Glossary of Military Terms
For ground forces, the speed of a column or element
regulated to maintain a prescribed average speed.
An individual, selected by the column commander, who
travels in the lead vehicle or element to regulate the column
speed and establish the pace necessary to meet the required
Forces of varying size and composition preselected for
specific missions in order to facilitate planning and training.
packaged petroleum product
A petroleum product (generally a lubricant, oil, grease,
or specialty item) normally packaged by a manufacturer and
procured, stored, transported, and issued in containers having a
fill capacity of 55 United States gallons (or 45 Imperial
gallons, or 205 liters) or less.
Service-provided maintenance gear including spare parts
and consumables most commonly needed by the deployed helicopter
detachment. Supplies are sufficient for a short-term deployment
but do not include all material needed for every maintenance
task. Also called PUK.
Extraneous text added to a message for the purpose of
concealing its beginning, ending, or length.
1. A flat base for combining stores or carrying a
single item to form a unit load for handling, transportation,
and storage by materials handling equipment. 2. (DOD only) 463L
pallet - An 88" x 108" aluminum flat base used to facilitate the
upload and download of aircraft.
palletized load system
A truck with hydraulic load handling mechanism, trailer,
and flatrack system capable of self-loading and -unloading.
Truck and companion trailer each have a 16.5 ton payload
capacity. Also called PLS. See also flatrack.
palletized load system flatrack
Topless, sideless container component of palletized load
system, some of which conform to International Organization for
Standardization specifications. See also palletized load system.
palletized unit load
Quantity of any item, packaged or unpackaged, which
is arranged on a pallet in a specified manner and securely
strapped or fastened thereto so that the whole is handled as a
A prearranged code designed for visual
communications, usually between friendly units, by making use of
marking panels. See also marking panel.
1. In aerial photography, a camera which, through a
system of moving optics or mirrors, scans a wide area of the
terrain, usually from horizon to horizon. The camera may be
mounted vertically or obliquely within the aircraft, to scan
across or along the line of flight. 2. In ground photography, a
camera which photographs a wide expanse of terrain by rotating
horizontally about the vertical axis through the center of the
parachute deployment height
The height above the intented impact point at which
the parachute or parachutes are fully deployed.
Delivery by parachute of personnel or cargo from an
aircraft in flight.
parallel chains of command
In amphibious operations, a parallel system of command,
responding to the interrelationship of Navy, landing force, Air
Force, and other major forces assigned, wherein corresponding
commanders are established at each subordinate level of all
components to facilitate coordinated planning for, and execution
of, the amphibious operation.
In artillery and naval gunfire support, a sheaf in which
the planes (lines) of fire of all pieces are parallel. See also
A staff in which one officer from each nation, or
Service, working in parallel is appointed to each post. See also
multinational staff; integrated staff; joint staff.
Forces or groups distinct from the regular armed forces of
any country, but resembling them in organization, equipment,
training, or mission.
Specially trained personnel qualified to penetrate to the
site of an incident by land or parachute, render medical aid,
accomplish survival methods, and rescue survivors. Also called
An agent employed by a commander of belligerent forces in
the field to go in person within the enemy lines for the purpose
of communicating or negotiating openly and directly with the
Identification friend or foe transponder equipment.
Material condition of an aircraft or training device
indicating that it can perform at least one but not all of its
missions. Also called PMC. See also full mission-capable;
mission-capable; partial mission-capable, maintenance; partial
partial mission-capable, maintenance
Material condition of an aircraft or training device
indicating that it can perform at least one but not all of its
missions because of maintenance requirements existing on the
inoperable subsystem(s). Also called PMCM. See also full
mission-capable; mission-capable; partial mission-capable;
partial mission-capable, supply.
partial mission-capable, supply
Material condition of an aircraft or training device
indicating it can perform at least one but not all of its
missions because maintenance required to clear the discrepancy
cannot continue due to a supply shortage. Also called PMCS. See
also full mission-capable; mission-capable; partial
mission-capable; partial mission-capable, maintenance.
See mobilization, Part 2.
partial storage monitoring
A periodic inspection of major assemblies or components
for nuclear weapons, consisting mainly of external observation
of humidity, temperatures, and visual damage or deterioration
during storage. This type of inspection is also conducted prior
to and upon completion of a movement.
Not to be used. See guerrilla warfare.
A combination of numbers, letters, and symbols assigned by
a designer, a manufacturer, or vendor to identify a specific
part or item of materiel.
1. A short tactical run or dive by an aircraft at a
target. 2. A single sweep through or within firing range of an
enemy air formation.
passage of lines
An operation in which a force moves forward or rearward
through another force's combat positions with the intention of
moving into or out of contact with the enemy. A passage may be
designated as a forward or rearward passage of lines.
One passenger transported one mile. For air and ocean
transport, use nautical miles; for rail, highway, and inland
waterway transport in the continental United States, use statute
In surveillance, an adjective applied to actions or
equipments which emit no energy capable of being detected.
passive air defense
All measures, other than active air defense, taken to
minimize the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats
against friendly forces and assets. These measures include
camouflage, concealment, deception, dispersion, reconstitution,
redundancy, detection and warning systems, and the use of
protective construction. See also air defense; concealment,
Measures taken to reduce the probability of and to
minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without
the intention of taking the initiative. See also active defense.
passive homing guidance
A system of homing guidance wherein the receiver in
the missile utilizes radiation from the target.
1. A mine whose anticountermining device has been
operated preventing the firing mechanism from being actuated.
The mine will usually remain passive for a comparatively short
time. 2. A mine which does not emit a signal to detect the
presence of a target. See also active mine.
In road transport, the time that elapses between the
moment when the leading vehicle of a column passes a given point
and the moment when the last vehicle passes the same point.
A secret word or distinctive sound used to reply to
a challenge. See also challenge; countersign.
pathfinder drop zone control
The communication and operation center from which
pathfinders exercise aircraft guidance.
pathfinder landing zone control
See pathfinder drop zone control.
1. Experienced aircraft crews who lead a formation to the
drop zone, release point, or target. 2. Teams dropped or air
landed at an objective to establish and operate navigational
aids for the purpose of guiding aircraft to drop and landing
zones. 3. A radar device used for navigating or homing to an
objective when visibility precludes accurate visual navigation.
4. Teams air delivered into enemy territory for the purpose of
determining the best approach and withdrawal lanes, landing
zones, and sites for helicopterborne forces.
A disease-producing microorganism.
A sick, injured, wounded, or other person requiring
medical and/or dental care or treatment.
The act or process of moving a sick, injured, wounded, or
other person to obtain medical and/or dental care or treatment.
Functions include medical regulating, patient evacuation, and en
route medical care. See also patient; patient movement items;
patient movement requirements center.
patient movement items
The medical equipment and supplies required to support
patients during aeromedical evacuation. Also called PMIs.
patient movement requirements center
A joint activity that coordinates patient movement. It is
the functional merging of joint medical regulating processes,
Services' medical regulating processes, and coordination with
movement components for patient evacuation. This may be joint,
reporting to the joint task force surgeon; theater, reporting to
the theater surgeon; or global, reporting to the United States
Transportation Command surgeon. Also called PMRC. See also
A detachment of ground, sea, or air forces sent out
for the purpose of gathering information or carrying out a
destructive, harassing, mopping-up, or security mission. See
also combat air patrol.
The systematic covering of a target area with bombs
uniformly distributed according to a plan.
In land mine warfare, the laying of mines in a fixed
relationship to each other.
1. The sum of the weight of passengers and cargo
that an aircraft can carry. See also load. 2. The warhead, its
container, and activating devices in a military missile. 3. The
satellite or research vehicle of a space probe or research
missile. 4. The load (expressed in tons of cargo or equipment,
gallons of liquid, or number of passengers) which the vehicle is
designed to transport under specified conditions of operation,
in addition to its unladen weight.
payload build-up (missile and space)
The process by which the scientific instrumentation
(sensors, detectors, etc.) and necessary mechanical and
electronic subassemblies are assembled into a complete
operational package capable of achieving the scientific
objectives of the mission.
payload integration (missile and space)
The compatible installation of a complete payload package
into the spacecraft and space vehicle.
See payload, Part 2.
That point in time at which the rate of production of an
item available for military consumption equals the rate at which
the item is required by the Armed Forces.
Post-conflict actions, predominately diplomatic and
economic, that strengthen and rebuild governmental
infrastructure and institutions in order to avoid a relapse into
conflict. See also peace enforcement; peacekeeping; peacemaking;
Application of military force, or the threat of its use,
normally pursuant to international authorization, to compel
compliance with resolutions or sanctions designed to maintain or
restore peace and order. See also peace building; peacekeeping;
peacemaking; peace operations.
Military operations undertaken with the consent of all
major parties to a dispute, designed to monitor and facilitate
implementation of an agreement (ceasefire, truce, or other such
agreement) and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term
political settlement. See also peace building; peace
enforcement; peacemaking; peace operations.
The process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other
forms of peaceful settlements that arranges an end to a dispute
and resolves issues that led to it. See also peace building;
peace enforcement; peacekeeping; peace operations.
A broad term that encompasses peacekeeping operations and
peace enforcement operations conducted in support of diplomatic
efforts to establish and maintain peace. Also called PO. See
also peace building; peace enforcement; peacekeeping; and
peacetime force materiel assets
That portion of total materiel assets that is designated
to meet the peacetime force materiel requirement. See also war
peacetime force materiel requirement
The quantity of an item required to equip, provide a
materiel pipeline, and sustain the United States force structure
(active and reserve) and those allied forces designated for
United States peacetime support in current Secretary of Defense
guidance (including approved supply support arrangements with
foreign military sales countries) and to support the scheduled
establishment through normal appropriation and procurement
peacetime materiel consumption and losses
The quantity of an item consumed, lost, or worn out beyond
economical repair through normal appropriation and procurement
peacetime operating stocks
Logistic resources on hand or on order necessary to
support day-to-day operational requirements, and which, in part,
can also be used to offset sustaining requirements. Also called
The maximum value of overpressure at a given
location which is generally experienced at the instant the shock
(or blast) wave reaches that location.
A personal, joint, or corporate monetary obligation to
make good any lost, damaged, or destroyed property resulting
from fault or neglect. It may also result under conditions
stipulated in a contract or bond.
A searchlight beam reduced to, or set at, its
In land operations, a form of offensive which seeks
to break through the enemy's defense and disrupt the defensive
Techniques and/or devices employed by offensive aerospace
weapon systems to increase the probability of penetration of
penetration (air traffic control)
That portion of a published high altitude instrument
approach procedure that prescribes a descent path from the fix
on which the procedure is based to a fix or altitude from which
an approach to the airport is made.
The recruitment of agents within or the infiltration of
agents or technical monitoring devices in an organization or
group for the purpose of acquiring information or of influencing
In mine warfare, the estimated percentage of mines
of specified characteristics which have been cleared from an
area or channel.
Actions to convey and/or deny selected information and
indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions,
motives, and objective reasoning as well as to intelligence
systems and leaders at all levels to influence official
estimates, ultimately resulting in foreign behaviors and
official actions favorable to the originator's objectives. In
various ways, perception management combines truth projection,
operations security, cover and deception, and psychological
operations. See also psychological operations.
perils of the sea
Accidents and dangers peculiar to maritime activities,
such as storms, waves, and wind; collision; grounding; fire,
smoke and noxious fumes; flooding, sinking and capsizing; loss
of propulsion or steering; and any other hazards resulting from
the unique environment of the sea.
A defense without an exposed flank, consisting of forces
deployed along the perimeter of the defended area.
The time it takes for a satellite to complete one orbit
around the earth. As a rule of thumb, satellites with periods of
87.5 minutes are on the verge of reentry.
periodic intelligence summary
A report of the intelligence situation in a tactical
operation (normally produced at corps level or its equivalent
and higher) usually at intervals of 24 hours, or as directed by
the commander. Also called PERINTSUM.
period of interest
A period of time in which a launch of a missile is
expected. Also called POI.
Cargo requiring refrigeration, such as meat, fruit, fresh
vegetables, and medical department biologicals.
A force or activity at a specific location whose value as
a target can decrease substantially during a specified time. A
significant decrease in value occurs when the target moves or
the operational circumstances change to the extent that the
target is no longer lucrative. See also target.
Permanently frozen subsoil.
Any dense and fixed radar return caused by reflection of
energy from the Earth's surface or manmade structure.
Distinguished from "ground clutter" by being from definable
locations rather than large areas.
permissive action link
A device included in or attached to a nuclear weapon
system to preclude arming and/or launching until the insertion
of a prescribed discrete code or combination. It may include
equipment and cabling external to the weapon or weapon system to
activate components within the weapon or weapon system.
See operational environment.
In biological or chemical warfare, the
characteristic of an agent which pertains to the duration of its
effectiveness under determined conditions after its dispersal.
A chemical agent that, when released, remains able to
cause casualties for more than 24 hours to several days or
A collection strategy that emphasizes the ability of some
collection systems to linger on demand in an area to detect,
locate, characterize, identify, track, target, and possibly
provide battle damage assessment and re-targeting in near or
real-time. Persistent surveillance facilitates the formulation
and execution of preemptive activities to deter or forestall
anticipated adversary courses of action. See also surveillance.
All privately owned moveable, personal property of an
individual. Also called PE. See also mortuary affairs; personal
personal locator beacon
An emergency radio locator beacon with a two-way
speech facility carried by crew members, either on their person
or in their survival equipment, and capable of providing homing
signals to assist search and rescue operations. Also called PLB.
See also crash locator beacon; emergency locator beacon.
Property of any kind or any interest therein, except real
property, records of the Federal Government, and naval vessels
of the following categories: surface combatants, support ships,
person authorized to direct disposition of remains
A person, usually primary next of kin, who is authorized
to direct disposition of remains. Also called PADD. See also
person eligible to receive effects
The person authorized by law to receive the personal
effects of a deceased military member. Receipt of personal
effects does not constitute ownership. Also called PERE. See
also mortuary affairs; personal effects.
person in custody
Any person under the direct control and protection of US
Those individuals required in either a military or
civilian capacity to accomplish the assigned mission.
personnel increment number
A seven-character, alphanumeric field that uniquely
describes a non-unit-related personnel entry (line) in a Joint
Operation Planning and Execution System time-phased force and
deployment data. Also called PIN.
personnel reaction time (nuclear)
The time required by personnel to take prescribed
protective measures after receipt of a nuclear strike warning.
The aggregation of military, civil, and political efforts
to obtain the release or recovery of personnel from uncertain or
hostile environments and denied areas whether they are captured,
missing, or isolated. That includes US, allied, coalition,
friendly military, or paramilitary, and others as designated by
the President or Secretary of Defense. Personnel recovery (PR)
is the umbrella term for operations that are focused on the task
of recovering captured, missing, or isolated personnel from
harm's way. PR includes but is not limited to theater search and
rescue; combat search and rescue; search and rescue; survival,
evasion, resistance, and escape; evasion and escape; and the
coordination of negotiated as well as forcible recovery options.
PR can occur through military action, action by nongovernmental
organizations, other US Government-approved action, and/or
diplomatic initiatives, or through any of these. Also called PR.
See also combat search and rescue; evasion; evasion and escape;
personnel; recovery; search and rescue.
personnel security investigation
An inquiry into the activities of an individual, designed
to develop pertinent information pertaining to trustworthiness
and suitability for a position of trust as related to loyalty,
character, emotional stability, and reliability. Also called
A network of lines, drawn or superimposed on a
photograph, to represent the perspective of a systematic network
of lines on the ground or datum plane.
petroleum intersectional service
An intersectional or interzonal service in a theater
of operations that operates pipelines and related facilities for
the supply of bulk petroleum products to theater Army elements
and other forces as directed.
petroleum, oil, and lubricants
A broad term that includes all petroleum and associated
products used by the Armed Forces. Also called POL.
A line utilized for control and coordination of military
operations, usually an easily identified feature in the
phases of military government
1. assault--That period which commences with first contact
with civilians ashore and extends to the establishment of
military government control ashore by the landing force. 2.
consolidation--That period which commences with the
establishment of military government ashore by the landing force
and extends to the establishment of control by occupation
forces. 3. occupation--That period which commences when an area
has been occupied in fact, and the military commander within
that area is in a position to enforce public safety and order.
See also civil affairs; military occupation.
A list of standard words used to identify letters in a
message transmitted by radio or telephone. The following are the
authorized words, listed in order, for each letter in the
alphabet: ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, DELTA, ECHO, FOXTROT, GOLF,
HOTEL, INDIA, JULIETT, KILO, LIMA, MIKE, NOVEMBER, OSCAR, PAPA,
QUEBEC, ROMEO, SIERRA, TANGO, UNIFORM, VICTOR, WHISKEY, X-RAY,
YANKEE, and ZULU.
An area free of live mines used to simulate a
minefield, or section of a minefield, with the object of
deceiving the enemy. See also gap, minefield.
A bomb designed to produce a brief and intense
illumination for medium altitude night photography.
A pyrotechnic cartridge designed to produce a brief
and intense illumination for low altitude night photography.
Control established by photogrammetric methods as
distinguished from control established by ground methods. Also
called minor control.
The science or art of obtaining reliable
measurements from photographic images.
The extent to which an area is covered by photography from
one mission or a series of missions or in a period of time.
Coverage, in this sense, conveys the idea of availability of
photography and is not a synonym for the word "photography."
The collected products of photographic interpretation,
classified and evaluated for intelligence use. Also called
See imagery interpretation.
A continuous photograph or an assemblage of overlapping
oblique or ground photographs that have been matched and joined
together to form a continuous photographic representation of the
The simple recognition of natural or manmade
features from photographs not involving imagery interpretation
The ratio of a distance measured on a photograph or
mosaic to the corresponding distance on the ground, classified
as follows: a. very large scale--1:4,999 and larger; b. large
scale--1:5,000 to 1:9,999; c. medium scale--1:10,000 to
1:24,999; d. small scale--1:25,000 to 1:49,999; e. very small
scale--1:50,000 and smaller. See also scale.
Series of successive overlapping photographs taken
along a selected course or direction.
photo interpretation key
See imagery interpretation key.
A reproduction of a photograph or photomosaic upon
which the grid lines, marginal data, contours, place names,
boundaries, and other data may be added.
The point at which a vertical line through the
perspective center of the camera lens intersects the photo
Those military characteristics of equipment that are
primarily physical in nature, such as weight, shape, volume,
water-proofing, and sturdiness.
physical damage assessment
The estimate of the quantitative extent of physical damage
(through munition blast, fragmentation, and/or fire damage
effects) to a target resulting from the application of military
force. This assessment is based usually upon single source data.
See also battle damage assessment.
That part of security concerned with physical
measures designed to safeguard personnel; to prevent
unauthorized access to equipment, installations, material, and
documents; and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage,
damage, and theft. See also communications security; security.
A topographic map in which the photographic imagery of a
standard mosaic has been converted into interpretable colors and
symbols by means of a pictomap process.
The use of symbols which convey the visual character
of the features they represent.
A scale that categorizes the force of progressively higher
wind speeds. See also sea state.
A small, low fortification that houses machine guns,
antitank weapons, etc. A pillbox is usually made of concrete,
steel, or filled sandbags.
A rough overlay to a map made by the pilot of a
photographic reconnaissance aircraft during or immediately after
a sortie. It shows the location, direction, number, and order of
photographic runs made, together with the camera(s) used on each
1. A precisely identified point, especially on the
ground, that locates a very small target, a reference point for
rendezvous or for other purposes; the coordinates that define
this point. 2. The ground position of aircraft determined by
direct observation of the ground.
A single photograph or a stereo pair of a specific
object or target.
In artillery and naval gunfire support, a target
less than 50 meters in diameter.
In logistics, the channel of support or a specific
portion thereof by means of which materiel or personnel flow
from sources of procurement to their point of use.
An illegal act of violence, depredation (e.g., plundering,
robbing, or pillaging), or detention in or over international
waters committed for private ends by the crew or passengers of a
private ship or aircraft against another ship or aircraft or
against persons or property on board such ship or aircraft.
1. The movement of an aircraft or ship about its
transverse axis. 2. In air photography, the camera rotation
about the transverse axis of the aircraft. Also called tip.
The angle between the aircraft's longitudinal axis
and the horizontal plane. Also called inclination angle.
plan for landing
In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to
all individually prepared naval and landing force documents
which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for
execution of the ship-to-shore movement.
plan identification number
1. A command-unique four-digit number followed by a suffix
indicating the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP) year for
which the plan is written, e.g., "2220-95". 2. In the Joint
Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) database, a
five-digit number representing the command-unique four-digit
identifier, followed by a one-character, alphabetic suffix
indicating the operation plan option, or a one-digit number
numeric value indicating the JSCP year for which the plan is
written. Also called PID.
A map representing only the horizontal position of
features. Sometimes called a line map. See also map.
plan information capability
The capability that allows a supported command to enter
and update key elements of information in an operation plan
stored in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System.
planned airlift requests
Requests generated to meet airlift requirements that can
be forecast or where requirements can be anticipated and
published in the air tasking order. See also air tasking order
planned target (nuclear)
A nuclear target planned on an area or point in which a
need is anticipated. A planned nuclear target may be scheduled
or on call. Firing data for a planned nuclear target may or may
not be determined in advance. Coordination and warning of
friendly troops and aircraft are mandatory.
Targets that are known to exist in an operational area,
and against which effects are scheduled in advance or are
on-call. Examples range from targets on joint target lists in
the applicable campaign plans, to targets detected in sufficient
time to list in the air tasking order, mission-type orders, or
fire support plans. Planned targets have two subcategories:
scheduled or on-call. See also on-call targets; operational
area; scheduled targets; target.
planning and direction
In intelligence usage, the determination of intelligence
requirements, development of appropriate intelligence
architecture, preparation of a collection plan, and issuance of
orders and requests to information collection agencies. See also
In amphibious operations, the plan issued by the
designated commander, following receipt of the order initiating
the amphibious operation, to ensure that the planning process
andinterdependent plans developed by the amphibious force will
becoordinated, completed in the time allowed, and important
aspectsnot overlooked. See also amphibious force; amphibious
A multiplier used in planning to estimate the amount
and type of effort involved in a contemplated operation.
Planning factors are often expressed as rates, ratios, or
lengths of time.
planning factors database
Databases created and maintained by the Military Services
for the purpose of identifying all geospatial information and
services requirements for emerging and existing forces and
systems. The database identifies: unit requirements, at the
information content level, for geospatial data and services;
system requirements for standard Department of Defense
geospatial data and services; research, development, test, and
evaluation requirements for developmental systems, identified by
milestone; and initial operating capability and full operating
capability for emerging systems. Also called PFDB. See also
data; database; geospatial information and services.
1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff (CJCS) to initiate execution planning. The planning order
will normally follow a commander's estimate and a planning order
will normally take the place of the CJCS alert order. Secretary
of Defense approval of a selected course of action is not
required before issuing a CJCS planning order. 2. A planning
directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs
the initiation of execution planning before the directing
authority approves a military course of action. See also
In amphibious operations, the phase normally denoted by
the period extending from the issuance of the order initiating
the amphibious operation up to the embarkation phase. The
planning phase may occur during movement or at any other time
upon receipt of a new mission or change in the operational
situation. See also amphibious operation.
plan position indicator
A cathode ray tube on which radar returns are so
displayed as to bear the same relationship to the transmitter as
the objects giving rise to them.
Personal property of a capital nature, consisting of
equipment, furniture, vehicles, machine tools, test equipment,
and accessory and auxiliary items, but excluding special tooling
and special test equipment, used or capable of use in the
manufacture of supplies or for any administrative or general
The region beyond the rupture zone associated with
crater formation resulting from an explosion in which there is
no visible rupture, but in which the soil is permanently
deformed and compressed to a high density. See also rupture
1. In cartography: a. a printing plate of zinc,
aluminum, or engraved copper; b. collective term for all
"states" of an engraved map reproduced from the same engraved
printing plate; c. all detail to appear on a map or chart which
will be reproduced from a single printing plate (e.g., the "blue
plate" or the "contour plate"). 2. In photography, a transparent
medium, usually glass, coated with a photographic emulsion. See
The airdrop of loaded platforms from rear loading
aircraft with roller conveyors. See also airdrop; airdrop
1. Map, chart, or graph representing data of any
sort. 2. Representation on a diagram or chart of the position or
course of a target in terms of angles and distances from
positions; location of a position on a map or a chart. 3. The
visual display of a single location of an airborne object at a
particular instant of time. 4. A portion of a map or overlay on
which are drawn the outlines of the areas covered by one or more
photographs. See also master plot.
The defense or protection of special vital elements and
installations; e.g., command and control facilities or air
point designation grid
A system of lines, having no relation to the actual
scale, or orientation, drawn on a map, chart, or air photograph
dividing it into squares so that points can be more readily
A language aid containing selected phrases in English
opposite a translation in a foreign language. It is used by
pointing to appropriate phrases. See also evasion aid.
point of no return
A point along an aircraft track beyond which its
endurance will not permit return to its own or some other
associated base on its own fuel supply.
The movement of troops and/or cargo in Military Sealift
Command nucleus or commercial shipping between established
ports, in administrative landings, or during logistics
over-the-shore operations. See also administrative landing;
administrative movement; logistics over-the-shore operations.
A mine in which the ship counter setting has been
run down to "one" and which is ready to detonate at the next
actuation. See also mine.
1. Coordinates derived from the distance and angular
measurements from a fixed point (pole). 2. In artillery and
naval gunfire support, the direction, distance, and vertical
correction from the observer/spotter position to the target.
A satellite orbit in which the satellite passes over the
North and South poles on each orbit, and eventually passes over
all points on the earth. The angle of inclination between the
equator and a polar orbit is 90 degrees.
The method of locating a target or point on the map
by means of polar coordinates.
Intelligence concerning foreign and domestic policies of
governments and the activities of political movements.
Aggressive use of political means to achieve national
Simulation of situations involving the interaction of
political, military, sociological, psychological, economic,
scientific, and other appropriate factors
1. Maintenance and control of a supply of resources or
personnel upon which other activities may draw. The primary
purpose of a pool is to promote maximum efficiency of use of the
pooled resources or personnel, e.g., a petroleum pool or a labor
and equipment pool. 2. Any combination of resources which serves
a common purpose.
The estimated capacity of a port or an anchorage to
clear cargo in 24 hours usually expressed in tons. See also
beach capacity; clearance capacity.
A port complex comprises one or more port areas of
varying importance whose activities are geographically linked
either because these areas are dependent on a common inland
transport system or because they constitute a common initial
destination for convoys.
A group of letters identifying ports in convoy
titles or messages.
port evacuation of cargoes
The removal of cargoes from a threatened port to
alternative storage sites.
port evacuation of shipping
The movement of merchant ships from a threatened
port for their own protection.
port of debarkation
The geographic point at which cargo or personnel are
discharged. This may be a seaport or aerial port of debarkation;
for unit requirements; it may or may not coincide with the
destination. Also called POD. See also port of embarkation.
port of embarkation
The geographic point in a routing scheme from which cargo
or personnel depart. This may be a seaport or aerial port from
which personnel and equipment flow to a port of debarkation; for
unit and nonunit requirements, it may or may not coincide with
the origin. Also called POE. See also port of debarkation
port of support
The geographic point (seaport or airport) in an objective
area that is the terminal point for strategic deployment for
non-unit-related supplies. Each component designates ports of
support for four categories of resupply: general cargo;
ammunition; petroleum, oils, and lubricants; and air deliveries.
Also called POS.
port operations group
A task-organized unit, located at the seaport of
embarkation and/or debarkation under the control of the landing
force support party and/or combat service support element, that
assists and provides support in the loading and/or unloading and
staging of personnel, supplies, and equipment from shipping.
Also called POG. See also combat service support element;
landing force support party; task organization.
The safeguarding of vessels, harbors, ports,
waterfront facilities, and cargo from internal threats such as
destruction, loss, or injury from sabotage or other subversive
acts; accidents; thefts; or other causes of similar nature. See
also harbor defense; physical security; security.
port support activity
A tailorable support organization composed of mobilization
station assets that ensures the equipment of the deploying units
is ready to load. The port support activity (PSA) operates
unique equipment in conjunction with ship loading operations.
The PSA is operationally controlled by the military port
commander or terminal transfer unit commander. Also called PSA.
See also support.
See position defense.
The type of defense in which the bulk of the
defending force is disposed in selected tactical localities
where the decisive battle is to be fought. Principal reliance is
placed on the ability of the forces in the defended localities
to maintain their positions and to control the terrain between
them. The reserve is used to add depth, to block, or restore the
battle position by counterattack.
A method of airspace control that relies on positive
identification, tracking, and direction of aircraft within an
airspace, conducted with electronic means by an agency having
the authority and responsibility therein.
positive identification and radar advisory zone
A specified area established for identification and flight
following of aircraft in the vicinity of a fleet-defended area.
Also called PIRAZ.
positive phase of the shock wave
The period during which the pressure rises very sharply to
a value that is higher than ambient and then decreases rapidly
to the ambient pressure. See also negative phase of the shock
Posse Comitatus Act
Prohibits search, seizure, or arrest powers to US military
personnel. Amended in 1981 under Public Law 97-86 to permit
increased Department of Defense support of drug interdiction and
other law enforcement activities. (Title 18, "Use of Army and
Air Force as Posse Comitatus" - United States Code, Section
In nuclear warfare, that period which extends from the
termination of the final attack until political authorities
agree to terminate hostilities. See also posthostilities period;
That period subsequent to the date of ratification by
political authorities of agreements to terminate hostilities.
Missions undertaken for the purpose of gathering
information used to measure results of a strike.
The ability of a nation to apply all or some of its
elements of national power - political, economic, informational,
or military - to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain
forces in and from multiple dispersed locations to respond to
crises, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional
stability. See also elements of national power.
See international loading gauge.
1. In land mine warfare, an inert mine to which is
fitted a fuze and a device to indicate, in a non-lethal fashion,
that the fuze has been activated. See also mine. 2. In naval
mine warfare, an inert-filled mine but complete with assembly,
suitable for instruction and for practice in preparation. See
also drill mine.
Fire that is formally planned and executed against
targets or target areas of known location. Such fire is usually
planned well in advance and is executed at a predetermined time
or during a predetermined period of time. See also fire; on
call; scheduled fire.
Operations conducted by the amphibious force upon its
arrival in the operational area and prior to H-hour and/or
L-hour. See also amphibious force; times.
The launching of nuclear loaded aircraft under imminent
nuclear attack so as to preclude friendly aircraft destruction
and loss of weapons on the ground and/or carrier.
precautionary search and rescue and/or combat search and rescue
The planning and pre-positioning of aircraft, ships, or
ground forces and facilities before an operation to provide
search and rescue (SAR) or combat search and rescue (CSAR)
assistance if needed. The planning of precautionary SAR or CSAR
is usually done by plans personnel with SAR or CSAR expertise
and background on an operations staff, a joint search and rescue
center, or a rescue coordination center. Also called
precautionary SAR and/or CSAR. See also combat search and
rescue; joint combat search and rescue operation; search and
1. communications--A designation assigned to a message by
the originator to indicate to communications personnel the
relative order of handling and to the addressee the order in
which the message is to be noted. Examples of communication
precedence from most immediate to least are flash, immediate,
priority, and routine. 2. reconnaissance--A letter designation,
assigned by a unit requesting several reconnaissance missions,
to indicate the relative order of importance (within an
established priority) of the mission requested. 3.
evacuation--The assignment of a priority for medical evacuation
that is based on patient condition, advice of the senior medical
person at the scene, and the tactical situation. See also flash
message; immediate message; priority message; routine message.
See apparent precession.
Charged precipitation particles that strike antennas and
gradually charge the antenna, which ultimately discharges across
the insulator, causing a burst of static. Also called P-STATIC.
A frequency requirement accurate to within one part in
A time requirement accurate to within 10 milliseconds.
An approach in which range, azimuth, and glide slope
information are provided to the pilot. See also final approach;
Bombing directed at a specific point target.
A weapon that uses a seeker to detect electromagnetic
energy reflected from a target or reference point and, through
processing, provides guidance commands to a control system that
guides the weapon to the target. Also called PGM. See also
Any chemical reactant which takes place at any stage in
the production by whatever method of a toxic chemical. This
includes any key component of a binary or multicomponent
chemical system. See also toxic chemical.
Compounds that are required in the synthetic or extraction
processes of drug production, and become incorporated into the
drug molecule. Not used in the production of cocaine or heroin.
Compounds that are required in the synthetic or extraction
processes of drug production, and become incorporated into the
drug molecule. Not used in the production of cocaine or heroin.
An air pressure wave which moves ahead of the main
blast wave for some distance as a result of a nuclear explosion
of appropriate yield and low burst height over a heat-absorbing
(or dusty) surface. The pressure at the precursor front
increases more gradually than in a true (or ideal) shock wave,
so that the behavior in the precursor region is said to be
The sweeping of an area by relatively safe means in
order to reduce the risk to mine countermeasures vessels in
Fire that is delivered without adjustment.
In air reconnaissance, the height of 51 percent or
more of the structures within an area of similar surface
An attack initiated on the basis of incontrovertible
evidence that an enemy attack is imminent.
The initiation of the fission chain reaction in the active
material of a nuclear weapon at any time earlier than that at
which either the designed or the maximum compression or degree
of assembly is attained.
In amphibious operations, operations conducted between the
commencement of the assault phase and the commencement of the
ship-to-shore movement by the main body of the amphibious task
force. They encompass similar preparations conducted by the
advanced force but focus on the landing area, concentrating
specifically on the landing beaches and the helicopter landing
zones to be used by the main landing force. Prelanding
operations also encompass final preparations for the
The probability that a delivery and/or launch vehicle will
survive an enemy attack under an established condition of
preliminary communications search
In search and rescue operations, consists of contacting
and checking major facilities within the areas where the craft
might be or might have been seen. A preliminary communications
search is normally conducted during the uncertainty phase. Also
called PRECOM. See also extended communications search; search
and rescue incident classification, Subpart a.
preliminary demolition target
A target, other than a reserved demolition target,
which is earmarked for demolition and which can be executed
immediately after preparation, provided that prior authority has
been granted. See also demolition target; reserved demolition
preliminary movement schedule
A projection of the routing of movement requirements
reflected in the time-phased force and deployment data, from
origin to destination, including identification of origins,
ports of embarkation, ports of debarkation, and en route stops;
associated time frames for arrival and departure at each
location; type of lift assets required to accomplish the move;
and cargo details by carrier. Schedules are sufficiently
detailed to support comparative analysis of requirements against
capabilities and to develop location workloads for reception and
The loading of selected items aboard ship at one
port prior to the main loading of the ship at another. See also
See flare dud.
Fire delivered on a target preparatory to an assault. See
preplanned air support
Air support in accordance with a program, planned in
advance of operations. See also air support.
preplanned mission request
A request for an air strike on a target that can be
anticipated sufficiently in advance to permit detailed mission
coordination and planning.
preplanned nuclear support
Nuclear support planned in advance of operations. See also
immediate nuclear support; nuclear support.
To place military units, equipment, or supplies at
or near the point of planned use or at a designated location to
reduce reaction time, and to ensure timely support of a specific
force during initial phases of an operation.
pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement, balance
That portion of the pre-positioned war reserve materiel
requirement that has not been acquired or funded. This level
consists of the pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement,
less the pre-positioned war reserve requirement, protectable.
pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement, protectable
That portion of the pre-positioned war reserve materiel
requirement that is protected for purposes of procurement,
funding, and inventory management.
pre-positioned war reserve requirement
That portion of the war reserve materiel requirement that
the current Secretary of Defense guidance dictates be reserved
and positioned at or near the point of planned use or issue to
the user prior to hostilities to reduce reaction time and to
assure timely support of a specific force or project until
replenishment can be effected.
pre-positioned war reserve stock
The assets that are designated to satisfy the
pre-positioned war reserve materiel requirement. Also called
prescribed nuclear load
A specified quantity of nuclear weapons to be
carried by a delivery unit. The establishment and replenishment
of this load after each expenditure is a command decision and is
dependent upon the tactical situation, the nuclear logistical
situation, and the capability of the unit to transport and
utilize the load. It may vary from day to day and among similar
prescribed nuclear stockage
A specified quantity of nuclear weapons, components
of nuclear weapons, and warhead test equipment to be stocked in
special ammunition supply points or other logistical
installations. The establishment and replenishment of this
stockage is a command decision and is dependent upon the
tactical situation, the allocation, the capability of the
logistical support unit to store and maintain the nuclear
weapons, and the nuclear logistical situation. The prescribed
stockage may vary from time to time and among similar logistical
A technique of missile control wherein a predetermined
flight path is set into the control mechanism and cannot be
adjusted after launching.
Procedures by which the President brings all or part of
the Army National Guard or Air National Guard to active Federal
service under section 12406 and Chapter 15 of title 10 (DOD), US
Code. See also active duty; federal service; Presidential
Reserve Callup Authority.
Presidential Reserve Callup Authority
Provision of a public law (US Code, Title 10 (DOD),
section 12304) that provides the President a means to activate,
without a declaration of national emergency, not more than
200,000 members of the Selected Reserve and the Individual Ready
Reserve (of whom not more than 30,000 may be members of the
Individual Ready Reserve), for not more than 270 days to meet
the support requirements of any operational mission. Members
called under this provision may not be used for disaster relief
or to suppress insurrection. This authority has particular
utility when used in circumstances in which the escalatory
national or international signals of partial or full
mobilization would be undesirable. Forces available under this
authority can provide a tailored, limited-scope, deterrent, or
operational response, or may be used as a precursor to any
subsequent mobilization. Also called PRCA. See also Individual
Ready Reserve; mobilization; Presidential Callup; Selected
An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of
altitude which corresponds to that pressure in the standard
atmosphere. See also altitude.
The technique of breathing which is required when
oxygen is supplied direct to an individual at a pressure higher
than the ambient barometric pressure.
See shock front.
1. In land mine warfare, a mine whose fuze responds
to the direct pressure of a target. 2. In naval mine warfare, a
mine whose circuit responds to the hydrodynamic pressure field
of a target. See also mine.
pressure mine circuit
See pressure mine.
The occupied space of an aircraft in which the air
pressure has been increased above that of the ambient atmosphere
by compression of the ambient atmosphere into the space.
Missions undertaken for the purpose of obtaining complete
information about known targets for use by the strike force.
1. The security procedures undertaken by the public and
private sectors in order to discourage terrorist acts. See
alsoantiterrorism. 2. In space usage, measures to preclude
anadversary's hostile use of United States or third-party
spacesystems and services. Prevention can include
diplomatic,economic, and political measures. See also space
prevention of stripping equipment
See antirecovery device.
The deployment of military forces to deter violence at the
interface or zone of potential conflict where tension is rising
among parties. Forces may be employed in such a way that they
are indistinguishable from a peacekeeping force in terms of
equipment, force posture, and activities. See also peace
enforcement; peacekeeping; peace operations.
Diplomatic actions taken in advance of a predictable
crisis to prevent or limit violence.
The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of
maintaining equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating
condition by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and
correction of incipient failures either before they occur or
before they develop into major defects.
The anticipation, communication, prediction,
identification, prevention, education, risk assessment, and
control of communicable diseases, illnesses and exposure to
endemic, occupational, and environmental threats. These threats
include nonbattle injuries, combat stress responses, weapons of
mass destruction, and other threats to the health and readiness
of military personnel. Communicable diseases include anthropod-,
vector-, food-, waste-, and waterborne diseases. Preventative
medicine measures include field sanitation, medical
surveillance, pest and vector control, disease risk assessment,
environmental and occupational health surveillance, waste
(human, hazardous, and medical) disposal, food safety
inspection, and potable water surveillance. Also called PVNTMED.
A war initiated in the belief that military conflict,
while not imminent, is inevitable, and that to delay would
involve greater risk.
prewithdrawal demolition target
A target prepared for demolition preliminary to a
withdrawal, the demolition of which can be executed as soon
after preparation as convenient on the orders of the officer to
whom the responsibility for such demolitions has been delegated.
See also demolition target.
primary aircraft authorization
The number of aircraft authorized to a unit for
performance of its operational mission. The primary
authorization forms the basis for the allocation of operating
resources to include manpower, support equipment, and
flying-hour funds. Also called PAA.
primary aircraft inventory
The aircraft assigned to meet the primary aircraft
authorization. Also called PAI.
Armed forces censorship performed by personnel of a
company, battery, squadron, ship, station, base, or similar unit
on the personal communications of persons assigned, attached, or
otherwise under the jurisdiction of a unit. See also censorship.
primary control officer
In amphibious operations, the officer embarked in a
primary control ship assigned to control the movement of landing
craft, amphibious vehicles, and landing ships to and from a
colored beach. Also called PCO.
primary control ship
In amphibious operations, a ship of the task force
designated to provide support for the primary control officer
and a combat information center control team for a colored
beach. Also called PCS.
primary flight control
The controlling agency on aviation ships and amphibious
aviation assault ships that is responsible for air traffic
control of aircraft within 5 nautical miles of the ship. On
Coast Guard cutters, primary flight control duties are performed
by a combat information center, and the term "PRIFLY" is not
used. Also called PRIFLY. See also amphibious aviation assault
ship; aviation ship.
primary imagery dissemination
See electronic imagery dissemination.
primary imagery dissemination system
See electronic imagery dissemination.
Principal, although not exclusive, interest and
responsibility for accomplishment of a given mission, including
responsibility for reconciling the activities of other agencies
that possess collateral interest in the program.
primary review authority
The organization, within the lead agent's chain of
command, that is assigned by the lead agent to perform the
actions and coordination necessary to develop and maintain the
assigned joint publication under the cognizance of the lead
agent. Also called PRA. See also joint publication; lead agent.
An object of high publicity value to terrorists. See also
antiterrorism; secondary targets.
A charge ready in all aspects for ignition.
A vehicle, including heavy construction equipment,
possessing military characteristics, designed primarily for
towing heavy, wheeled weapons and frequently providing
facilities for the transportation of the crew of, and ammunition
for, the weapon.
A contracting process that provides commercial products to
regionally grouped military and federal customers from
commercial distributors using electronic commerce. Customers
typically receive materiel delivery through the vendor's
commercial distribution system. Also called PV. See also
A building aboard a diplomatic or consular compound where
classified information may be handled, stored, discussed, or
processed, but that does not house the offices of the chief of
mission or principal officer.
End items and replacement assemblies of such importance
that management techniques require centralized individual item
management throughout the supply system, to include depot level,
base level, and items in the hands of using units. These
specifically include the items where, in the judgment of the
Services, there is a need for central inventory control,
including centralized computation of requirements, central
procurement, central direction of distribution, and central
knowledge and control of all assets owned by the Services.
The officer in charge of a diplomatic mission, consular
office, or other Foreign Service post, such as a United States
principal operational interest
When used in connection with an established facility
operated by one Service for joint use by two or more Services,
"principal operational interest" indicates a requirement for the
greatest use of, or the greatest need for, the services of that
facility. The term may be applied to a Service, but is more
applicable to a command.
On an oblique photograph, a line parallel to the
true horizon and passing through the principal point.
A vertical plane which contains the principal point
of an oblique photograph, the perspective center of the lens,
and the ground nadir.
In cartography, the scale of a reduced or generating
globe representing the sphere or spheroid, defined by the
fractional relation of their respective radii. Also called
nominal scale. See also scale.
On an oblique photograph, a line perpendicular to
the true horizon and passing through the principal point.
printing size of a map or chart
The dimensions of the smallest rectangle which will
contain a map or chart, including all the printed material in
A reference to an individual print in an air
A two-digit issue and priority code (01 through 15) placed
in military standard requisitioning and issue procedure
requisitions. It is based upon a combination of factors that
relate the mission of the requisitioner and the urgency of need
or the end use and is used to provide a means of assigning
relative rankings to competing demands placed on the Department
of Defense supply system.
priority intelligence requirements
Those intelligence requirements for which a commander has
an anticipated and stated priority in the task of planning and
decision making. Also called PIRs. See also information
requirements; intelligence; intelligence process; intelligence
A category of precedence reserved for messages that
require expeditious action by the addressee(s) and/or furnish
essential information for the conduct of operations in progress
when routine precedence will not suffice. See also precedence.
priority national intelligence objectives
A guide for the coordination of intelligence collection
and production in response to requirements relating to the
formulation and execution of national security policy. They are
compiled annually by the Washington Intelligence Community and
flow directly from the intelligence mission as set forth by the
National Security Council. They are specific enough to provide a
basis for planning the allocation of collection and research
resources, but not so specific as to constitute in themselves
research and collection requirements.
priority of immediate mission requests
See emergency priority; urgent priority.
priority system for mission requests for tactical reconnaissance
A system that assigns each tactical reconnaissance request
the appropriate priority as follows. Priority I--Takes
precedence over all other requests except those previously
assigned priority I. The results of these requests are of
paramount importance to the immediate battle situation or
objective. Priority II--The results of these requirements are in
support of the general battle situation and will be accomplished
as soon as possible after priority I requests. These are
requests to gain current battle information. Priority III--The
results of these requests update the intelligence database but
do not affect the immediate battle situation. Priority IV--The
results of these requests are of a routine nature. These results
will be fulfilled when the reconnaissance effort permits. See
Permission granted by the appropriate authority
prior to the commencement of a flight or a series of flights
landing in or flying over the territory of the nation concerned.
prisoner of war
A detained person as defined in Articles 4 and 5 of the
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
of August 12, 1949. In particular, one who, while engaged in
combat under orders of his or her government, is captured by the
armed forces of the enemy. As such, he or she is entitled to the
combatant's privilege of immunity from the municipal law of the
capturing state for warlike acts which do not amount to breaches
of the law of armed conflict. For example, a prisoner of war may
be, but is not limited to, any person belonging to one of the
following categories who has fallen into the power of the enemy:
a member of the armed forces, organized militia or volunteer
corps; a person who accompanies the armed forces without
actually being a member thereof; a member of a merchant marine
or civilian aircraft crew not qualifying for more favorable
treatment; or individuals who, on the approach of the enemy,
spontaneously take up arms to resist the invading forces. Also
called POW or PW.
prisoner of war branch camp
A subsidiary camp under the supervision and
administration of a prisoner of war camp.
prisoner of war camp
An installation established for the internment and
administration of prisoners of war.
prisoner of war censorship
The censorship of the communications to and from enemy
prisoners of war and civilian internees held by the United
States Armed Forces. See also censorship.
prisoner of war compound
A subdivision of a prisoner of war enclosure.
prisoner of war enclosure
A subdivision of a prisoner of war camp.
prisoner of war personnel record
A form for recording the photograph, fingerprints,
and other pertinent personal data concerning the prisoner of
war, including that required by the Geneva Convention.
In antiterrorism, measures taken in the preventive stage
of antiterrorism designed to harden targets and detect actions
before they occur.
proactive mine countermeasures
Measures intended to prevent the enemy from successfully
laying mines. See also mine countermeasures.
probability of damage
The probability that damage will occur to a target
expressed as a percentage or as a decimal. Also called PD.
See horizontal error.
probable error deflection
Error in deflection that is exceeded as often as not.
probable error height of burst
Error in height of burst that projectile and/or missile
fuzes may be expected to exceed as often as not.
probable error range
Error in range that is exceeded as often as not.
In air operations, a damage assessment on an enemy
aircraft seen to break off combat in circumstances which lead to
the conclusion that it must be a loss although it is not
actually seen to crash.
In information operations, any attempt to gather
information about an automated information system or its on-line
users. See also information; information operations; information
A method of airspace control which relies on a
combination of previously agreed and promulgated orders and
Standard, detailed steps that prescribe how to perform
specific tasks. See also tactics; techniques.
An aircraft maneuver in which a turn is made away
from a designated track followed by a turn in the opposite
direction, both turns being executed at a constant rate so as to
permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the
reciprocal of the designated track.
A word or phrase limited to radio telephone procedure used
to facilitate communication by conveying information in a
condensed standard form. Also called proword.
1. In photography, the operations necessary to produce
negatives, diapositives, or prints from exposed films, plates,
or paper. 2. A system of operations designed to convert raw data
into useful information.
processing and exploitation
In intelligence usage, the conversion of collected
information into forms suitable to the production of
intelligence. See also intelligence process.
A document published to the inhabitants of an area that
sets forth the basis of authority and scope of activities of a
commander in a given area and which defines the obligations,
liabilities, duties, and rights of the population affected.
procurement lead time
The interval in months between the initiation of
procurement action and receipt into the supply system of the
production model (excludes prototypes) purchased as the result
of such actions. It is composed of two elements, production lead
time and administrative lead time. See also administrative lead
time; initiation of procurement action; level of supply;
production lead time; receipt into the supply system.
In counterdrug operations, countries where naturally
occurring plants such as coca, cannabis, or poppies are
cultivated for later refinement into illicit drugs. See also
The total national industrial production capacity
available for the manufacture of items to meet materiel
production lead time
The time interval between the placement of a contract and
receipt into the supply system of materiel purchased. Two
entries are provided: a. initial--The time interval if the item
is not under production as of the date of contract placement;
and b. reorder--The time interval if the item is under
production as of the date of contract placement. See also
procurement lead time.
That part of logistics concerning research, design,
development, manufacture, and acceptance of materiel. In
consequence, production logistics includes: standardization and
interoperability, contracting, quality assurance, initial
provisioning, transportability, reliability and defect analysis,
safety standards, specifications and production processes,
trials and testing (including provision of necessary
facilities), equipment documentation, configuration control, and
production loss appraisal
An estimate of damage inflicted on an industry in terms of
quantities of finished products denied the enemy from the moment
of attack through the period of reconstruction to the point when
full production is resumed.
proficiency training aircraft
Aircraft required to maintain the proficiency of pilots
and other aircrew members who are assigned to nonflying duties.
See flight profile.
The total of the active and reserve aircraft. See also
The forces that exist for each year of the Future Years
Defense Program. They contain the major combat and tactical
support forces that are expected to execute the national
strategy within manpower, fiscal, and other constraints. See
also current force; force; Intermediate Force Planning Level.
program of nuclear cooperation
Presidentially approved bilateral proposals for the
United States to provide nuclear weapons and specified support
to user nations who desire to commit delivery units to NATO in
nuclear only or dual capable roles. After presidential approval
in principle, negotiations will be initiated with the user
nation to develop detailed support arrangements.
Payment made as work progresses under a contract, upon the
basis of costs incurred, of percentage of completion
accomplished, or of a particular stage of completion. The term
does not include payments for partial deliveries accepted by the
Government under a contract or partial payments on contract
A specified area within the land areas of a state or its
internal waters, archipelagic waters, or territorial sea
adjacent thereto over which the flight of aircraft is
prohibited. May also refer to land or sea areas to which access
is prohibited. See also closed area; danger area; restricted
projected map display
The displayed image of a map or chart projected
through an optical or electro-optical system onto a viewing
An enlarged or reduced photographic print made by
projection of the image of a negative or a transparency onto a
proliferation (nuclear weapons)
The process by which one nation after another comes into
possession of, or into the right to determine the use of,
nuclear weapons; each nation becomes potentially able to launch
a nuclear attack upon another nation.
The gamma rays produced in fission and as a result of
other neutron reactions and nuclear excitation of the weapon
materials appearing within a second or less after a nuclear
explosion. The radiations from these sources are known either as
prompt or instantaneous gamma rays. See also induced radiation;
initial radiation; residual radiation.
The verification that a breached lane is free of live
mines by passing a mine roller or other mine-resistant vehicle
through as the lead vehicle
Any form of communication in support of national
objectives designed to influence the opinions, emotions,
attitudes, or behavior of any group in order to benefit the
sponsor, either directly or indirectly. See also black
propaganda; grey propaganda; white propaganda.
See mobile mine.
An authority authorized to call an opposing force hostile;
may be either the President, the Secretary of Defense, the
affected combatant commander, and/or any commander so delegated
by either the President, Secretary of Defense or the combatant
A clearance for entry of units into specified defense
areas by civil or military authorities having responsibility for
granting such clearance.
1. Anything that may be owned. 2. As used in the military
establishment, this term is usually confined to tangible
property, including real estate and materiel. For special
purposes and as used in certain statutes, this term may exclude
such items as the public domain, certain lands, certain
categories of naval vessels, and records of the Federal
A formal record of property and property transactions in
terms of quantity and/or cost, generally by item. An official
record of Government property required to be maintained.
A method of homing navigation in which the missile turn
rate is directly proportional to the turn rate in space of the
line of sight.
The red cross, red crescent, and other symbols that
designate that persons, places, or equipment so marked have a
protected status under the law of war
Those friendly frequencies used for a particular
operation, identified and protected to prevent them from being
inadvertently jammed by friendly forces while active electronic
warfare operations are directed against hostile forces. These
frequencies are of such critical importance that jamming should
be restricted unless absolutely necessary or until coordination
with the using unit is made. They are generally time-oriented,
may change with the tactical situation, and must be updated
periodically. See also electronic warfare.
Persons (such as enemy prisoners of war) and places (such
as hospitals) that enjoy special protections under the law of
war. They may or may not be marked with protected emblems.
A facility which is protected by the use of
camouflage or concealment, selective siting, construction of
facilities designed to prevent damage from fragments caused by
conventional weapons, or a combination of such measures.
1. Measures that are taken to keep nuclear, biological,
and chemical hazards from having an adverse effect on
personnel,equipment, or critical assets and facilities.
Protection consistsof five groups of activities: hardening of
positions; protectingpersonnel; assuming mission-oriented
protective posture; usingphysical defense measures; and reacting
to attack. 2. In spaceusage, active and passive defensive
measures to ensure thatUnited States and friendly space systems
perform as designed byseeking to overcome an adversary's
attempts to negate them and tominimize damage if negation is
attempted. See also mission-oriented protective posture; space
protection of shipping
The use of proportionate force by US warships, military
aircraft, and other forces, when necessary for the protection of
US flag vessels and aircraft, US citizens (whether embarked in
US or foreign vessels), and their property against unlawful
violence. This protection may be extended (consistent with
international law) to foreign flag vessels, aircraft, and
Clothing especially designed, fabricated, or treated
to protect personnel against hazards caused by extreme changes
in physical environment, dangerous working conditions, or enemy
A protective ensemble designed to protect the wearer's
face and eyes and prevent the breathing of air contaminated with
chemical and/or biological agents. See also mission-oriented
1. In land mine warfare, a minefield employed to
assist a unit in its local, close-in protection. 2. In naval
mine warfare, a minefield laid in friendly territorial waters to
protect ports, harbors, anchorages, coasts, and coastal routes.
See also minefield.
A model suitable for evaluation of design, performance,
and production potential.
See initial provisioning.
See procedure word.
A fuze wherein primary initiation occurs by remotely
sensing the presence, distance, and/or direction of a target or
its associated environment by means of a signal generated by the
fuze or emitted by the target, or by detecting a disturbance of
a natural field surrounding the target.
A method of homing navigation in which the missile is
directed toward the instantaneous target position in azimuth,
while pursuit navigation in elevation is delayed until more
favorable angle of attack on the target is achieved.
psychological consolidation activities
Planned psychological activities across the range of
military operations directed at the civilian population located
in areas under friendly control in order to achieve a desired
behavior that supports the military objectives and the
operational freedom of the supported commanders.
Planned operations to convey selected information and
indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions,
motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of
foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The
purpose of psychological operations is to induce or reinforce
foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's
objectives. Also called PSYOP. See also overt peacetime
psychological operations programs; perception management.
psychological operations assessment team
A small, tailored team (approximately 4-12 personnel) that
consists of psychological operations planners and product
distribution/dissemination and logistic specialists. The team is
deployed to theater at the request of the combatant commander to
assess the situation, develop psychological operations
objectives, and recommend the appropriate level of support to
accomplish the mission. Also called POAT.
psychological operations impact indicators
An observable event or a discernible subjectively
determined behavioral change that represents an effect of a
psychological operations activity on the intended foreign target
audience at a particular point in time. It is measured evidence,
ascertained during the analytical phase of the psychological
operations development process, to evaluate the degree to which
the psychological operations objective is achieved.
psychological operations support element
A tailored element that can provide limited psychological
operations support. Psychological operations support elements do
not contain organic command and control capability; therefore,
command relationships must be clearly defined. The size,
composition and capability of the psychological operations
support element are determined by the requirements of the
supported commander. A psychological operations support element
is not designed to provide full-spectrum psychological
operations capability; reachback is critical for its mission
success. Also called PSE.
Those public information, command information, and
community relations activities directed toward both the external
and internal publics with interest in the Department of Defense.
Also called PA. See also command information; community
relations; public information.
public affairs assessment
An analysis of the news media and public environments to
evaluate the degree of understanding about strategic and
operational objectives and military activities and to identify
levels of public support. It includes judgments about the public
affairs impact of pending decisions and recommendations about
the structure of public affairs support for the assigned
mission. See also assessment; public affairs.
public affairs ground rules
Conditions established by a military command to govern the
conduct of news gathering and the release and/or use of
specified information during an operation or during a specific
period of time. See also public affairs.
public affairs guidance
Normally, a package of information to support the public
discussion of defense issues and operations. Such guidance can
range from a telephonic response to a specific question to a
more comprehensive package. Included could be an approved public
affairs policy, contingency statements, answers to anticipated
media questions, and community relations guidance. The public
affairs guidance also addresses the method(s), timing, location,
and other details governing the release of information to the
public. Public affairs guidance is approved by the Assistant to
the Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs. Also called PAG.
See also community relations; public affairs.
Those overt international public information activities of
the United States Government designed to promote United States
foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, and
influence foreign audiences and opinion makers, and by
broadening the dialogue between American citizens and
institutions and their counterparts abroad.
Information of a military nature, the dissemination of
which through public news media is not inconsistent with
security, and the release of which is considered desirable or
nonobjectionable to the responsible releasing agency.
public key infrastructure
An enterprise-wide service (i.e. data integrity, user
identification and authentication, user non-repudiation, data
confidentiality, encryption, and digital signature) that
supports digital signatures and other public key-based security
mechanisms for Department of Defense functional enterprise
programs, including generation, production, distribution,
control, and accounting of public key certificates. A public key
infrastructure provides the means to bind public keys to their
owners and helps in the distribution of reliable public keys in
large heterogeneous networks. Public keys are bound to their
owners by public key certificates. These certificates contain
information such as the owner's name and the associated public
key and are issued by a reliable certification authority. Also
The point at which an aircraft must start to climb
from a low-level approach in order to gain sufficient height
from which to execute the attack or retirement. See also contact
A system of using selected pulse-repetition frequencies to
allow a specific laser seeker to acquire a target illuminated by
a specific laser designator. See also laser; laser designator;
In radar, measurement of pulse transmission time in
microseconds; that is, the time the radar's transmitter is
energized during each cycle. Also called pulse length and pulse
A jet-propulsion engine containing neither
compressor nor turbine. Equipped with valves in the front which
open and shut, it takes in air to create thrust in rapid
periodic bursts rather than continuously.
pulse repetition frequency
1. In lasers, the number of pulses that occur each second.
2. In radar, the number of pulses that occur each second. Pulse
repetition frequency should not be confused with transmission
frequency, which is determined by the rate at which cycles are
repeated within the transmitted pulse. Also called PRF. See also
In naval mine warfare, a method of operating
magnetic and acoustic sweeps in which the sweep is energized by
current which varies or is intermittent in accordance with a
A statement outlining the essential characteristics and
functions of an item, service, or materiel required to meet the
minimum needs of the Government. It is used when a specification
is not available or when specific procurement specifications are
not required by the individual Military Departments or the
Department of Defense.
purchase notice agreements
Agreements concerning the purchase of brand-name items for
resale purposes established by each Military Service under the
control of the Defense Logistics Agency.
Any installation or activity, or any division, office,
branch, section, unit, or other organizational element of an
installation or activity charged with the functions of procuring
supplies or services.
An offensive operation designed to catch or cut off
a hostile force attempting to escape, with the aim of destroying
A mixture of chemicals which, when ignited, is capable of
reacting exothermically to produce light, heat, smoke, sound or
A pyrotechnic device added to a firing system which
transmits the ignition flame after a predetermined delay.
A classified message relating to navigational
dangers, navigational aids, mined areas, and searched or swept
A system of preplanned shipping lanes in mined or
potentially mined waters used to minimize the area the mine
countermeasures commander has to keep clear of mines in order to
provide safe passage for friendly shipping.
The angle between the horizontal plane and the axis
of the bore when the weapon is laid. (DOD only) It is the
algebraic sum of the elevation, angle of site, and complementary
angle of site.
A quadruple container box 57.5" x 96" x 96" with a metal
frame, pallet base, and International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) corner fittings. Four of these boxes can
be lashed together to form a 20- foot American National
Standards Institute and/or ISO intermodal container. Also called
A structure of solid construction along a shore or bank
that provides berthing and generally provides cargo-handling
facilities. A similar facility of open construction is called a
wharf. See also wharf.