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Glossary of Military Terms

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Radar equipment (type of equipment may be indicated by a letter as listed in operation orders). May be followed by a color to indicate state of jamming. Colors will be used as follows: a. green--Clear of jamming. b. amber--Sector partially jammed. c. red--Sector completely jammed. d. blue--Completely jammed

An area within a minefield or obstacle belt, free of live mines or obstacles, whose width and direction will allow a friendly force to pass through in tactical formation. See also phoney minefield.

gap filler radar
A radar used to supplement the coverage of the principal radar in areas where coverage is inadequate.

gap (imagery)
Any space where imagery fails to meet minimum coverage requirements. This might be a space not covered by imagery or a space where the minimum specified overlap was not obtained.

gap marker
In landmine warfare, markers used to indicate a minefield gap. Gap markers at the entrance to, and exit from, the gap will be referenced to a landmark or intermediate marker. See also marker.

An error in transmission, reception, encryption, or decryption that changes the text of a message or any portion thereof in such a manner that it is incorrect or undecryptable.

In surveillance, natural or artificial material applied to an object to achieve or assist camouflage.

garrison force
All units assigned to a base or area for defense, development, operation, and maintenance of facilities. See also force(s).

A general term for a collection of spars, ropes, blocks, and equipment used for lifting and stowing cargo and ships stores.

general agency agreement
A contract between the Maritime Administration and a steamship company which, as general agent, exercises administrative control over a government-owned ship for employment by the Military Sealift Command. Also called GAA. See also Military Sealift Command.

general air cargo
Cargo without hazardous or dangerous properties and not requiring extra precautions for air transport

general and complete disarmament
Reductions of armed forces and armaments by all states to levels required for internal security and for an international peace force. Connotation is "total disarmament" by all states.

general cargo
Cargo that is susceptible for loading in general, nonspecialized stowage areas or standard shipping containers; e.g., boxes, barrels, bales, crates, packages, bundles, and pallets.

general engineering
Encompasses the construction and repair of lines of communications, main supply routes, airfields, and logistic facilities to support joint military operations and may be performed in direct support of combat operations, such as battle damage repair. These operations include both horizontal and vertical construction, and may include use of both expedient repair methods and more deliberate construction methods characterized by the application of design criteria, advanced planning, and preparation, depending on the mission requirements. Also called GE.

general map
A map of small scale used for general planning purposes. See also map.

general military intelligence
Intelligence concerning the (1) military capabilities of foreign countries or organizations or (2) topics affecting potential US or multinational military operations, relating to the following subjects: armed forces capabilities, including order of battle, organization, training, tactics, doctrine, strategy, and other factors bearing on military strength and effectiveness; area and terrain intelligence, including urban areas, coasts and landing beaches, and meteorological, oceanographic, and geological intelligence; transportation in all modes; military materiel production and support industries; military and civilian command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence systems; military economics, including foreign military assistance; insurgency and terrorism; military-political-sociological intelligence; location, identification, and description of military-related installations; government control; escape and evasion; and threats and forecasts. (Excludes scientific and technical intelligence.) Also called GMI. See also intelligence; military intelligence.

general orders
1. Permanent instructions, issued in order form, that apply to all members of a command, as compared with special orders, which affect only individuals or small groups. General orders are usually concerned with matters of policy or administration. 2. A series of permanent guard orders that govern the duties of a sentry on post.

general purchasing agents
Agents who have been appointed in the principal overseas areas to supervise, control, coordinate, negotiate, and develop the local procurement of supplies, services, and facilities by Armed Forces of the United States, in order that the most effective utilization may be made of local resources and production.

general quarters
A condition of readiness when naval action is imminent. All battle stations are fully manned and alert; ammunition is ready for instant loading; guns and guided missile launchers may be loaded.

general staff
A group of officers in the headquarters of Army or Marine divisions, Marine brigades, and aircraft wings, or similar or larger units that assist their commanders in planning, coordinating, and supervising operations. A general staff may consist of four or more principal functional sections: personnel (G-1), military intelligence (G-2), operations and training (G-3), logistics (G-4), and (in Army organizations) civil affairs and military government (G-5). (A particular section may be added or eliminated by the commander, dependent upon the need that has been demonstrated.) The comparable Air Force staff is found in the wing and larger units, with sections designated personnel, operations, etc. G-2 Air and G-3 Air are Army officers assigned to G-2 or G-3 at division, corps, and Army headquarters level who assist in planning and coordinating joint operations of ground and air units. Naval staffs ordinarily are not organized on these lines, but when they are, they are designated N-1, N-2, etc. Similarly, a joint staff may be designated J-1, J-2, etc. In Army brigades and smaller units and in Marine Corps units smaller than a brigade or aircraft wing, staff sections are designated S-1, S-2, etc., with corresponding duties; referred to as a unit staff in the Army and as an executive staff in the Marine Corps. See also staff.

general stopping power
The percentage of a group of vehicles in battle formation likely to be stopped by mines when attempting to cross a minefield.

general support
1. That support which is given to the supported force as a whole and not to any particular subdivision thereof. See also close support; direct support; mutual support; support. 2. (DOD only) A tactical artillery mission. Also called GS. See also direct support; general support-reinforcing; reinforcing

general support artillery
Artillery which executes the fire directed by the commander of the unit to which it organically belongs or is attached. It fires in support of the operation as a whole rather than in support of a specific subordinate unit. Also called GSA. See also direct support artillery; general support-reinforcing; reinforcing.

general support-reinforcing
General support-reinforcing artillery has the mission of supporting the force as a whole and of providing reinforcing fires for other artillery units. Also called GSR. See also direct support artillery; reinforcing.

general unloading period
In amphibious operations, that part of the ship-to-shore movement in which unloading is primarily logistic in character, and emphasizes speed and volume of unloading operations. It encompasses the unloading of units and cargo from the ships as rapidly as facilities on the beach permit. It proceeds without regard to class, type, or priority of cargo, as permitted by cargo handling facilities ashore. See also initial unloading period.

general war
Armed conflict between major powers in which the total resources of the belligerents are employed, and the national survival of a major belligerent is in jeopardy.

generation (photography)
The preparation of successive positive and/or negative reproductions from an original negative and/or positive (first-generation). For example, the first positive produced from an original negative is a second-generation product; the negative made from this positive is a third-generation product; and the next positive or print from that negative is a fourth-generation product.

geographic coordinates
The quantities of latitude and longitude which define the position of a point on the surface of the Earth with respect to the reference spheroid. See also coordinates.

geographic reference points
A means of indicating position, usually expressed either as double letters or as code words that are established in operation orders or by other means

A worldwide position reference system that may be applied to any map or chart graduated in latitude and longitude regardless of projection. It is a method of expressing latitude and longitude in a form suitable for rapid reporting and plotting. (This term is derived from the words "The World Geographic Reference System.")

geospatial information and services
The concept for collection, information extraction, storage, dissemination, and exploitation of geodetic, geomagnetic, imagery (both commercial and national source), gravimetric, aeronautical, topographic, hydrographic, littoral, cultural, and toponymic data accurately referenced to a precise location on the earth's surface. These data are used for military planning, training, and operations including navigation, mission planning, mission rehearsal, modeling, simulation and precise targeting. Geospatial information provides the basic framework for battlespace visualization. It is information produced by multiple sources to common interoperable data standards. It may be presented in the form of printed maps, charts, and publications; in digital simulation and modeling databases; in photographic form; or in the form of digitized maps and charts or attributed centerline data. Geospatial services include tools that enable users to access and manipulate data, and also includes instruction, training, laboratory support, and guidance for the use of geospatial data. Also called GI&S.

geospatial information and services priorities
The priorities defined by the Joint Chiefs of Staff for indicating the relative importance of geospatial information and services geographical area as well as weapons systems support requirements. The priorities are used as one of the factors in allocating National Imagery and Mapping Agency production resources. Priority definitions are contained in the joint strategic planning document.

glide bomb
A bomb fitted with airfoils to provide lift and which is carried and released in the direction of a target by an airplane.

glide mode
In a flight control system, a control mode in which an aircraft is automatically positioned to the center of the glide slope course.

Global Air Transportation Execution System
The Air Mobility Command's aerial port operations and management information system designed to support automated cargo and passenger processing, the reporting of in-transit visibility data to the Global Transportation Network, and billing to Air Mobility Command's financial management directorate. Also called GATES. See also Air Mobility Command; Global Transportation Network.

Global Combat Support System
A strategy that provides information interoperability across combat support functions and between combat support and command and control functions through the Global Command and Control System. Also called GCSS. See also combat forces; combat support.

Global Command and Control System
Highly mobile, deployable command and control system supporting forces for joint and multinational operations across the range of military operations, any time and anywhere in the world with compatible, interoperable, and integrated command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence systems. Also called GCCS. See also command and control; command and control system.

Global Decision Support System
Command and control system for Air Mobility Command's mobility airlift and air refueling assets. Provides aircraft schedules, arrival and/or departure, and aircraft status data to support in-transit visibility of aircraft and aircrews. Also called GDSS. See also Air Mobility Command; in-transit visibility.

global distribution
The process that synchronizes and integrates fulfillment of joint force requirements with employment of the joint force. It provides national resources (personnel and materiel) to support execution of joint operations. The ultimate objective of this process is the effective and efficient accomplishment of the joint force mission. See also distribution.

global distribution of materiel
The process of providing materiel from the source of supply to its point of consumption or use on a worldwide basis. See also global distribution.

global grid
An open systems architecture that provides global connectivity instantaneously on warrior demand. The global grid can support both vertical and horizontal information flow to joint and multinational forces. See also common operating environment; node/command, control, communications, and computers node.

Global Information Grid
The globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities, associated processes and personnel for collecting,processing, storing, disseminating and managing information on demand to warfighters, policy makers, and support personnel. The Global Information Grid (GIG) includes all owned and leasedcommunications and computing systems and services, software (including applications), data, security services andother associated services necessary to achieve information superiority. It also includes National Security Systems asdefined in section 5142 of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996. The GIG supports all Department of Defense (DOD), NationalSecurity, and related intelligence community missions and functions (strategic, operational, tactical and business), in warand in peace. The GIG provides capabilities from all operating locations (bases, posts, camps, stations, facilities, mobile platforms and deployed sites). The GIG provides interfaces to coalition, allied, and non-DOD users and systems. Also called GIG. See also grid; information.

global information infrastructure
The worldwide interconnection of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that make vast amounts of information available to users. The global information infrastructure encompasses a wide range of equipment, including cameras, scanners, keyboards, facsimile machines, computers, switches, compact disks, video and audio tape, cable, wire, satellites, fiber-optic transmission lines, networks of all types, televisions, monitors, printers, and much more. The friendly and adversary personnel who make decisions and handle the transmitted information constitute a critical component of the global information infrastructure. Also called GII. See also defense information infrastructure; information; information system; national information infrastructure.

Global Patient Movement Requirements Center
A joint activity reporting directly to the Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command, the Department of Defense single manager for the regulation of movement of uniformed services patients. The Global Patient Movement Requirements Center authorizes transfers to medical treatment facilities of the Military Departments or the Department of Veterans Affairs and coordinates intertheater and inside continental United States patient movement requirements with the appropriate transportation component commands of US Transportation Command. Also called GPMRC. See also medical treatment facility.

global positioning system
A satellite constellation that provides highly accurate position, velocity, and time navigation information to users. Also called GPS.

Global Satellite Communications Support Center
United States Strategic Command operational element responsible for: providing global satellite communications system status; maintaining global situational awareness to include each combatant commander's planned and current operations as well as deliberate plans; supporting radio frequency interference resolution management; supporting satellite anomaly resolution and management; facilitating satellite communications interface to the defense information infrastructure; and managing the Regional Satellite Communications Support Centers. Also called GSSC.

global transportation management
The integrated process of satisfying transportation requirements using the Defense Transportation System to meet national security objectives. The process begins with planning, programming, and budgeting for transportation assets, services, and associated systems and continues through delivery of the users' transportation movement requirements. Also called GTM. See also Defense Transportation System; Global Transportation Network.

Global Transportation Network
The automated support necessary to enable USTransportation Command and its components to provide globaltransportation management. The Global Transportation Network provides the integrated transportation data and systemsnecessary to accomplish global transportation planning, command and control, and in-transit visibility across the range of military operations. The designated Department of Defense in-transit visibility system provides customers with the ability to track the identity, status, and location of Department of Defense units and non-unit cargo, passengers, patients,forces, and military and commercial airlift, sealift, and surface assets from origin to destination across the range of militaryoperations. The Global Transportation Network collects, integrates, and distributes transportation information to combatant commanders, Services, and other Department of Defense customers. Global Transportation Network provides USTransportation Command with the ability to perform command and control operations, planning and analysis, and businessoperations in tailoring customer requirements throughout the requirements process. Also called GTN. See also global transportation management; in-transit visibility; United States Transportation Command.

go no-go
The condition or state of operability of a component or system: "go," functioning properly; or "no-go," not functioning properly. Alternatively, a critical point at which a decision to proceed or not must be made.

government-owned, contract-operated ships
Those ships to which the US Government holds title and which the Military Sealift Command operates under a contract (i.e., nongovernment-manned). These ships are designated United States Naval Ships and use the prefix "USNS" with the ship name and the letter "T" as a prefix to the ship classification (e.g., T-AKR). See also Military Sealift Command; United States Naval Ship.

government-owned, Military Sealift Command-operated ships
Those ships to which the US Government holds title and which the Military Sealift Command operates with US Government (civil service) employees. These ships are designated United States Naval Ships and use the prefix "USNS" with the ship name and the letter "T" as a prefix to the ship classification (e.g., T-AKR). See also Military Sealift Command; United States Naval Ship.

The rate of inclination to horizontal expressed as a ratio, such as 1:25, indicating a one unit rise to 25 units of horizontal distance.

gradient circuit
In mine warfare, a circuit which is actuated when the rate of change, with time, of the magnitude of the influence is within predetermined limits.

grand strategy
See national security strategy; national strategy.

Any and all products of the cartographic and photogrammetric art. A graphic may be a map, chart, or mosaic or even a film strip that was produced using cartographic techniques.

graphic scale
A graduated line by means of which distances on the map, chart, or photograph may be measured in terms of ground distance. See also scale.

In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a mine mooring designed to grapple the sweep wire when the mooring is cut.

1. In cartography, a network of lines representing the Earth's parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. 2. In imagery interpretation, see reticle.

graticule ticks
In cartography, short lines indicating where selected meridians and parallels intersect.

graves registration program
A program that provides for search, recovery, tentative identification, and evacuation or temporary interment. Temporary interment is only authorized by the geographic combatant commander. Disposition of personal effects is included in this program. See also personal effects.

gravity extraction
The extraction of cargoes from the aircraft by influence of their own weight. See also extraction parachute.

grazing fire
Fire approximately parallel to the ground where the center of the cone of fire does not rise above one meter from the ground. See also fire.

Greenwich Mean Time
See Universal Time. Also called GMT.

grey propaganda
Propaganda that does not specifically identify any source. See also propaganda.

1. Two sets of parallel lines intersecting at right angles and forming squares; the grid is superimposed on maps, charts, and other similar representations of the Earth's surface in an accurate and consistent manner in order to permit identification of ground locations with respect to other locations and the computation of direction and distance to other points. 2. A term used in giving the location of a geographic point by grid coordinates. See also military grid; military grid reference system.

grid bearing
Bearing measured from grid north.

grid convergence
The horizontal angle at a place between true north and grid north. It is proportional to the longitude difference between the place and the central meridian. See also convergence.

grid convergence factor
The ratio of the grid convergence angle to the longitude difference. In the Lambert Conical Orthomorphic projection, this ratio is constant for all charts based on the same two standard parallels. See also convergence; grid convergence.

grid coordinates
Coordinates of a grid coordinate system to which numbers and letters are assigned for use in designating a point on a gridded map, photograph, or chart. See also coordinates.

grid coordinate system
A plane-rectangular coordinate system usually based on, and mathematically adjusted to, a map projection in order that geographic positions (latitudes and longitudes) may be readily transformed into plane coordinates and the computations relating to them may be made by the ordinary method of plane surveying. See also coordinates.

grid interval
The distance represented between the lines of a grid.

grid magnetic angle
Angular difference in direction between grid north and magnetic north. It is measured east or west from grid north. Also called grid variation; grivation.

grid navigation
A method of navigation using a grid overlay for direction reference. See also navigational grid.

grid north
The northerly or zero direction indicated by the grid datum of directional reference.

grid ticks
Small marks on the neatline of a map or chart indicating additional grid reference systems included on that sheet. Grid ticks are sometimes shown on the interior grid lines of some maps for ease of referencing.

grid variation
See grid magnetic angle.

See grid magnetic angle.

grossly transportation feasible
A determination made by the supported commander that a draft operation plan can be supported with the apportioned transportation assets. This determination is made by using a transportation feasibility estimator to simulate movement of personnel and cargo from port of embarkation to port of debarkation within a specified time frame.

gross weight
1. Weight of a vehicle, fully equipped and serviced for operation, including the weight of the fuel, lubricants, coolant, vehicle tools and spares, crew, personal equipment, and load. 2. Weight of a container or pallet including freight and binding. Also called WT. See also net weight.

ground alert
That status in which aircraft on the ground/deck are fully serviced and armed, with combat crews in readiness to take off within a specified short period of time (usually 15 minutes) after receipt of a mission order. See also airborne alert; alert.

ground combat element
The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is task-organized to conduct ground operations. It is usually constructed around an infantry organization but can vary in size from a small ground unit of any type, to one or more Marine divisions that can be independently maneuvered under the direction of the MAGTF commander. The ground combat element itself is not a formal command. Also called GCE. See also aviation combat element; combat service support element; command element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

ground control
A system of accurate measurements used to determine the distances and directions or differences in elevation between points on the Earth. See also common control (artillery); control point; traverse.

ground-controlled approach procedure
The technique for talking down, through the use of both surveillance and precision approach radar, an aircraft during its approach so as to place it in a position for landing. See also automatic approach and landing.

ground-controlled interception
A technique which permits control of friendly aircraft or guided missiles for the purpose of effecting interception. See also air interception.

ground fire
Small arms ground-to-air fire directed against aircraft.

ground liaison officer
An officer trained in offensive air support activities. Ground liaison officers are normally organized into parties under the control of the appropriate Army commander to provide liaison to Air Force and naval units engaged in training and combat operations. Also called GLO.

ground mine
See bottom mine.

ground observer center
A center to which ground observer teams report and which in turn will pass information to the appropriate control and/or reporting agency.

ground return
The radar reflection from the terrain as displayed and/or recorded as an image.

ground speed
The horizontal component of the speed of an aircraft relative to the Earth's surface. Also called GS.

ground visibility
Prevailing horizontal visibility near the Earth's surface as reported by an accredited observer.

ground zero
The point on the surface of the Earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of a planned or actual nuclear detonation. See also actual ground zero; desired ground zero.

1. A flexible administrative and tactical unit composed of either two or more battalions or two or more squadrons. The term also applies to combat support and combat service support units. 2. A number of ships and/or aircraft, normally a subdivision of a force, assigned for a specific purpose. Also called GP.

group interment
An interment in a common grave of two or more individually unidentified remains. See also emergency interment; mortuary affairs; temporary interment; trench interment.

group of targets
Two or more targets on which fire is desired simultaneously. A group of targets is designated by a letter/number combination or a nickname.

group rendezvous
A check point at which formations of the same type will join before proceeding. See also force rendezvous.

1. A form of security operation whose primary task is to protect the main force by fighting to gain time while also observing and reporting information, and to prevent enemy ground observation of and direct fire against the main body by reconnoitering, attacking, defending, and delaying. A guard force normally operates within the range of the main body's indirect fire weapons. 2. A radio frequency that is normally used for emergency transmissions and is continuously monitored. UHF band: 243.0 MHZ; VHF band: 121.5 MHZ. See also cover; flank guard; screen. 3. A military or civilian individual assigned to protect personnel, equipment, or installations, or to oversee a prisoner.

guarded frequencies
Enemy frequencies that are currently being exploited for combat information and intelligence. A guarded frequency is time-oriented in that the guarded frequency list changes as the enemy assumes different combat postures. These frequencies may be jammed after the commander has weighed the potential operational gain against the loss of the technical information.See also electronic warfare.

A combat participant in guerrilla warfare. See also unconventional warfare.

guerrilla force
A group of irregular, predominantly indigenous personnel organized along military lines to conduct military and paramilitary operations in enemy-held, hostile, or denied territory.

guerrilla warfare
Military and paramilitary operations conducted in enemy-held or hostile territory by irregular, predominantly indigenous forces. Also called GW. See also unconventional warfare.

guidance station equipment
The ground-based portion of a missile guidance system necessary to provide guidance during missile flight.

guided missile
An unmanned vehicle moving above the surface of the Earth whose trajectory or flight path is capable of being altered by an external or internal mechanism. See also aerodynamic missile; ballistic missile.

guide specification
Minimum requirements to be used as a basis for the evaluation of a national specification covering a fuel, lubricant or associated product proposed for standardization action.

In naval mine warfare, a ship used to determine whether an area can be considered safe from influence mines under certain conditions or, specifically, to detonate pressure mines.

In electronic warfare, a floating radar reflector used to simulate a surface target at sea for deceptive purposes.

1. A cannon with relatively long barrel, operating with relatively low angle of fire, and having a high muzzle velocity. 2. A cannon with tube length 30 calibers or more. See also howitzer; mortar.

gun carriage
A mobile or fixed support for a gun. It sometimes includes the elevating and traversing mechanisms. Also called carriage.

gun-target line
An imaginary straight line from gun to target. Also called GTL.

gun-type weapon
A device in which two or more pieces of fissionable material, each less than a critical mass, are brought together very rapidly so as to form a supercritical mass that can explode as the result of a rapidly expanding fission chain.

gyromagnetic compass
A directional gyroscope whose azimuth scale is maintained in alignment with the magnetic meridian by a magnetic detector unit.


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