Glossary of Military Terms
The earliest time expected for a special operations
tactical element and its supporting platform to depart the
staging or marshalling area together en route to the operations
area. Also called EALT.
earliest arrival date
A day, relative to C-day, that is specified by a planner
as the earliest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or
replacement personnel can be accepted at a port of debarkation
during a deployment. Used with the latest arrival data, it
defines a delivery window for transportation planning. Also
called EAD. See also latest arrival date.
An antireconnaissance satellite weapon system.
See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment).
Early notification of the launch or approach of
unknown weapons or weapons carriers. Also called EW. See also
attack assessment; tactical warning.
earmarking of stocks
The arrangement whereby nations agree, normally in
peacetime, to identify a proportion of selected items of their
war reserve stocks to be called for by specified NATO
The process of making a satisfactory electrical
connection between the structure, including the metal skin, of
an object or vehicle, and the mass of the Earth, to ensure a
common potential with the Earth. See also bonding.
1. A subdivision of a headquarters, i.e., forward
echelon, rear echelon. 2. Separate level of command. As compared
to a regiment, a division is a higher echelon, a battalion is a
lower echelon. 3. A fraction of a command in the direction of
depth to which a principal combat mission is assigned; i.e.,
attack echelon, support echelon, reserve echelon. 4. A formation
in which its subdivisions are placed one behind another, with a
lateral and even spacing to the same side.
Movement of a unit from one position to another
without discontinuing performance of its primary function. (DOD
only) Normally, the unit divides into two functional elements
(base and advance); and, while the base continues to operate,
the advance element displaces to a new site where, after it
becomes operational, it is joined by the base element.
The planned use of economic measures designed to influence
the policies or actions of another state, e.g., to impair the
war-making potential of a hostile power or to generate economic
stability within a friendly power.
The process of preparing for and carrying out such
changes in the organization and functioning of the national
economy as are necessary to provide for the most effective use
of resources in a national emergency.
economic order quantity
That quantity derived from a mathematical technique used
to determine the optimum (lowest) total variable costs required
to order and hold inventory.
The total capacity of a nation to produce goods and
economic potential for war
That share of the total economic capacity of a nation that
can be used for the purposes of war.
economic retention stock
That portion of the quantity of an item excess of the
approved force retention level that has been determined will be
more economical to retain for future peacetime issue in lieu of
replacement of future issues by procurement. To warrant economic
retention, items must have a reasonably predictable demand rate.
Aggressive use of economic means to achieve national
That damage necessary to render a target element
inoperative, unserviceable, nonproductive, or uninhabitable.
effective US controlled ships
US-owned foreign flagships that can be tasked by the
Maritime Administration to support Department of Defense
requirements when necessary. Also called EUSCS.
1. Escape from an aircraft by means of an
independently propelled seat or capsule. 2. In air armament, the
process of forcefully separating an aircraft store from an
aircraft to achieve satisfactory separation.
a. command ejection system--A system in which the
pilot of an aircraft or the occupant of the other ejection
seat(s) initiates ejection resulting in the automatic ejection
of all occupants. b. command select ejection system--A system
permitting the optional transfer from one crew station to
another of the control of a command ejection system for
automatic ejection of all occupants. c. independent ejection
system--An ejection system which operates independently of other
ejection systems installed in one aircraft. d. sequenced
ejection system--A system which ejects the aircraft crew in
sequence to ensure a safe minimum total time of escape without
In naval mine warfare, a magnetic cable sweep in which the
water forms part of the electric circuit.
(DOD,NATO) An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates
an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is
activated by the application of electrical energy. Also called
The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that
utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their
intended operational environments without suffering unacceptable
degradation or causing unintentional degradation because of
electromagnetic radiation or response. It involves the
application of sound electromagnetic spectrum management;
system, equipment, and device design configuration that ensures
interference-free operation; and clear concepts and doctrines
that maximize operational effectiveness. Also called EMC. See
also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare; spectrum
The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration,
suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of
electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading
information to an enemy or to enemy electromagnetic-dependent
weapons, thereby degrading or neutralizing the enemy's combat
capability. Among the types of electromagnetic deception are: a.
manipulative electromagnetic deception--Actions to eliminate
revealing, or convey misleading, electromagnetic telltale
indicators that may be used by hostile forces; b. simulative
electromagnetic deception--Actions to simulate friendly,
notional, or actual capabilities to mislead hostile forces; and
c. imitative electromagnetic deception--The introduction of
electromagnetic energy into enemy systems that imitates enemy
emissions. See also electronic warfare.
The resulting product of the power and time distribution,
in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted
electromagnetic emission levels that may be encountered by a
military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned
mission in its intended operational environment. It is the sum
of electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic pulse; hazards
of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and
volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning
and precipitation static. Also called EME.
electromagnetic environmental effects
The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the
operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems,
and platforms. It encompasses all electromagnetic disciplines,
including electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic
interference; electromagnetic vulnerability; electromagnetic
pulse; electronic protection, hazards of electromagnetic
radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and
natural phenomena effects of lightning and precipitation static.
Also called E3.
Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or
equipment by filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or
shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy.
See also electronic warfare.
Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts,
obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective
performance of electronics and electrical equipment. It can be
induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare,
or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and
responses, intermodulation products, and the like. Also called
The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into
transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of
deceiving operators or of causing confusion. See also electronic
The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of
electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing
an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and
with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy's combat
capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic
warfare; spectrum management.
The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic
pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may
couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging
current and voltage surges. Also called EMP. See also
Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic
fields and propagated with the speed of light. Includes gamma
radiation, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation,
and radar and radio waves.
electromagnetic radiation hazards
Hazards caused by transmitter or antenna installation that
generates electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance,
personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe
levels or increases the existing levels to a hazardous level; or
a personnel, fueling, or ordnance installation located in an
area that is illuminated by electromagnetic radiation at a level
that is hazardous to the planned operations or occupancy. Also
called EMR hazards or RADHAZ.
The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from
zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically
designated bands. See also electronic warfare.
The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a
definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated
mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level
of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also called EMV.
See electronic warfare.
electronic imagery dissemination
The transmission of imagery or imagery products by any
electronic means. This includes the following four categories.
a. primary imagery dissemination system--The equipment and
procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of
un-exploited original or near-original quality imagery in near
real time. b. primary imagery dissemination--The electronic
transmission and receipt of unexploited original or
near-original quality imagery in near real time through a
primary imagery dissemination system. c. secondary imagery
dissemination system--The equipment and procedures used in the
electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original
quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near
real time. d. secondary imagery dissemination--The electronic
transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality
imagery and imagery products in other than real or near real
time through a secondary imagery dissemination system.
Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from
foreign non-communications electromagnetic radiations emanating
from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. Also
called ELINT. See also electronic warfare; foreign
instrumentation signals intelligence; intelligence; signals
electronic line of sight
The path traversed by electromagnetic waves that is not
subject to reflection or refraction by the atmosphere
The controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy
on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of
friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy
electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence without
significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems.
Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the
devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of
learning the functions and operational capabilities of the
devices or systems.
See electronic warfare.
The detection, location, identification, and evaluation of
foreign electromagnetic radiations. See also electromagnetic
The protection resulting from all measures designed to
deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be
derived from their interception and study of noncommunications
electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar.
Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic
and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or
to attack the enemy. Also called EW. The three major
subdivisions within electronic warfare are: electronic attack,
electronic protection, and electronic warfare support. a.
electronic attack. That division of electronic warfare involving
the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or
antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or
equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or
destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of
fires. Also called EA. EA includes: 1) actions taken to prevent
or reduce an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic
spectrum, such as jamming and electromagnetic deception, and 2)
employment of weapons that use either electromagnetic or
directed energy as their primary destructive mechanism (lasers,
radio frequency weapons, particle beams). b. electronic
protection. That division of electronic warfare involving
passive and active means taken to protect personnel, facilities,
and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment
of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy
friendly combat capability. Also called EP. c. electronic
warfare support. That division of electronic warfare involving
actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational
commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or
localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated
electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat
recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future
operations. Thus, electronic warfare support provides
information required for decisions involving electronic warfare
operations and other tactical actions such as threat avoidance,
targeting, and homing. Also called ES. Electronic warfare
support data can be used to produce signals intelligence,
provide targeting for electronic or destructive attack, and
produce measurement and signature intelligence. See also
directed energy; electromagnetic spectrum.
electronic warfare frequency deconfliction
Actions taken to integrate those frequencies used by
electronic warfare systems into the overall frequency
deconfliction process. See also electronic warfare.
electronic warfare reprogramming
The deliberate alteration or modification of electronic
warfare (EW) or target sensing systems (TSS), or the tactics and
procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in
equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. These
changes may be the result of deliberate actions on the part of
friendly, adversary or third parties; or may be brought about by
electromagnetic interference or other inadvertent phenomena. The
purpose of EW reprogramming is to maintain or enhance the
effectiveness of EW and TSS equipment. EW reprogramming includes
changes to self-defense systems, offensive weapons systems, and
intelligence collection systems. See also electronic warfare.
electronic warfare support
See electronic warfare.
Intelligence other than signals intelligence derived from
the optical monitoring of the electromagnetic spectrum from
ultraviolet (0.01 micrometers) through far infrared (1,000
micrometers). Also called ELECTRO-OPTINT. See also intelligence;
The technology associated with those components,
devices and systems which are designed to interact between the
electromagnetic (optical) and the electric (electronic) state.
Three lines of data which define the location of a
satellite in space. Also called ELSET.
elements of national power
All the means that are available for employment in the
pursuit of national objectives.
elevated causeway system
An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of
delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore
without the lighterage contending with the surf zone. See also
The vertical distance of a point or level on or
affixed to the surface of the Earth measured from mean sea
level. See also altitude.
See hypsometric tinting.
Acquisition of information from a person or group in a
manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or
conversation. A technique of human source intelligence
collection, generally overt, unless the collector is other than
he or she purports to be.
Traffic for which movement requirements are submitted and
space is assigned or allocated. Such traffic must meet
eligibility requirements specified in Joint Travel Regulations
for the Uniformed Services and publications of the Department of
Defense and Military Departments governing eligibility for land,
sea, and air transportation, and be in accordance with the
guidance of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and
their associated stores and equipment into ships and/or
aircraft. See also loading.
embarkation and tonnage table
A consolidated table showing personnel and cargo, by troop
or naval units, loaded aboard a combat-loaded ship.
An area ashore, including a group of embarkation
points, in which final preparations for embarkation are
completed and through which assigned personnel and loads for
craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also mounting
embarkation element (unit) (group)
A temporary administrative formation of personnel with
supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat
loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element (unit)
(group). It is dissolved upon completion of the embarkation. An
embarkation element normally consists of two or more embarkation
teams: a unit, of two or more elements; and a group, of two or
more units. See also embarkation organization; embarkation team.
An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who
advises the commander thereof on matters pertaining to
embarkation planning and loading ships. See also combat cargo
An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading
diagrams, and methods of movement to shipside or aircraft for
troops and their equipment. See also movement table.
A temporary administrative formation of personnel with
supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat
loaded) aboard amphibious shipping. See also embarkation element
(unit) (group); embarkation team.
In amphibious operations, the phase that encompasses the
orderly assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent
loading aboard ships and/or aircraft in a sequence designed to
meet the requirements of the landing force concept of operations
The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate
subordinate commanders containing instructions and information
concerning the organization for embarkation, assignment to
shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location and
assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication
arrangements, movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and
additional pertinent instructions relating to the embarkation of
the landing force.
A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with
supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat
loaded) aboard one ship. See also embarkation element (unit)
(group); embarkation organization.
An anchorage, which may have a limited defense
organization, for naval vessels, mobile support units,
auxiliaries, or merchant ships. See also assembly anchorage;
holding anchorage; working anchorage.
See aircraft arresting barrier.
A Department of Defense civilian employee whose assigned
duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the
evacuation of non-essential personnel (including dependents)
during a declared emergency or outbreak of war. The position
occupied cannot be converted to a military billet because it
requires uninterrupted performance so as to provide immediate
and continuing support for combat operations and/or combat
systems support functions. See also evacuation.
An interment, usually on the battlefield, when conditions
do not permit either evacuation for interment in an interment
site or interment according to national or international legal
regulations. See also group interment; mortuary affairs;
temporary interment; trench interment.
emergency locator beacon
A generic term for all radio beacons used for
emergency locating purposes. See also crash locator beacon;
personal locator beacon.
A category of immediate mission request that takes
precedence over all other priorities, e.g., an enemy
breakthrough. See also immediate mission request; priority of
immediate mission requests.
emergency relocation site
A site located where practicable outside a prime target
area to which all or portions of a civilian or military
headquarters may be moved. As a minimum, it is manned to provide
for the maintenance of the facility, communications, and
database. It should be capable of rapid activation, of
supporting the initial requirements of the relocated
headquarters for a predetermined period, and of expansion to
meet wartime requirements of the relocated headquarters.
The least amount of immediate repair to damaged facilities
necessary for the facilities to support the mission. These
repairs will be made using expedient materials and methods (such
as AM-2 aluminum matting, cold-mix asphalt, plywood scabs,
temporary utility lines, and emergency generators). Modular or
kit-type facility substitutes would be appropriate if repairs
cannot be made in time to meet mission requirements. See also
A resupply mission that occurs based on a predetermined
set of circumstances and time interval should radio contact not
be established or, once established, is lost between a special
operations tactical element and its base. See also automatic
resupply; on-call resupply.
emergency risk (nuclear)
A degree of risk where anticipated effects may cause some
temporary shock, casualties and may significantly reduce the
unit's combat efficiency. See also degree of risk; negligible
A product which may be used, in an emergency only,
in place of another product, but only on the advice of
technically qualified personnel of the nation using the product,
who will specify the limitations.
The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic,
acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control
capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a.
detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among
friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability
to execute a military deception plan. Also called EMCON. See
also electronic warfare.
emission control orders
Orders used to authorize, control, or prohibit the use of
electronic emission equipment. Also called EMCON orders. See
also control of electromagnetic radiation.
1. A prepared position for one or more weapons or
pieces of equipment, for protection against hostile fire or
bombardment, and from which they can execute their tasks. 2. The
act of fixing a gun in a prepared position from which it may be
The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces. See
also employment planning.
Planning that prescribes how to apply force and/or forces
to attain specified military objectives. Employment planning
concepts are developed by combatant commanders through their
component commanders. See also employment.
Early deploying forces that establish critical
capabilities to facilitate deployment and initial employment
(including sustainment) of a force. See also deployment;
enabling mine countermeasures
Countermeasures designed to counter mines once they have
been laid. This includes both passive and active mine
countermeasures. See also mine countermeasures.
To convert plain text into unintelligible form by means of
a cipher system.
end evening civil twilight
The time period when the sun has dropped 6 degrees beneath
the western horizon; it is the instant at which there is no
longer sufficient light to see objects with the unaided eye.
Light intensification devices are recommended from this time
until begin morning civil twilight. Also called EECT.
A final combination of end products, component parts,
and/or materials that is ready for its intended use, e.g., ship,
tank, mobile machine shop, or aircraft.
end of evening nautical twilight
Occurs when the sun has dropped 12 degrees below the
western horizon, and is the instant of last available daylight
for the visual control of limited ground operations. At end of
evening nautical twilight there is no further sunlight
available.See also horizon
end of mission
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, an order
given to terminate firing on a specific target. See also cease
loading; call for fire; fire mission.
The set of required conditions that defines achievement of
the commander's objectives.
The time an aircraft can continue flying, or a
ground vehicle or ship can continue operating, under specified
conditions, e.g., without refueling. See also endurance
Total distance that a ground vehicle or ship can be
self-propelled at any specified endurance speed.
The stocking aboard ship for a period of time, normally
covering the number of months between overhauls, of items with
all of the following characteristics: a. low price; b. low
weight and cube; c. a predictable usage rate; and d.
nondeteriorative. See also loading.
Those courses of action of which the enemy is physically
capable and that, if adopted, will affect accomplishment of the
friendly mission. The term "capabilities" includes not only the
general courses of action open to the enemy, such as attack,
defense, reinforcement, or withdrawal, but also all the
particular courses of action possible under each general course
of action. "Enemy capabilities" are considered in the light of
all known factors affecting military operations, including time,
space, weather, terrain, and the strength and disposition of
enemy forces. In strategic thinking, the capabilities of a
nation represent the courses of action within the power of the
nation for accomplishing its national objectives throughout the
range of military operations. See also capability; course of
Any person in an armed conflict who could be properly
detained under the laws and customs of war. Also called EC.
1. In air defense, a fire control order used to
direct or authorize units and/or weapon systems to fire on a
designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire. 2. (DOD
only) To bring the enemy under fire.
1. In air defense, an attack with guns or air-to-air
missiles by an interceptor aircraft, or the launch of an air
defense missile by air defense artillery and the missile's
subsequent travel to intercept. 2. A tactical conflict, usually
between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces. See also
enlisted terminal attack controller
Tactical air party member who assists in mission planning
and provides final control of close air support aircraft in
support of ground forces. Also called ETAC. See also close air
support; mission; terminal.
en route care
The care required to maintain the phase treatment
initiated prior to evacuation and the sustainment of the
patient's medical condition during evacuation. See also
An offensive maneuver in which the main attacking
force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive
positions to secure objectives to the enemy's rear. See also
The process of removing solid, liquid, and hazardous
wastes, except for unexploded ordnance, resulting from the joint
operation of US forces to a condition that approaches the one
existing prior to operation as determined by the environmental
baseline survey, if one was conducted. The extent of this
process will depend upon the operational situation at the time
that cleanup is accomplished.
The spectrum of environmental media, resources, or
programs that may impact on, or are affected by, the planning
and execution of military operations. Factors may include, but
are not limited to, environmental compliance, pollution
prevention, conservation, protection of historical and cultural
sites, and protection of flora and fauna.
The various combinations of scientific, technical, and
advisory activities (including modification processes, i.e., the
influence of manmade and natural factors) required to acquire,
produce, and supply information on the past, present, and future
states of space, atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial
surroundings for use in military planning and decisionmaking
processes, or to modify those surroundings to enhance military
The integration and application of environmental values
into the military mission in order to sustain readiness, improve
quality of life, strengthen civil relations, and preserve
valuable natural resources.
In logistics, all nonexpendable items needed to outfit or
equip an individual or organization. See also assembly;
component; subassembly; supplies
equipment operationally ready
The status of an item of equipment in the possession of an
operating unit that indicates it is capable of fulfilling its
intended mission and in a system configuration that offers a
high assurance of an effective, reliable, and safe performance.
A deliberate or unpremeditated increase in scope or
violence of a conflict.
Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy
and succeeds in getting free. See also evasion and escape.
A planned route to allow personnel engaged in clandestine
activity to depart from a site or area when possibility of
compromise or apprehension exists.
See evasion and escape route.
1. A combatant unit(s) assigned to accompany and
protect another force or convoy. 2. Aircraft assigned to protect
other aircraft during a mission. 3. An armed guard that
accompanies a convoy, a train, prisoners, etc. 4. An armed guard
accompanying persons as a mark of honor. 5. (DOD only) To
convoy. 6. (DOD only) A member of the Armed Forces assigned to
accompany, assist, or guide an individual or group, e.g., an
Combat forces of various types provided to protect other
forces against enemy attack.
The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting,
communicating, or receiving information about the national
defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the
information may be used to the injury of the United States or to
the advantage of any foreign nation. Espionage is a violation of
18 United States Code 792-798 and Article 106, Uniform Code
ofMilitary Justice. See also counterintelligence.
espionage against the United States
Overt, covert, or clandestine activity designed to obtain
information relating to the national defense with intent or
reason to believe that it will be used to the injury of the
United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation. For
espionage crimes see Chapter 37 of Title 18, United States Code.
That care received within a theater that is dependent upon
the mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time available, and other
civilian considerations. It includes first responder care,
forward resuscitative surgery, and en route care as well as
treatment and hospitalization to return the patient to duty or
to stabilize for movement to a higher level of care. See also en
route care; first responder phase; forward resuscitative
surgery; patient; theater.
In counterdrug operations, compounds that are required in
the synthetic or extraction processes of drug production, but in
most cases do not become part of the drug molecule. Essential
chemicals are used in the production of cocaine or heroin.
essential communications traffic
Transmissions (record or voice) of any precedence that
must be sent electrically in order for the command or activity
concerned to avoid a serious impact on mission accomplishment or
safety or life.
essential elements of friendly information
Key questions likely to be asked by adversary officials
and intelligence systems about specific friendly intentions,
capabilities, and activities, so they can obtain answers
critical to their operational effectiveness. Also called EEFI.
essential elements of information
The most critical information requirements regarding the
adversary and the environment needed by the commander by a
particular time to relate with other available information and
intelligence in order to assist in reaching a logical decision.
Also called EEIs.
Any industry necessary to the needs of a civilian or war
economy. The term includes the basic industries as well as the
necessary portions of those other industries that transform the
crude basic raw materials into useful intermediate or end
products, e.g., the iron and steel industry, the food industry,
and the chemical industry.
The condition achieved from the denial of critical
information to adversaries.
An installation, together with its personnel and
equipment, organized as an operating entity. See also activity;
1. An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or
trend that identifies its major elements, interprets the
significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the
prospective results of the various actions that might be taken.
2. An appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and
potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination
of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy,
decision, or contemplated course of action. 3. An analysis of an
actual or contemplated clandestine operation in relation to the
situation in which it is or would be conducted in order to
identify and appraise such factors as available as well as
needed assets and potential obstacles, accomplishments, and
consequences. See also intelligence estimate.
1. The process of moving any person who is wounded,
injured, or ill to and/or between medical treatment facilities.
2. The clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given
locality. 3. The controlled process of collecting, classifying,
and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel, US or foreign,
to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence,
or disposal facilities. 4. The ordered or authorized departure
of noncombatants from a specific area by Department of State,
Department of Defense, or appropriate military commander. This
refers to the movement from one area to another in the same or
different countries. The evacuation is caused by unusual or
emergency circumstances and applies equally to command or
non-command sponsored family members. See also evacuee;
noncombatant evacuation operations.
evacuation control ship
In an amphibious operation, a ship designated as a
control point for landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and
helicopters evacuating casualties from the beaches. Medical
personnel embarked in the evacuation control ship effect
distribution of casualties throughout the attack force in
accordance with ship's casualty capacities and specialized
medical facilities available, and also perform emergency
A convoy which is used for evacuation of dangerously
exposed waters. See also evacuation of dangerously exposed
evacuation of dangerously exposed waters
The movement of merchant ships under naval control
from severely threatened coastlines and dangerously exposed
waters to safer localities. See also dangerously exposed waters.
evacuation of port equipment
The transfer of mobile/movable equipment from a
threatened port to another port or to a working anchorage.
1. Command decision establishing the maximum number of
days that patients may be held within the command for treatment.
Patients who, in the opinion of responsible medical officers,
cannot be returned to a duty status within the period prescribed
are evacuated by the first available means, provided the
travelinvolved will not aggravate their disabilities. 2. A
commanddecision concerning the movement of civilians from the
proximityof military operations for security and safety reasons
andinvolving the need to arrange for movement, reception, care,
andcontrol of such individuals. 3. Command policy concerning
theevacuation of unserviceable or abandoned materiel and
includingdesignation of channels and destinations for evacuated
materiel,the establishment of controls and procedures, and the
dissemination of condition standards and
dispositioninstructions. See also evacuation; patient.
A civilian removed from a place of residence by military
direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements
of the military situation. See also displaced person; expellee;
Any person isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory who
In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information
in terms of credibility, reliability, pertinence, and accuracy.
That command or agency designated in the evaluation
directive to be responsible for the planning, coordination, and
conduct of the required evaluation of a joint test publication.
The evaluation agent, normally the US Joint Forces Command,
identifies evaluation criteria and the media to be used,
develops a proposed evaluation directive, coordinates
exercise-related evaluation requirements with the sponsoring
commands, and provides required evaluation reports to the
Director, J-7. Also called EA. See also joint doctrine; joint
evaluation and feedback
In intelligence usage, continuous assessment of
intelligence operations throughout the intelligence process to
ensure that the commander's intelligence requirements are being
met. See intelligence process.
The process whereby individuals who are isolated in
hostile or unfriendly territory avoid capture with the goal of
successfully returning to areas under friendly control. See also
evasion and recovery.
In evasion and recovery operations, any piece of
information or equipment designed to assist an individual in
evading capture. Evasion aids include, but are not limited to,
blood chits, pointee-talkees, evasion charts, barter items, and
equipment designed to complement issued survival equipment. See
also blood chit; evasion; evasion and recovery; evasion chart;
pointee-talkee; recovery; recovery operations.
evasion and escape
The procedures and operations whereby military
personnel and other selected individuals are enabled to emerge
from an enemy-held or hostile area to areas under friendly
control. Also called E&E.
evasion and escape intelligence
Processed information prepared to assist personnel to
escape if captured by the enemy or to evade capture if lost in
evasion and escape net
The organization within enemy-held or hostile areas that
operates to receive, move, and exfiltrate military personnel or
selected individuals to friendly control. See also
evasion and escape route
A course of travel, preplanned or not, that an escapee or
evader uses in an attempt to depart enemy territory in order to
return to friendly lines.
evasion and recovery
The full spectrum of coordinated actions carried out by
evaders, recovery forces, and operational recovery planners to
effect the successful return of personnel isolated in hostile
territory to friendly control. See also evader; evasion;
hostile; recovery force.
Special map or chart designed as an evasion aid. See also
evasion; evasion aid.
evasion plan of action
A course of action, developed before executing a combat
mission, that is intended to improve a potential evader's
chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing recovery
forces with an additional source of information that can
increase the predictability of the evader's actions and
movement. Also called EPA. See also course of action; evader;
evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery force.
A description of the indicators and activity expected to
occur in each named area of interest. It normally
cross-references each named area of interest and indicator with
the times they are expected to occur and the courses of action
they will confirm or deny. There is no prescribed format. See
also activity; area of interest; indicator.
A guide for collection planning. The event template
depicts the named areas of interest where activity, or its lack
of activity, will indicate which course of action the adversary
has adopted. See also activity; area of interest; collection
planning; course of action.
In railway terminology, transport of a load whose
size, weight, or preparation entails special difficulties
vis-a-vis the facilities or equipment of even one of the railway
systems to be used. See also ordinary transport.
The quantity of property in possession of any component of
the Department of Defense that exceeds the quantity required or
authorized for retention by that component.
A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit
specific activities in a specific geographic area. The purpose
may be to persuade nations or groups to modify their behavior to
meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued
imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force.
exclusive economic zone
A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may
not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from
which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Within the
exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the coastal state has sovereign
rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and
managing natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the
seabed, subsoil, and the subjacent waters and, with regard to
other activities, for the economic exploitation and exploration
of the zone (e.g., the production of energy from the water,
currents, and winds). Within the EEZ, the coastal state has
jurisdiction with regard to establishing and using artificial
islands, installations, and structures having economic purposes
as well as for marine scientific research and the protection and
preservation of the marine environment. Other states may,
however, exercise traditional high seas freedoms of navigation,
overflight, and related freedoms, such as conducting military
exercises in the EEZ. Also called EEZ.
1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff, by the authority and at the direction of the Secretary of
Defense, to implement a Presidential decision to initiate
military operations. 2. An order to initiate military operations
as directed. Also called EXORD.
executing commander (nuclear weapons)
A commander to whom nuclear weapons are released for
delivery against specific targets or in accordance with approved
plans. See also commander(s); releasing commander (nuclear
The phase of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution
System crisis action planning process that provides for the
translation of an approved course of action into an executable
plan of action through the preparation of a complete operation
plan or operation order. Execution planning is detailed planning
for the commitment of specified forces and resources. During
crisis action planning, an approved operation plan or other
Secretary of Defense-approved course of action is adjusted,
refined, and translated into an operation order. Execution
planning can proceed on the basis of prior deliberate planning,
or it can take place in the absence of prior planning. Also
called EP. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution
A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by
theSecretary of Defense to a subordinate to act on the
Secretary'sbehalf. An agreement between equals does not create
an executiveagent. For example, a Service cannot become a
Department ofDefense executive agent for a particular matter
with simply theagreement of the other Services; such authority
must be delegatedby the Secretary of Defense. Designation as
executive agent, inand of itself, confers no authority. The
exact nature and scopeof the authority delegated must be stated
in the documentdesignating the executive agent. An executive
agent may belimited to providing only administration and support
orcoordinating common functions, or it may be delegated
authority,direction, and control over specified resources for
specifiedpurposes. Also called EA. See also agent.
A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation
involving planning, preparation, and execution. It is carried
out for the purpose of training and evaluation. It may be a
multinational, joint, or single-Service exercise, depending on
participating organizations. See also command post exercise;
field exercise; maneuver.
exercise directing staff
A group of officers who by virtue of experience,
qualifications, and a thorough knowledge of the exercise
instructions, are selected to direct or control an exercise.
exercise filled mine
In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an inert
filling and an indicating device. See also explosive filled
mine; fitted mine; mine.
An occurrence injected by directing staffs into the
exercise which will have an effect on the forces being
exercised, or their facilities, and which will require action by
the appropriate commander and/or staff being exercised.
In naval mine warfare, a mine suitable for use in
mine warfare exercises, fitted with visible or audible
indicating devices to show where and when it would normally
fire. See also drill mine; mine; practice mine.
The fundamental requirements for an exercise,
providing in advance an outline of the concept, form, scope,
setting, aim, objectives, force requirements, political
implications, analysis arrangements, and costs.
The commander who conceives a particular exercise
and orders that it be planned and executed either by the
commander's staff or by a subordinate headquarters.
An activity which may take the form of a map
exercise, a war game, a series of lectures, a discussion group,
or an operational analysis
A combination of two words, normally unclassified, used
exclusively to designate a test, drill, or exercise. An exercise
term is employed to preclude the possibility of confusing
exercise directives with actual operations directives
The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy
control by stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means.
See also special operations; unconventional warfare.
Consists of items other than those in the fighting load
that are required to sustain or protect the combat soldier.
These items may be necessary for increased personal and
environmental protection and are not normally carried by the
individual. See also fighting load.
See nuclear exoatmospheric burst.
A military operation conducted by an armed force to
accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country.
An armed force organized to accomplish a specific
objective in a foreign country.
A civilian outside the boundaries of the country of his or
her nationality or ethnic origin who is being forcibly
repatriated to that country or to a third country for political
or other purposes. See also displaced person; evacuee; refugee.
Property that may be consumed in use or loses its identity
in use and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is
issued or used.
expendable supplies and materiel
Supplies that are consumed in use, such as ammunition,
paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical
dressings, drugs, medicines, etc., or that lose their identity,
such as spare parts, etc. Also called consumable supplies and
A device designed to generate an electric current in
a firing circuit after deliberate action by the user in order to
initiate an explosive charge or charges.
1. (DOD only) Taking full advantage of success in
military operations, following up initial gains, and making
permanent the temporary effects already achieved. 2. Taking full
advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical,
operational, or strategic purposes. 3. An offensive operation
that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to
disorganize the enemy in depth. See also attack; pursuit.
In naval mine warfare, a parallel operation to
search sweeping, in which a sample of the route or area is
subjected to minehunting procedures to determine the presence or
absence of mines.
explosive filled mine
In mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive
charge but not necessarily the firing train needed to detonate
it. See also exercise filled mine; fitted mine.
All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission
or fusion materials, and biological and chemical agents. This
includes bombs and warheads; guided and ballistic missiles;
artillery, mortar, rocket, and small arms ammunition; all mines,
torpedoes, and depth charges; demolition charges; pyrotechnics;
clusters and dispensers; cartridge and propellant actuated
devices; electro-explosive devices; clandestine and improvised
explosive devices; and all similar or related items or
components explosive in nature.
explosive ordnance disposal procedures
Those particular courses or modes of action taken by
explosive ordnance disposal personnel for access to, diagnosis,
rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of explosive
ordnance or any hazardous material associated with an explosive
ordnance disposal incident. a. access procedures--Those actions
taken to locate exactly and gain access to unexploded explosive
ordnance. b. diagnostic procedures--Those actions taken to
identify and evaluate unexploded explosive ordnance. c. render
safe procedures--The portion of the explosive ordnance disposal
procedures involving the application of special explosive
ordnance disposal methods and tools to provide for the
interruption of functions or separation of essential components
of unexploded explosive ordnance to prevent an unacceptable
detonation. d. recovery procedures--Those actions taken to
recover unexploded explosive ordnance. e. final disposal
procedures--The final disposal of explosive ordnance which may
include demolition or burning in place, removal to a disposal
area, or other appropriate means.
explosive ordnance disposal unit
Personnel with special training and equipment who render
explosive ordnance safe (such as bombs, mines, projectiles, and
booby traps), make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and
supervise the safe removal thereof.
explosive ordnance disposal procedures
explosive ordnance disposal unit
explosive ordnance disposal
The detection, identification, on-site evaluation,
rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded
explosive ordnance. It may also include explosive ordnance which
has become hazardous by damage or deterioration. Also called
explosive ordnance disposal incident
The suspected or detected presence of unexploded or
damaged explosive ordnance which constitutes a hazard to
operations, installations, personnel, or material. Not included
in this definition are the accidental arming or other conditions
that develop during the manufacture of high explosive material,
technical service assembly operations or the laying of mines and
A succession of initiating and igniting elements
arranged to cause a charge to function.
The exposure dose at a given point is a measurement
of radiation in relation to its ability to produce ionization.
The unit of measurement of the exposure dose is the roentgen.
See air station.
extended communications search
In search and rescue operations, consists of contacting
all possible sources of information on the missing craft,
including physically checking possible locations such as
harbors, marinas, and airport ramps. An extended communications
search is normally conducted after a preliminary communications
search has yielded no results and when the mission is upgraded
to the alert phase. Also called EXCOM. See also preliminary
communications search; search and rescue incident
classification, Subpart b.
extent of a military exercise
The scope of an exercise in relation to the
involvement of NATO and/or national commands. See also
extent of damage
The visible plan area of damage to a target element,
usually expressed in units of 1,000 square feet, in detailed
damage analysis and in approximate percentages in immediate-type
damage assessment reports; e.g., 50 percent structural damage.
All people who are not part of the internal audience of US
military members and civilian employees and their immediate
families. Part of the concept of "publics." Includes many varied
subsets that may be referred to as "audiences" or "publics." See
also internal audience; public.
external reinforcing force
A reinforcing force which is principally stationed
in peacetime outside its intended Major NATO Command area of
external support contractors
US national or third party contract personnel hired from
outside the operational area. See also systems support
contractors; theater support contractors
An auxiliary parachute designed to release and extract and
deploy cargo from aircraft in flight and deploy cargo
parachutes. See also gravity extraction.
A specified drop zone used for the delivery of
supplies and/or equipment by means of an extraction technique
from an aircraft flying very close to the ground.
Aircraft pallets, nets, tie down, and coupling devices,
facilities, handling equipment, procedures, and other components
designed to interface with military and civilian aircraft cargo
restraint systems. Though designed for airlift, system
components may have to move intermodally via surface to support
geographic combatant commander objectives.