectives. In various ways, perception management combines truth projection, operations security, cover and deception, and psychological operations. See also psychological operations.

perils of the sea
Accidents and dangers peculiar to maritime activities, such as storms, waves, and wind; collision; grounding; fire, smoke and noxious fumes; flooding, sinking and capsizing; loss of propulsion or steering; and any other hazards resulting from the unique environment of the sea.

perimeter defense
A defense without an exposed flank, consisting of forces deployed along the perimeter of the defended area.

period
The time it takes for a satellite to complete one orbit around the earth. As a rule of thumb, satellites with periods of 87.5 minutes are on the verge of reentry.

periodic intelligence summary
A report of the intelligence situation in a tactical operation (normally produced at corps level or its equivalent and higher) usually at intervals of 24 hours, or as directed by the commander. Also called PERINTSUM.

period of interest
A period of time in which a launch of a missile is expected. Also called POI.

perishable cargo
Cargo requiring refrigeration, such as meat, fruit, fresh vegetables, and medical department biologicals.

perishable target
A force or activity at a specific location whose value as a target can decrease substantially during a specified time. A significant decrease in value occurs when the target moves or the operational circumstances change to the extent that the target is no longer lucrative. See also target.

permafrost
Permanently frozen subsoil.

permanent echo
Any dense and fixed radar return caused by reflection of energy from the Earth's surface or manmade structure. Distinguished from "ground clutter" by being from definable locations rather than large areas.

permissive action link
A device included in or attached to a nuclear weapon system to preclude arming and/or launching until the insertion of a prescribed discrete code or combination. It may include equipment and cabling external to the weapon or weapon system to activate components within the weapon or weapon system.

permissive environment
See operational environment.

persistency
In biological or chemical warfare, the characteristic of an agent which pertains to the duration of its effectiveness under determined conditions after its dispersal.

persistent agent
A chemical agent that, when released, remains able to cause casualties for more than 24 hours to several days or weeks.

persistent surveillance
A collection strategy that emphasizes the ability of some collection systems to linger on demand in an area to detect, locate, characterize, identify, track, target, and possibly provide battle damage assessment and re-targeting in near or real-time. Persistent surveillance facilitates the formulation and execution of preemptive activities to deter or forestall anticipated adversary courses of action. See also surveillance.

personal effects
All privately owned moveable, personal property of an individual. Also called PE. See also mortuary affairs; personal property.

personal locator beacon
An emergency radio locator beacon with a two-way speech facility carried by crew members, either on their person or in their survival equipment, and capable of providing homing signals to assist search and rescue operations. Also called PLB. See also crash locator beacon; emergency locator beacon.

personal property
Property of any kind or any interest therein, except real property, records of the Federal Government, and naval vessels of the following categories: surface combatants, support ships, and submarines.

person authorized to direct disposition of remains
A person, usually primary next of kin, who is authorized to direct disposition of remains. Also called PADD. See also mortuary affairs.

person eligible to receive effects
The person authorized by law to receive the personal effects of a deceased military member. Receipt of personal effects does not constitute ownership. Also called PERE. See also mortuary affairs; personal effects.

person in custody
Any person under the direct control and protection of US forces.

personnel
Those individuals required in either a military or civilian capacity to accomplish the assigned mission.

personnel increment number
A seven-character, alphanumeric field that uniquely describes a non-unit-related personnel entry (line) in a Joint Operation Planning and Execution System time-phased force and deployment data. Also called PIN.

personnel reaction time (nuclear)
The time required by personnel to take prescribed protective measures after receipt of a nuclear strike warning.

personnel recovery
The aggregation of military, civil, and political efforts to obtain the release or recovery of personnel from uncertain or hostile environments and denied areas whether they are captured, missing, or isolated. That includes US, allied, coalition, friendly military, or paramilitary, and others as designated by the President or Secretary of Defense. Personnel recovery (PR) is the umbrella term for operations that are focused on the task of recovering captured, missing, or isolated personnel from harm's way. PR includes but is not limited to theater search and rescue; combat search and rescue; search and rescue; survival, evasion, resistance, and escape; evasion and escape; and the coordination of negotiated as well as forcible recovery options. PR can occur through military action, action by nongovernmental organizations, other US Government-approved action, and/or diplomatic initiatives, or through any of these. Also called PR. See also combat search and rescue; evasion; evasion and escape; personnel; recovery; search and rescue.

personnel security investigation
An inquiry into the activities of an individual, designed to develop pertinent information pertaining to trustworthiness and suitability for a position of trust as related to loyalty, character, emotional stability, and reliability. Also called PSI.

perspective grid
A network of lines, drawn or superimposed on a photograph, to represent the perspective of a systematic network of lines on the ground or datum plane.

petroleum intersectional service
An intersectional or interzonal service in a theater of operations that operates pipelines and related facilities for the supply of bulk petroleum products to theater Army elements and other forces as directed.

petroleum, oil, and lubricants
A broad term that includes all petroleum and associated products used by the Armed Forces. Also called POL.

phase line
A line utilized for control and coordination of military operations, usually an easily identified feature in the operational area.

phases of military government
1. assault--That period which commences with first contact with civilians ashore and extends to the establishment of military government control ashore by the landing force. 2. consolidation--That period which commences with the establishment of military government ashore by the landing force and extends to the establishment of control by occupation forces. 3. occupation--That period which commences when an area has been occupied in fact, and the military commander within that area is in a position to enforce public safety and order. See also civil affairs; military occupation.

phonetic alphabet
A list of standard words used to identify letters in a message transmitted by radio or telephone. The following are the authorized words, listed in order, for each letter in the alphabet: ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, DELTA, ECHO, FOXTROT, GOLF, HOTEL, INDIA, JULIETT, KILO, LIMA, MIKE, NOVEMBER, OSCAR, PAPA, QUEBEC, ROMEO, SIERRA, TANGO, UNIFORM, VICTOR, WHISKEY, X-RAY, YANKEE, and ZULU.

phoney minefield
An area free of live mines used to simulate a minefield, or section of a minefield, with the object of deceiving the enemy. See also gap, minefield.

photoflash bomb
A bomb designed to produce a brief and intense illumination for medium altitude night photography.

photoflash cartridge
A pyrotechnic cartridge designed to produce a brief and intense illumination for low altitude night photography.

photogrammetric control
Control established by photogrammetric methods as distinguished from control established by ground methods. Also called minor control.

photogrammetry
The science or art of obtaining reliable measurements from photographic images.

photographic coverage
The extent to which an area is covered by photography from one mission or a series of missions or in a period of time. Coverage, in this sense, conveys the idea of availability of photography and is not a synonym for the word "photography."

photographic intelligence
The collected products of photographic interpretation, classified and evaluated for intelligence use. Also called PHOTINT.

photographic interpretation
See imagery interpretation.

photographic panorama
A continuous photograph or an assemblage of overlapping oblique or ground photographs that have been matched and joined together to form a continuous photographic representation of the area.

photographic reading
The simple recognition of natural or manmade features from photographs not involving imagery interpretation techniques.

photographic scale
The ratio of a distance measured on a photograph or mosaic to the corresponding distance on the ground, classified as follows: a. very large scale--1:4,999 and larger; b. large scale--1:5,000 to 1:9,999; c. medium scale--1:10,000 to 1:24,999; d. small scale--1:25,000 to 1:49,999; e. very small scale--1:50,000 and smaller. See also scale.

photographic strip
Series of successive overlapping photographs taken along a selected course or direction.

photo interpretation key
See imagery interpretation key.

photomap
A reproduction of a photograph or photomosaic upon which the grid lines, marginal data, contours, place names, boundaries, and other data may be added.

photo nadir
The point at which a vertical line through the perspective center of the camera lens intersects the photo plane.

physical characteristics
Those military characteristics of equipment that are primarily physical in nature, such as weight, shape, volume, water-proofing, and sturdiness.

physical damage assessment
The estimate of the quantitative extent of physical damage (through munition blast, fragmentation, and/or fire damage effects) to a target resulting from the application of military force. This assessment is based usually upon single source data. See also battle damage assessment.

physical security
That part of security concerned with physical measures designed to safeguard personnel; to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, installations, material, and documents; and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage, and theft. See also communications security; security.

pictomap
A topographic map in which the photographic imagery of a standard mosaic has been converted into interpretable colors and symbols by means of a pictomap process.

pictorial symbolization
The use of symbols which convey the visual character of the features they represent.

Pierson-Moskowitz scale
A scale that categorizes the force of progressively higher wind speeds. See also sea state.

pillbox
A small, low fortification that houses machine guns, antitank weapons, etc. A pillbox is usually made of concrete, steel, or filled sandbags.

pilot's trace
A rough overlay to a map made by the pilot of a photographic reconnaissance aircraft during or immediately after a sortie. It shows the location, direction, number, and order of photographic runs made, together with the camera(s) used on each run.

pinpoint
1. A precisely identified point, especially on the ground, that locates a very small target, a reference point for rendezvous or for other purposes; the coordinates that define this point. 2. The ground position of aircraft determined by direct observation of the ground.

pinpoint photograph
A single photograph or a stereo pair of a specific object or target.

pinpoint target
In artillery and naval gunfire support, a target less than 50 meters in diameter.

pipeline
In logistics, the channel of support or a specific portion thereof by means of which materiel or personnel flow from sources of procurement to their point of use.

piracy
An illegal act of violence, depredation (e.g., plundering, robbing, or pillaging), or detention in or over international waters committed for private ends by the crew or passengers of a private ship or aircraft against another ship or aircraft or against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft.

pitch
1. The movement of an aircraft or ship about its transverse axis. 2. In air photography, the camera rotation about the transverse axis of the aircraft. Also called tip.

pitch angle
The angle between the aircraft's longitudinal axis and the horizontal plane. Also called inclination angle.

plan for landing
In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually prepared naval and landing force documents which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement.

plan identification number
1. A command-unique four-digit number followed by a suffix indicating the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) year for which the plan is written, e.g., "2220-95". 2. In the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) database, a five-digit number representing the command-unique four-digit identifier, followed by a one-character, alphabetic suffix indicating the operation plan option, or a one-digit number numeric value indicating the JSCP year for which the plan is written. Also called PID.

planimetric map
A map representing only the horizontal position of features. Sometimes called a line map. See also map.

plan information capability
The capability that allows a supported command to enter and update key elements of information in an operation plan stored in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System.

planned airlift requests
Requests generated to meet airlift requirements that can be forecast or where requirements can be anticipated and published in the air tasking order. See also air tasking order

planned target (nuclear)
A nuclear target planned on an area or point in which a need is anticipated. A planned nuclear target may be scheduled or on call. Firing data for a planned nuclear target may or may not be determined in advance. Coordination and warning of friendly troops and aircraft are mandatory.

planned targets
Targets that are known to exist in an operational area, and against which effects are scheduled in advance or are on-call. Examples range from targets on joint target lists in the applicable campaign plans, to targets detected in sufficient time to list in the air tasking order, mission-type orders, or fire support plans. Planned targets have two subcategories: scheduled or on-call. See also on-call targets; operational area; scheduled targets; target.

planning and direction
In intelligence usage, the determination of intelligence requirements, development of appropriate intelligence architecture, preparation of a collection plan, and issuance of orders and requests to information collection agencies. See also intelligence process.

planning directive
In amphibious operations, the plan issued by the designated commander, following receipt of the order initiating the amphibious operation, to ensure that the planning process andinterdependent plans developed by the amphibious force will becoordinated, completed in the time allowed, and important aspectsnot overlooked. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation.

planning factor
A multiplier used in planning to estimate the amount and type of effort involved in a contemplated operation. Planning factors are often expressed as rates, ratios, or lengths of time.

planning factors database
Databases created and maintained by the Military Services for the purpose of identifying all geospatial information and services requirements for emerging and existing forces and systems. The database identifies: unit requirements, at the information content level, for geospatial data and services; system requirements for standard Department of Defense geospatial data and services; research, development, test, and evaluation requirements for developmental systems, identified by milestone; and initial operating capability and full operating capability for emerging systems. Also called PFDB. See also data; database; geospatial information and services.

planning order
1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) to initiate execution planning. The planning order will normally follow a commander's estimate and a planning order will normally take the place of the CJCS alert order. Secretary of Defense approval of a selected course of action is not required before issuing a CJCS planning order. 2. A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of execution planning before the directing authority approves a military course of action. See also execution planning.

planning phase
In amphibious operations, the phase normally denoted by the period extending from the issuance of the order initiating the amphibious operation up to the embarkation phase. The planning phase may occur during movement or at any other time upon receipt of a new mission or change in the operational situation. See also amphibious operation.

plan position indicator
A cathode ray tube on which radar returns are so displayed as to bear the same relationship to the transmitter as the objects giving rise to them.

plant equipment
Personal property of a capital nature, consisting of equipment, furniture, vehicles, machine tools, test equipment, and accessory and auxiliary items, but excluding special tooling and special test equipment, used or capable of use in the manufacture of supplies or for any administrative or general plant purpose.

plastic zone
The region beyond the rupture zone associated with crater formation resulting from an explosion in which there is no visible rupture, but in which the soil is permanently deformed and compressed to a high density. See also rupture zone.

plate
1. In cartography: a. a printing plate of zinc, aluminum, or engraved copper; b. collective term for all "states" of an engraved map reproduced from the same engraved printing plate; c. all detail to appear on a map or chart which will be reproduced from a single printing plate (e.g., the "blue plate" or the "contour plate"). 2. In photography, a transparent medium, usually glass, coated with a photographic emulsion. See also diapositive.

platform drop
The airdrop of loaded platforms from rear loading aircraft with roller conveyors. See also airdrop; airdrop platform.

plot
1. Map, chart, or graph representing data of any sort. 2. Representation on a diagram or chart of the position or course of a target in terms of angles and distances from positions; location of a position on a map or a chart. 3. The visual display of a single location of an airborne object at a particular instant of time. 4. A portion of a map or overlay on which are drawn the outlines of the areas covered by one or more photographs. See also master plot.

point defense
The defense or protection of special vital elements and installations; e.g., command and control facilities or air bases.

point designation grid
A system of lines, having no relation to the actual scale, or orientation, drawn on a map, chart, or air photograph dividing it into squares so that points can be more readily located.

pointee-talkee
A language aid containing selected phrases in English opposite a translation in a foreign language. It is used by pointing to appropriate phrases. See also evasion aid.

point of no return
A point along an aircraft track beyond which its endurance will not permit return to its own or some other associated base on its own fuel supply.

point-to-point sealift
The movement of troops and/or cargo in Military Sealift Command nucleus or commercial shipping between established ports, in administrative landings, or during logistics over-the-shore operations. See also administrative landing; administrative movement; logistics over-the-shore operations.

poised mine
A mine in which the ship counter setting has been run down to "one" and which is ready to detonate at the next actuation. See also mine.

polar coordinates
1. Coordinates derived from the distance and angular measurements from a fixed point (pole). 2. In artillery and naval gunfire support, the direction, distance, and vertical correction from the observer/spotter position to the target.

polar orbit
A satellite orbit in which the satellite passes over the North and South poles on each orbit, and eventually passes over all points on the earth. The angle of inclination between the equator and a polar orbit is 90 degrees.

polar plot
The method of locating a target or point on the map by means of polar coordinates.

political intelligence
Intelligence concerning foreign and domestic policies of governments and the activities of political movements.

political warfare
Aggressive use of political means to achieve national objectives.

politico-military gaming
Simulation of situations involving the interaction of political, military, sociological, psychological, economic, scientific, and other appropriate factors

pool
1. Maintenance and control of a supply of resources or personnel upon which other activities may draw. The primary purpose of a pool is to promote maximum efficiency of use of the pooled resources or personnel, e.g., a petroleum pool or a labor and equipment pool. 2. Any combination of resources which serves a common purpose.

port capacity
The estimated capacity of a port or an anchorage to clear cargo in 24 hours usually expressed in tons. See also beach capacity; clearance capacity.

port complex
A port complex comprises one or more port areas of varying importance whose activities are geographically linked either because these areas are dependent on a common inland transport system or because they constitute a common initial destination for convoys.

port designator
A group of letters identifying ports in convoy titles or messages.

port evacuation of cargoes
The removal of cargoes from a threatened port to alternative storage sites.

port evacuation of shipping
The movement of merchant ships from a threatened port for their own protection.

port of debarkation
The geographic point at which cargo or personnel are discharged. This may be a seaport or aerial port of debarkation; for unit requirements; it may or may not coincide with the destination. Also called POD. See also port of embarkation.

port of embarkation
The geographic point in a routing scheme from which cargo or personnel depart. This may be a seaport or aerial port from which personnel and equipment flow to a port of debarkation; for unit and nonunit requirements, it may or may not coincide with the origin. Also called POE. See also port of debarkation

port of support
The geographic point (seaport or airport) in an objective area that is the terminal point for strategic deployment for non-unit-related supplies. Each component designates ports of support for four categories of resupply: general cargo; ammunition; petroleum, oils, and lubricants; and air deliveries. Also called POS.

port operations group
A task-organized unit, located at the seaport of embarkation and/or debarkation under the control of the landing force support party and/or combat service support element, that assists and provides support in the loading and/or unloading and staging of personnel, supplies, and equipment from shipping. Also called POG. See also combat service support element; landing force support party; task organization.

port security
The safeguarding of vessels, harbors, ports, waterfront facilities, and cargo from internal threats such as destruction, loss, or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts; accidents; thefts; or other causes of similar nature. See also harbor defense; physical security; security.

port support activity
A tailorable support organization composed of mobilization station assets that ensures the equipment of the deploying units is ready to load. The port support activity (PSA) operates unique equipment in conjunction with ship loading operations. The PSA is operationally controlled by the military port commander or terminal transfer unit commander. Also called PSA. See also support.

positional defense
See position defense.

position defense
The type of defense in which the bulk of the defending force is disposed in selected tactical localities where the decisive battle is to be fought. Principal reliance is placed on the ability of the forces in the defended localities to maintain their positions and to control the terrain between them. The reserve is used to add depth, to block, or restore the battle position by counterattack.

positive control
A method of airspace control that relies on positive identification, tracking, and direction of aircraft within an airspace, conducted with electronic means by an agency having the authority and responsibility therein.

positive identification and radar advisory zone
A specified area established for identification and flight following of aircraft in the vicinity of a fleet-defended area. Also called PIRAZ.

positive phase of the shock wave
The period during which the pressure rises very sharply to a value that is higher than ambient and then decreases rapidly to the ambient pressure. See also negative phase of the shock wave.

Posse Comitatus Act
Prohibits search, seizure, or arrest powers to US military personnel. Amended in 1981 under Public Law 97-86 to permit increased Department of Defense support of drug interdiction and other law enforcement activities. (Title 18, "Use of Army and Air Force as Posse Comitatus" - United States Code, Section 1385)

postattack period
In nuclear warfare, that period which extends from the termination of the final attack until political authorities agree to terminate hostilities. See also posthostilities period; transattack period.

posthostilities period
That period subsequent to the date of ratification by political authorities of agreements to terminate hostilities.

poststrike reconnaissance
Missions undertaken for the purpose of gathering information used to measure results of a strike.

power projection
The ability of a nation to apply all or some of its elements of national power - political, economic, informational, or military - to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain forces in and from multiple dispersed locations to respond to crises, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability. See also elements of national power.

PPI gauge
See international loading gauge.

practice mine
1. In land mine warfare, an inert mine to which is fitted a fuze and a device to indicate, in a non-lethal fashion, that the fuze has been activated. See also mine. 2. In naval mine warfare, an inert-filled mine but complete with assembly, suitable for instruction and for practice in preparation. See also drill mine.

prearranged fire
Fire that is formally planned and executed against targets or target areas of known location. Such fire is usually planned well in advance and is executed at a predetermined time or during a predetermined period of time. See also fire; on call; scheduled fire.

preassault operation
Operations conducted by the amphibious force upon its arrival in the operational area and prior to H-hour and/or L-hour. See also amphibious force; times.

precautionary launch
The launching of nuclear loaded aircraft under imminent nuclear attack so as to preclude friendly aircraft destruction and loss of weapons on the ground and/or carrier.

precautionary search and rescue and/or combat search and rescue
The planning and pre-positioning of aircraft, ships, or ground forces and facilities before an operation to provide search and rescue (SAR) or combat search and rescue (CSAR) assistance if needed. The planning of precautionary SAR or CSAR is usually done by plans personnel with SAR or CSAR expertise and background on an operations staff, a joint search and rescue center, or a rescue coordination center. Also called precautionary SAR and/or CSAR. See also combat search and rescue; joint combat search and rescue operation; search and rescue.

precedence
1. communications--A designation assigned to a message by the originator to indicate to communications personnel the relative order of handling and to the addressee the order in which the message is to be noted. Examples of communication precedence from most immediate to least are flash, immediate, priority, and routine. 2. reconnaissance--A letter designation, assigned by a unit requesting several reconnaissance missions, to indicate the relative order of importance (within an established priority) of the mission requested. 3. evacuation--The assignment of a priority for medical evacuation that is based on patient condition, advice of the senior medical person at the scene, and the tactical situation. See also flash message; immediate message; priority message; routine message.

precession
See apparent precession.

precipitation static
Charged precipitation particles that strike antennas and gradually charge the antenna, which ultimately discharges across the insulator, causing a burst of static. Also called P-STATIC.

precise frequency
A frequency requirement accurate to within one part in 1,000,000,000.

precise time
A time requirement accurate to within 10 milliseconds.

precision approach
An approach in which range, azimuth, and glide slope information are provided to the pilot. See also final approach; nonprecision approach.

precision bombing
Bombing directed at a specific point target.

precision-guided munitions
A weapon that uses a seeker to detect electromagnetic energy reflected from a target or reference point and, through processing, provides guidance commands to a control system that guides the weapon to the target. Also called PGM. See also munitions.

precursor
Any chemical reactant which takes place at any stage in the production by whatever method of a toxic chemical. This includes any key component of a binary or multicomponent chemical system. See also toxic chemical.

precursor chemical
Compounds that are required in the synthetic or extraction processes of drug production, and become incorporated into the drug molecule. Not used in the production of cocaine or heroin.

precursor chemical
Compounds that are required in the synthetic or extraction processes of drug production, and become incorporated into the drug molecule. Not used in the production of cocaine or heroin.

precursor front
An air pressure wave which moves ahead of the main blast wave for some distance as a result of a nuclear explosion of appropriate yield and low burst height over a heat-absorbing (or dusty) surface. The pressure at the precursor front increases more gradually than in a true (or ideal) shock wave, so that the behavior in the precursor region is said to be non-ideal.

precursor sweeping
The sweeping of an area by relatively safe means in order to reduce the risk to mine countermeasures vessels in subsequent operations.

predicted fire
Fire that is delivered without adjustment.

predominant height
In air reconnaissance, the height of 51 percent or more of the structures within an area of similar surface material.

preemptive attack
An attack initiated on the basis of incontrovertible evidence that an enemy attack is imminent.

preinitiation
The initiation of the fission chain reaction in the active material of a nuclear weapon at any time earlier than that at which either the designed or the maximum compression or degree of assembly is attained.

prelanding operations
In amphibious operations, operations conducted between the commencement of the assault phase and the commencement of the ship-to-shore movement by the main body of the amphibious task force. They encompass similar preparations conducted by the advanced force but focus on the landing area, concentrating specifically on the landing beaches and the helicopter landing zones to be used by the main landing force. Prelanding operations also encompass final preparations for the ship-to-shore movement.

pre-launch survivability
The probability that a delivery and/or launch vehicle will survive an enemy attack under an established condition of warning.

preliminary communications search
In search and rescue operations, consists of contacting and checking major facilities within the areas where the craft might be or might have been seen. A preliminary communications search is normally conducted during the uncertainty phase. Also called PRECOM. See also extended communications search; search and rescue incident classification, Subpart a.

preliminary demolition target
A target, other than a reserved demolition target, which is earmarked for demolition and which can be executed immediately after preparation, provided that prior authority has been granted. See also demolition target; reserved demolition target.

preliminary movement schedule
A projection of the routing of movement requirements reflected in the time-phased force and deployment data, from origin to destination, including identification of origins, ports of embarkation, ports of debarkation, and en route stops; associated time frames for arrival and departure at each location; type of lift assets required to accomplish the move; and cargo details by carrier. Schedules are sufficiently detailed to support comparative analysis of requirements against capabilities and to develop location workloads for reception and onward movement.

preload loading
The loading of selected items aboard ship at one port prior to the main loading of the ship at another. See also loading.

premature dud
See flare dud.

preparation fire
Fire delivered on a target preparatory to an assault. See also fire.

preplanned air support
Air support in accordance with a program, planned in advance of operations. See also air support.

preplanned mission request
A request for an air strike on a target that can be anticipated sufficiently in advance to permit detailed mission coordination and planning.

preplanned nuclear support
Nuclear support planned in advance of operations. See also immediate nuclear support; nuclear support.

pre-position
To place military units, equipment, or supplies at or near the point of planned use or at a designated location to reduce reaction time, and to ensure timely support of a specific force during initial phases of an operation.

pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement, balance
That portion of the pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement that has not been acquired or funded. This level consists of the pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement, less the pre-positioned war reserve requirement, protectable.

pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement, protectable
That portion of the pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement that is protected for purposes of procurement, funding, and inventory management.

pre-positioned war reserve requirement
That portion of the war reserve materiel requirement that the current Secretary of Defense guidance dictates be reserved and positioned at or near the point of planned use or issue to the user prior to hostilities to reduce reaction time and to assure timely support of a specific force or project until replenishment can be effected.

pre-positioned war reserve stock
The assets that are designated to satisfy the pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement. Also called PWRS.

prescribed nuclear load
A specified quantity of nuclear weapons to be carried by a delivery unit. The establishment and replenishment of this load after each expenditure is a command decision and is dependent upon the tactical situation, the nuclear logistical situation, and the capability of the unit to transport and utilize the load. It may vary from day to day and among similar delivery units.

prescribed nuclear stockage
A specified quantity of nuclear weapons, components of nuclear weapons, and warhead test equipment to be stocked in special ammunition supply points or other logistical installations. The establishment and replenishment of this stockage is a command decision and is dependent upon the tactical situation, the allocation, the capability of the logistical support unit to store and maintain the nuclear weapons, and the nuclear logistical situation. The prescribed stockage may vary from time to time and among similar logistical support units.

preset guidance
A technique of missile control wherein a predetermined flight path is set into the control mechanism and cannot be adjusted after launching.

Presidential Callup
Procedures by which the President brings all or part of the Army National Guard or Air National Guard to active Federal service under section 12406 and Chapter 15 of title 10 (DOD), US Code. See also active duty; federal service; Presidential Reserve Callup Authority.

Presidential Reserve Callup Authority
Provision of a public law (US Code, Title 10 (DOD), section 12304) that provides the President a means to activate, without a declaration of national emergency, not more than 200,000 members of the Selected Reserve and the Individual Ready Reserve (of whom not more than 30,000 may be members of the Individual Ready Reserve), for not more than 270 days to meet the support requirements of any operational mission. Members called under this provision may not be used for disaster relief or to suppress insurrection. This authority has particular utility when used in circumstances in which the escalatory national or international signals of partial or full mobilization would be undesirable. Forces available under this authority can provide a tailored, limited-scope, deterrent, or operational response, or may be used as a precursor to any subsequent mobilization. Also called PRCA. See also Individual Ready Reserve; mobilization; Presidential Callup; Selected Reserve.

pressure altitude
An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude which corresponds to that pressure in the standard atmosphere. See also altitude.

pressure breathing
The technique of breathing which is required when oxygen is supplied direct to an individual at a pressure higher than the ambient barometric pressure.

pressure front
See shock front.

pressure mine
1. In land mine warfare, a mine whose fuze responds to the direct pressure of a target. 2. In naval mine warfare, a mine whose circuit responds to the hydrodynamic pressure field of a target. See also mine.

pressure mine circuit
See pressure mine.

pressurized cabin
The occupied space of an aircraft in which the air pressure has been increased above that of the ambient atmosphere by compression of the ambient atmosphere into the space.

prestrike reconnaissance
Missions undertaken for the purpose of obtaining complete information about known targets for use by the strike force.

prevention
1. The security procedures undertaken by the public and private sectors in order to discourage terrorist acts. See alsoantiterrorism. 2. In space usage, measures to preclude anadversary's hostile use of United States or third-party spacesystems and services. Prevention can include diplomatic,economic, and political measures. See also space control.

prevention of stripping equipment
See antirecovery device.

preventive deployment
The deployment of military forces to deter violence at the interface or zone of potential conflict where tension is rising among parties. Forces may be employed in such a way that they are indistinguishable from a peacekeeping force in terms of equipment, force posture, and activities. See also peace enforcement; peacekeeping; peace operations.

preventive diplomacy
Diplomatic actions taken in advance of a predictable crisis to prevent or limit violence.

preventive maintenance
The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects.

preventive medicine
The anticipation, communication, prediction, identification, prevention, education, risk assessment, and control of communicable diseases, illnesses and exposure to endemic, occupational, and environmental threats. These threats include nonbattle injuries, combat stress responses, weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the health and readiness of military personnel. Communicable diseases include anthropod-, vector-, food-, waste-, and waterborne diseases. Preventative medicine measures include field sanitation, medical surveillance, pest and vector control, disease risk assessment, environmental and occupational health surveillance, waste (human, hazardous, and medical) disposal, food safety inspection, and potable water surveillance. Also called PVNTMED.

preventive war
A war initiated in the belief that military conflict, while not imminent, is inevitable, and that to delay would involve greater risk.

prewithdrawal demolition target
A target prepared for demolition preliminary to a withdrawal, the demolition of which can be executed as soon after preparation as convenient on the orders of the officer to whom the responsibility for such demolitions has been delegated. See also demolition target.

primary aircraft authorization
The number of aircraft authorized to a unit for performance of its operational mission. The primary authorization forms the basis for the allocation of operating resources to include manpower, support equipment, and flying-hour funds. Also called PAA.

primary aircraft inventory
The aircraft assigned to meet the primary aircraft authorization. Also called PAI.

primary censorship
Armed forces censorship performed by personnel of a company, battery, squadron, ship, station, base, or similar unit on the personal communications of persons assigned, attached, or otherwise under the jurisdiction of a unit. See also censorship.

primary control officer
In amphibious operations, the officer embarked in a primary control ship assigned to control the movement of landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and landing ships to and from a colored beach. Also called PCO.

primary control ship
In amphibious operations, a ship of the task force designated to provide support for the primary control officer and a combat information center control team for a colored beach. Also called PCS.

primary flight control
The controlling agency on aviation ships and amphibious aviation assault ships that is responsible for air traffic control of aircraft within 5 nautical miles of the ship. On Coast Guard cutters, primary flight control duties are performed by a combat information center, and the term "PRIFLY" is not used. Also called PRIFLY. See also amphibious aviation assault ship; aviation ship.

primary imagery dissemination
See electronic imagery dissemination.

primary imagery dissemination system
See electronic imagery dissemination.

primary interest
Principal, although not exclusive, interest and responsibility for accomplishment of a given mission, including responsibility for reconciling the activities of other agencies that possess collateral interest in the program.

primary review authority
The organization, within the lead agent's chain of command, that is assigned by the lead agent to perform the actions and coordination necessary to develop and maintain the assigned joint publication under the cognizance of the lead agent. Also called PRA. See also joint publication; lead agent.

primary target
An object of high publicity value to terrorists. See also antiterrorism; secondary targets.

primed charge
A charge ready in all aspects for ignition.

prime mover
A vehicle, including heavy construction equipment, possessing military characteristics, designed primarily for towing heavy, wheeled weapons and frequently providing facilities for the transportation of the crew of, and ammunition for, the weapon.

prime vendor
A contracting process that provides commercial products to regionally grouped military and federal customers from commercial distributors using electronic commerce. Customers typically receive materiel delivery through the vendor's commercial distribution system. Also called PV. See also distribution system.

principal building
A building aboard a diplomatic or consular compound where classified information may be handled, stored, discussed, or processed, but that does not house the offices of the chief of mission or principal officer.

principal items
End items and replacement assemblies of such importance that management techniques require centralized individual item management throughout the supply system, to include depot level, base level, and items in the hands of using units. These specifically include the items where, in the judgment of the Services, there is a need for central inventory control, including centralized computation of requirements, central procurement, central direction of distribution, and central knowledge and control of all assets owned by the Services.

principal officer
The officer in charge of a diplomatic mission, consular office, or other Foreign Service post, such as a United States Liaison Office.

principal operational interest
When used in connection with an established facility operated by one Service for joint use by two or more Services, "principal operational interest" indicates a requirement for the greatest use of, or the greatest need for, the services of that facility. The term may be applied to a Service, but is more applicable to a command.

principal parallel
On an oblique photograph, a line parallel to the true horizon and passing through the principal point.

principal plane
A vertical plane which contains the principal point of an oblique photograph, the perspective center of the lens, and the ground nadir.

principal scale
In cartography, the scale of a reduced or generating globe representing the sphere or spheroid, defined by the fractional relation of their respective radii. Also called nominal scale. See also scale.

principal vertical
On an oblique photograph, a line perpendicular to the true horizon and passing through the principal point.

printing size of a map or chart
The dimensions of the smallest rectangle which will contain a map or chart, including all the printed material in its margin.

print reference
A reference to an individual print in an air photographic sortie.

priority designator
A two-digit issue and priority code (01 through 15) placed in military standard requisitioning and issue procedure requisitions. It is based upon a combination of factors that relate the mission of the requisitioner and the urgency of need or the end use and is used to provide a means of assigning relative rankings to competing demands placed on the Department of Defense supply system.

priority intelligence requirements
Those intelligence requirements for which a commander has an anticipated and stated priority in the task of planning and decision making. Also called PIRs. See also information requirements; intelligence; intelligence process; intelligence requirement.

priority message
A category of precedence reserved for messages that require expeditious action by the addressee(s) and/or furnish essential information for the conduct of operations in progress when routine precedence will not suffice. See also precedence.

priority national intelligence objectives
A guide for the coordination of intelligence collection and production in response to requirements relating to the formulation and execution of national security policy. They are compiled annually by the Washington Intelligence Community and flow directly from the intelligence mission as set forth by the National Security Council. They are specific enough to provide a basis for planning the allocation of collection and research resources, but not so specific as to constitute in themselves research and collection requirements.

priority of immediate mission requests
See emergency priority; urgent priority.

priority system for mission requests for tactical reconnaissance
A system that assigns each tactical reconnaissance request the appropriate priority as follows. Priority I--Takes precedence over all other requests except those previously assigned priority I. The results of these requests are of paramount importance to the immediate battle situation or objective. Priority II--The results of these requirements are in support of the general battle situation and will be accomplished as soon as possible after priority I requests. These are requests to gain current battle information. Priority III--The results of these requests update the intelligence database but do not affect the immediate battle situation. Priority IV--The results of these requests are of a routine nature. These results will be fulfilled when the reconnaissance effort permits. See also precedence.

prior permission
Permission granted by the appropriate authority prior to the commencement of a flight or a series of flights landing in or flying over the territory of the nation concerned.

prisoner of war
A detained person as defined in Articles 4 and 5 of the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949. In particular, one who, while engaged in combat under orders of his or her government, is captured by the armed forces of the enemy. As such, he or she is entitled to the combatant's privilege of immunity from the municipal law of the capturing state for warlike acts which do not amount to breaches of the law of armed conflict. For example, a prisoner of war may be, but is not limited to, any person belonging to one of the following categories who has fallen into the power of the enemy: a member of the armed forces, organized militia or volunteer corps; a person who accompanies the armed forces without actually being a member thereof; a member of a merchant marine or civilian aircraft crew not qualifying for more favorable treatment; or individuals who, on the approach of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces. Also called POW or PW.

prisoner of war branch camp
A subsidiary camp under the supervision and administration of a prisoner of war camp.

prisoner of war camp
An installation established for the internment and administration of prisoners of war.

prisoner of war censorship
The censorship of the communications to and from enemy prisoners of war and civilian internees held by the United States Armed Forces. See also censorship.

prisoner of war compound
A subdivision of a prisoner of war enclosure.

prisoner of war enclosure
A subdivision of a prisoner of war camp.

prisoner of war personnel record
A form for recording the photograph, fingerprints, and other pertinent personal data concerning the prisoner of war, including that required by the Geneva Convention.

proactive measures
In antiterrorism, measures taken in the preventive stage of antiterrorism designed to harden targets and detect actions before they occur.

proactive mine countermeasures
Measures intended to prevent the enemy from successfully laying mines. See also mine countermeasures.

probability of damage
The probability that damage will occur to a target expressed as a percentage or as a decimal. Also called PD.

probable error
See horizontal error.

probable error deflection
Error in deflection that is exceeded as often as not.

probable error height of burst
Error in height of burst that projectile and/or missile fuzes may be expected to exceed as often as not.

probable error range
Error in range that is exceeded as often as not.

probably destroyed
In air operations, a damage assessment on an enemy aircraft seen to break off combat in circumstances which lead to the conclusion that it must be a loss although it is not actually seen to crash.

probe
In information operations, any attempt to gather information about an automated information system or its on-line users. See also information; information operations; information system.

procedural control
A method of airspace control which relies on a combination of previously agreed and promulgated orders and procedures.

procedures
Standard, detailed steps that prescribe how to perform specific tasks. See also tactics; techniques.

procedure turn
An aircraft maneuver in which a turn is made away from a designated track followed by a turn in the opposite direction, both turns being executed at a constant rate so as to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the reciprocal of the designated track.

procedure word
A word or phrase limited to radio telephone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying information in a condensed standard form. Also called proword.

processing
1. In photography, the operations necessary to produce negatives, diapositives, or prints from exposed films, plates, or paper. 2. A system of operations designed to convert raw data into useful information.

processing and exploitation
In intelligence usage, the conversion of collected information into forms suitable to the production of intelligence. See also intelligence process.

proclamation
A document published to the inhabitants of an area that sets forth the basis of authority and scope of activities of a commander in a given area and which defines the obligations, liabilities, duties, and rights of the population affected.

procurement lead time
The interval in months between the initiation of procurement action and receipt into the supply system of the production model (excludes prototypes) purchased as the result of such actions. It is composed of two elements, production lead time and administrative lead time. See also administrative lead time; initiation of procurement action; level of supply; production lead time; receipt into the supply system.

producer countries
In counterdrug operations, countries where naturally occurring plants such as coca, cannabis, or poppies are cultivated for later refinement into illicit drugs. See also counterdrug operations.

production base
The total national industrial production capacity available for the manufacture of items to meet materiel requirements.

production lead time
The time interval between the placement of a contract and receipt into the supply system of materiel purchased. Two entries are provided: a. initial--The time interval if the item is not under production as of the date of contract placement; and b. reorder--The time interval if the item is under production as of the date of contract placement. See also procurement lead time.

production logistics
That part of logistics concerning research, design, development, manufacture, and acceptance of materiel. In consequence, production logistics includes: standardization and interoperability, contracting, quality assurance, initial provisioning, transportability, reliability and defect analysis, safety standards, specifications and production processes, trials and testing (including provision of necessary facilities), equipment documentation, configuration control, and modifications

production loss appraisal
An estimate of damage inflicted on an industry in terms of quantities of finished products denied the enemy from the moment of attack through the period of reconstruction to the point when full production is resumed.

proficiency training aircraft
Aircraft required to maintain the proficiency of pilots and other aircrew members who are assigned to nonflying duties.

profile
See flight profile.

program aircraft
The total of the active and reserve aircraft. See also aircraft.

Programmed Forces
The forces that exist for each year of the Future Years Defense Program. They contain the major combat and tactical support forces that are expected to execute the national strategy within manpower, fiscal, and other constraints. See also current force; force; Intermediate Force Planning Level.

program of nuclear cooperation
Presidentially approved bilateral proposals for the United States to provide nuclear weapons and specified support to user nations who desire to commit delivery units to NATO in nuclear only or dual capable roles. After presidential approval in principle, negotiations will be initiated with the user nation to develop detailed support arrangements.

progress payment
Payment made as work progresses under a contract, upon the basis of costs incurred, of percentage of completion accomplished, or of a particular stage of completion. The term does not include payments for partial deliveries accepted by the Government under a contract or partial payments on contract termination claims.

prohibited area
A specified area within the land areas of a state or its internal waters, archipelagic waters, or territorial sea adjacent thereto over which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. May also refer to land or sea areas to which access is prohibited. See also closed area; danger area; restricted area.

projected map display
The displayed image of a map or chart projected through an optical or electro-optical system onto a viewing surface

projection print
An enlarged or reduced photographic print made by projection of the image of a negative or a transparency onto a sensitized surface.

proliferation (nuclear weapons)
The process by which one nation after another comes into possession of, or into the right to determine the use of, nuclear weapons; each nation becomes potentially able to launch a nuclear attack upon another nation.

prompt radiation
The gamma rays produced in fission and as a result of other neutron reactions and nuclear excitation of the weapon materials appearing within a second or less after a nuclear explosion. The radiations from these sources are known either as prompt or instantaneous gamma rays. See also induced radiation; initial radiation; residual radiation.

proofing
The verification that a breached lane is free of live mines by passing a mine roller or other mine-resistant vehicle through as the lead vehicle

propaganda
Any form of communication in support of national objectives designed to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes, or behavior of any group in order to benefit the sponsor, either directly or indirectly. See also black propaganda; grey propaganda; white propaganda.

propelled mine
See mobile mine.

proper authority
An authority authorized to call an opposing force hostile; may be either the President, the Secretary of Defense, the affected combatant commander, and/or any commander so delegated by either the President, Secretary of Defense or the combatant commander.

proper clearance
A clearance for entry of units into specified defense areas by civil or military authorities having responsibility for granting such clearance.

property
1. Anything that may be owned. 2. As used in the military establishment, this term is usually confined to tangible property, including real estate and materiel. For special purposes and as used in certain statutes, this term may exclude such items as the public domain, certain lands, certain categories of naval vessels, and records of the Federal Government

property account
A formal record of property and property transactions in terms of quantity and/or cost, generally by item. An official record of Government property required to be maintained.

proportional navigation
A method of homing navigation in which the missile turn rate is directly proportional to the turn rate in space of the line of sight.

protected emblems
The red cross, red crescent, and other symbols that designate that persons, places, or equipment so marked have a protected status under the law of war

protected frequencies
Those friendly frequencies used for a particular operation, identified and protected to prevent them from being inadvertently jammed by friendly forces while active electronic warfare operations are directed against hostile forces. These frequencies are of such critical importance that jamming should be restricted unless absolutely necessary or until coordination with the using unit is made. They are generally time-oriented, may change with the tactical situation, and must be updated periodically. See also electronic warfare.

protected persons/places
Persons (such as enemy prisoners of war) and places (such as hospitals) that enjoy special protections under the law of war. They may or may not be marked with protected emblems.

protected site
A facility which is protected by the use of camouflage or concealment, selective siting, construction of facilities designed to prevent damage from fragments caused by conventional weapons, or a combination of such measures.

protection
1. Measures that are taken to keep nuclear, biological, and chemical hazards from having an adverse effect on personnel,equipment, or critical assets and facilities. Protection consistsof five groups of activities: hardening of positions; protectingpersonnel; assuming mission-oriented protective posture; usingphysical defense measures; and reacting to attack. 2. In spaceusage, active and passive defensive measures to ensure thatUnited States and friendly space systems perform as designed byseeking to overcome an adversary's attempts to negate them and tominimize damage if negation is attempted. See also mission-oriented protective posture; space control.

protection of shipping
The use of proportionate force by US warships, military aircraft, and other forces, when necessary for the protection of US flag vessels and aircraft, US citizens (whether embarked in US or foreign vessels), and their property against unlawful violence. This protection may be extended (consistent with international law) to foreign flag vessels, aircraft, and persons.

protective clothing
Clothing especially designed, fabricated, or treated to protect personnel against hazards caused by extreme changes in physical environment, dangerous working conditions, or enemy action.

protective mask
A protective ensemble designed to protect the wearer's face and eyes and prevent the breathing of air contaminated with chemical and/or biological agents. See also mission-oriented protective posture.

protective minefield
1. In land mine warfare, a minefield employed to assist a unit in its local, close-in protection. 2. In naval mine warfare, a minefield laid in friendly territorial waters to protect ports, harbors, anchorages, coasts, and coastal routes. See also minefield.

prototype
A model suitable for evaluation of design, performance, and production potential.

provisioning
See initial provisioning.

proword
See procedure word.

proximity fuze
A fuze wherein primary initiation occurs by remotely sensing the presence, distance, and/or direction of a target or its associated environment by means of a signal generated by the fuze or emitted by the target, or by detecting a disturbance of a natural field surrounding the target.

pseudopursuit navigation
A method of homing navigation in which the missile is directed toward the instantaneous target position in azimuth, while pursuit navigation in elevation is delayed until more favorable angle of attack on the target is achieved.

psychological consolidation activities
Planned psychological activities across the range of military operations directed at the civilian population located in areas under friendly control in order to achieve a desired behavior that supports the military objectives and the operational freedom of the supported commanders.

psychological operations
Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. Also called PSYOP. See also overt peacetime psychological operations programs; perception management.

psychological operations assessment team
A small, tailored team (approximately 4-12 personnel) that consists of psychological operations planners and product distribution/dissemination and logistic specialists. The team is deployed to theater at the request of the combatant commander to assess the situation, develop psychological operations objectives, and recommend the appropriate level of support to accomplish the mission. Also called POAT.

psychological operations impact indicators
An observable event or a discernible subjectively determined behavioral change that represents an effect of a psychological operations activity on the intended foreign target audience at a particular point in time. It is measured evidence, ascertained during the analytical phase of the psychological operations development process, to evaluate the degree to which the psychological operations objective is achieved.

psychological operations support element
A tailored element that can provide limited psychological operations support. Psychological operations support elements do not contain organic command and control capability; therefore, command relationships must be clearly defined. The size, composition and capability of the psychological operations support element are determined by the requirements of the supported commander. A psychological operations support element is not designed to provide full-spectrum psychological operations capability; reachback is critical for its mission success. Also called PSE.

public affairs
Those public information, command information, and community relations activities directed toward both the external and internal publics with interest in the Department of Defense. Also called PA. See also command information; community relations; public information.

public affairs assessment
An analysis of the news media and public environments to evaluate the degree of understanding about strategic and operational objectives and military activities and to identify levels of public support. It includes judgments about the public affairs impact of pending decisions and recommendations about the structure of public affairs support for the assigned mission. See also assessment; public affairs.

public affairs ground rules
Conditions established by a military command to govern the conduct of news gathering and the release and/or use of specified information during an operation or during a specific period of time. See also public affairs.

public affairs guidance
Normally, a package of information to support the public discussion of defense issues and operations. Such guidance can range from a telephonic response to a specific question to a more comprehensive package. Included could be an approved public affairs policy, contingency statements, answers to anticipated media questions, and community relations guidance. The public affairs guidance also addresses the method(s), timing, location, and other details governing the release of information to the public. Public affairs guidance is approved by the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs. Also called PAG. See also community relations; public affairs.

public diplomacy
Those overt international public information activities of the United States Government designed to promote United States foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, and influence foreign audiences and opinion makers, and by broadening the dialogue between American citizens and institutions and their counterparts abroad.

public information
Information of a military nature, the dissemination of which through public news media is not inconsistent with security, and the release of which is considered desirable or nonobjectionable to the responsible releasing agency.

public key infrastructure
An enterprise-wide service (i.e. data integrity, user identification and authentication, user non-repudiation, data confidentiality, encryption, and digital signature) that supports digital signatures and other public key-based security mechanisms for Department of Defense functional enterprise programs, including generation, production, distribution, control, and accounting of public key certificates. A public key infrastructure provides the means to bind public keys to their owners and helps in the distribution of reliable public keys in large heterogeneous networks. Public keys are bound to their owners by public key certificates. These certificates contain information such as the owner's name and the associated public key and are issued by a reliable certification authority. Also called PKI.

pull-up point
The point at which an aircraft must start to climb from a low-level approach in order to gain sufficient height from which to execute the attack or retirement. See also contact point.

pulse code
A system of using selected pulse-repetition frequencies to allow a specific laser seeker to acquire a target illuminated by a specific laser designator. See also laser; laser designator; laser seeker

pulse duration
In radar, measurement of pulse transmission time in microseconds; that is, the time the radar's transmitter is energized during each cycle. Also called pulse length and pulse width.

pulsejet
A jet-propulsion engine containing neither compressor nor turbine. Equipped with valves in the front which open and shut, it takes in air to create thrust in rapid periodic bursts rather than continuously.

pulse repetition frequency
1. In lasers, the number of pulses that occur each second. 2. In radar, the number of pulses that occur each second. Pulse repetition frequency should not be confused with transmission frequency, which is determined by the rate at which cycles are repeated within the transmitted pulse. Also called PRF. See also laser.

pulsing
In naval mine warfare, a method of operating magnetic and acoustic sweeps in which the sweep is energized by current which varies or is intermittent in accordance with a predetermined schedule.

purchase description
A statement outlining the essential characteristics and functions of an item, service, or materiel required to meet the minimum needs of the Government. It is used when a specification is not available or when specific procurement specifications are not required by the individual Military Departments or the Department of Defense.

purchase notice agreements
Agreements concerning the purchase of brand-name items for resale purposes established by each Military Service under the control of the Defense Logistics Agency.

purchasing office
Any installation or activity, or any division, office, branch, section, unit, or other organizational element of an installation or activity charged with the functions of procuring supplies or services.

pursuit
An offensive operation designed to catch or cut off a hostile force attempting to escape, with the aim of destroying it.

pyrotechnic
A mixture of chemicals which, when ignited, is capable of reacting exothermically to produce light, heat, smoke, sound or gas.

pyrotechnic delay
A pyrotechnic device added to a firing system which transmits the ignition flame after a predetermined delay.

q-message
A classified message relating to navigational dangers, navigational aids, mined areas, and searched or swept channels.

Q-route
A system of preplanned shipping lanes in mined or potentially mined waters used to minimize the area the mine countermeasures commander has to keep clear of mines in order to provide safe passage for friendly shipping.

quadrant elevation
The angle between the horizontal plane and the axis of the bore when the weapon is laid. (DOD only) It is the algebraic sum of the elevation, angle of site, and complementary angle of site.

quadruple container
A quadruple container box 57.5" x 96" x 96" with a metal frame, pallet base, and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) corner fittings. Four of these boxes can be lashed together to form a 20- foot American National Standards Institute and/or ISO intermodal container. Also called QUADCON

quay
A structure of solid construction along a shore or bank that provides berthing and generally provides cargo-handling facilities. A similar facility of open construction is called a wharf. See also wharf.


 
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