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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources


Glossary of Military Terms

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earliest anticipated launch time
The earliest time expected for a special operations tactical element and its supporting platform to depart the staging or marshalling area together en route to the operations area. Also called EALT.

earliest arrival date
A day, relative to C-day, that is specified by a planner as the earliest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a port of debarkation during a deployment. Used with the latest arrival data, it defines a delivery window for transportation planning. Also called EAD. See also latest arrival date.

Early Spring
An antireconnaissance satellite weapon system.

early time
See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment).

early warning
Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or weapons carriers. Also called EW. See also attack assessment; tactical warning.

earmarking of stocks
The arrangement whereby nations agree, normally in peacetime, to identify a proportion of selected items of their war reserve stocks to be called for by specified NATO commanders.

earthing
The process of making a satisfactory electrical connection between the structure, including the metal skin, of an object or vehicle, and the mass of the Earth, to ensure a common potential with the Earth. See also bonding.

echelon
1. A subdivision of a headquarters, i.e., forward echelon, rear echelon. 2. Separate level of command. As compared to a regiment, a division is a higher echelon, a battalion is a lower echelon. 3. A fraction of a command in the direction of depth to which a principal combat mission is assigned; i.e., attack echelon, support echelon, reserve echelon. 4. A formation in which its subdivisions are placed one behind another, with a lateral and even spacing to the same side.

echeloned displacement
Movement of a unit from one position to another without discontinuing performance of its primary function. (DOD only) Normally, the unit divides into two functional elements (base and advance); and, while the base continues to operate, the advance element displaces to a new site where, after it becomes operational, it is joined by the base element.

economic action
The planned use of economic measures designed to influence the policies or actions of another state, e.g., to impair the war-making potential of a hostile power or to generate economic stability within a friendly power.

economic mobilization
The process of preparing for and carrying out such changes in the organization and functioning of the national economy as are necessary to provide for the most effective use of resources in a national emergency.

economic order quantity
That quantity derived from a mathematical technique used to determine the optimum (lowest) total variable costs required to order and hold inventory.

economic potential
The total capacity of a nation to produce goods and services.

economic potential for war
That share of the total economic capacity of a nation that can be used for the purposes of war.

economic retention stock
That portion of the quantity of an item excess of the approved force retention level that has been determined will be more economical to retain for future peacetime issue in lieu of replacement of future issues by procurement. To warrant economic retention, items must have a reasonably predictable demand rate.

economic warfare
Aggressive use of economic means to achieve national objectives.

effective damage
That damage necessary to render a target element inoperative, unserviceable, nonproductive, or uninhabitable.

effective US controlled ships
US-owned foreign flagships that can be tasked by the Maritime Administration to support Department of Defense requirements when necessary. Also called EUSCS.

ejection
1. Escape from an aircraft by means of an independently propelled seat or capsule. 2. In air armament, the process of forcefully separating an aircraft store from an aircraft to achieve satisfactory separation.

ejection systems
a. command ejection system--A system in which the pilot of an aircraft or the occupant of the other ejection seat(s) initiates ejection resulting in the automatic ejection of all occupants. b. command select ejection system--A system permitting the optional transfer from one crew station to another of the control of a command ejection system for automatic ejection of all occupants. c. independent ejection system--An ejection system which operates independently of other ejection systems installed in one aircraft. d. sequenced ejection system--A system which ejects the aircraft crew in sequence to ensure a safe minimum total time of escape without collision.

electrode sweep
In naval mine warfare, a magnetic cable sweep in which the water forms part of the electric circuit.

electro-explosive device
(DOD,NATO) An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of electrical energy. Also called EED.

electromagnetic compatibility
The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended operational environments without suffering unacceptable degradation or causing unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. It involves the application of sound electromagnetic spectrum management; system, equipment, and device design configuration that ensures interference-free operation; and clear concepts and doctrines that maximize operational effectiveness. Also called EMC. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare; spectrum management

electromagnetic deception
The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information to an enemy or to enemy electromagnetic-dependent weapons, thereby degrading or neutralizing the enemy's combat capability. Among the types of electromagnetic deception are: a. manipulative electromagnetic deception--Actions to eliminate revealing, or convey misleading, electromagnetic telltale indicators that may be used by hostile forces; b. simulative electromagnetic deception--Actions to simulate friendly, notional, or actual capabilities to mislead hostile forces; and c. imitative electromagnetic deception--The introduction of electromagnetic energy into enemy systems that imitates enemy emissions. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic environment
The resulting product of the power and time distribution, in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission levels that may be encountered by a military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. It is the sum of electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic pulse; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and precipitation static. Also called EME.

electromagnetic environmental effects
The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. It encompasses all electromagnetic disciplines, including electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic vulnerability; electromagnetic pulse; electronic protection, hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and precipitation static. Also called E3.

electromagnetic hardening
Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic interference
Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, intermodulation products, and the like. Also called EMI.

electromagnetic intrusion
The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of causing confusion. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic jamming
The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy's combat capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electronic warfare; spectrum management.

electromagnetic pulse
The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. Also called EMP. See also electromagnetic radiation.

electromagnetic radiation
Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light. Includes gamma radiation, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation, and radar and radio waves.

electromagnetic radiation hazards
Hazards caused by transmitter or antenna installation that generates electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance, personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels or increases the existing levels to a hazardous level; or a personnel, fueling, or ordnance installation located in an area that is illuminated by electromagnetic radiation at a level that is hazardous to the planned operations or occupancy. Also called EMR hazards or RADHAZ.

electromagnetic spectrum
The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic vulnerability
The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also called EMV.

electronic attack
See electronic warfare.

electronic imagery dissemination
The transmission of imagery or imagery products by any electronic means. This includes the following four categories. a. primary imagery dissemination system--The equipment and procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of un-exploited original or near-original quality imagery in near real time. b. primary imagery dissemination--The electronic transmission and receipt of unexploited original or near-original quality imagery in near real time through a primary imagery dissemination system. c. secondary imagery dissemination system--The equipment and procedures used in the electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near real time. d. secondary imagery dissemination--The electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and imagery products in other than real or near real time through a secondary imagery dissemination system.

electronic intelligence
Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign non-communications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT. See also electronic warfare; foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; intelligence; signals intelligence.

electronic line of sight
The path traversed by electromagnetic waves that is not subject to reflection or refraction by the atmosphere

electronic masking
The controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems.

electronic probing
Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices or systems.

electronic protection
See electronic warfare.

electronic reconnaissance
The detection, location, identification, and evaluation of foreign electromagnetic radiations. See also electromagnetic radiation; reconnaissance.

electronics security
The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar.

electronic warfare
Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Also called EW. The three major subdivisions within electronic warfare are: electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic warfare support. a. electronic attack. That division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of fires. Also called EA. EA includes: 1) actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as jamming and electromagnetic deception, and 2) employment of weapons that use either electromagnetic or directed energy as their primary destructive mechanism (lasers, radio frequency weapons, particle beams). b. electronic protection. That division of electronic warfare involving passive and active means taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Also called EP. c. electronic warfare support. That division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations. Thus, electronic warfare support provides information required for decisions involving electronic warfare operations and other tactical actions such as threat avoidance, targeting, and homing. Also called ES. Electronic warfare support data can be used to produce signals intelligence, provide targeting for electronic or destructive attack, and produce measurement and signature intelligence. See also directed energy; electromagnetic spectrum.

electronic warfare frequency deconfliction
Actions taken to integrate those frequencies used by electronic warfare systems into the overall frequency deconfliction process. See also electronic warfare.

electronic warfare reprogramming
The deliberate alteration or modification of electronic warfare (EW) or target sensing systems (TSS), or the tactics and procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. These changes may be the result of deliberate actions on the part of friendly, adversary or third parties; or may be brought about by electromagnetic interference or other inadvertent phenomena. The purpose of EW reprogramming is to maintain or enhance the effectiveness of EW and TSS equipment. EW reprogramming includes changes to self-defense systems, offensive weapons systems, and intelligence collection systems. See also electronic warfare.

electronic warfare support
See electronic warfare.

electro-optical intelligence
Intelligence other than signals intelligence derived from the optical monitoring of the electromagnetic spectrum from ultraviolet (0.01 micrometers) through far infrared (1,000 micrometers). Also called ELECTRO-OPTINT. See also intelligence; laser intelligence.

electro-optics
The technology associated with those components, devices and systems which are designed to interact between the electromagnetic (optical) and the electric (electronic) state.

element set
Three lines of data which define the location of a satellite in space. Also called ELSET.

elements of national power
All the means that are available for employment in the pursuit of national objectives.

elevated causeway system
An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore without the lighterage contending with the surf zone. See also causeway.

elevation
The vertical distance of a point or level on or affixed to the surface of the Earth measured from mean sea level. See also altitude.

elevation tint
See hypsometric tinting.

elicitation (intelligence)
Acquisition of information from a person or group in a manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation. A technique of human source intelligence collection, generally overt, unless the collector is other than he or she purports to be.

eligible traffic
Traffic for which movement requirements are submitted and space is assigned or allocated. Such traffic must meet eligibility requirements specified in Joint Travel Regulations for the Uniformed Services and publications of the Department of Defense and Military Departments governing eligibility for land, sea, and air transportation, and be in accordance with the guidance of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

embarkation
The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and their associated stores and equipment into ships and/or aircraft. See also loading.

embarkation and tonnage table
A consolidated table showing personnel and cargo, by troop or naval units, loaded aboard a combat-loaded ship.

embarkation area
An area ashore, including a group of embarkation points, in which final preparations for embarkation are completed and through which assigned personnel and loads for craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also mounting area.

embarkation element (unit) (group)
A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element (unit) (group). It is dissolved upon completion of the embarkation. An embarkation element normally consists of two or more embarkation teams: a unit, of two or more elements; and a group, of two or more units. See also embarkation organization; embarkation team.

embarkation officer
An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who advises the commander thereof on matters pertaining to embarkation planning and loading ships. See also combat cargo officer.

embarkation order
An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading diagrams, and methods of movement to shipside or aircraft for troops and their equipment. See also movement table.

embarkation organization
A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard amphibious shipping. See also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation team.

embarkation phase
In amphibious operations, the phase that encompasses the orderly assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent loading aboard ships and/or aircraft in a sequence designed to meet the requirements of the landing force concept of operations ashore.

embarkation plans
The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate subordinate commanders containing instructions and information concerning the organization for embarkation, assignment to shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location and assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication arrangements, movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and additional pertinent instructions relating to the embarkation of the landing force.

embarkation team
A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard one ship. See also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation organization.

emergency anchorage
An anchorage, which may have a limited defense organization, for naval vessels, mobile support units, auxiliaries, or merchant ships. See also assembly anchorage; holding anchorage; working anchorage.

emergency barrier
See aircraft arresting barrier.

emergency-essential employee
A Department of Defense civilian employee whose assigned duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the evacuation of non-essential personnel (including dependents) during a declared emergency or outbreak of war. The position occupied cannot be converted to a military billet because it requires uninterrupted performance so as to provide immediate and continuing support for combat operations and/or combat systems support functions. See also evacuation.

emergency interment
An interment, usually on the battlefield, when conditions do not permit either evacuation for interment in an interment site or interment according to national or international legal regulations. See also group interment; mortuary affairs; temporary interment; trench interment.

emergency locator beacon
A generic term for all radio beacons used for emergency locating purposes. See also crash locator beacon; personal locator beacon.

emergency priority
A category of immediate mission request that takes precedence over all other priorities, e.g., an enemy breakthrough. See also immediate mission request; priority of immediate mission requests.

emergency relocation site
A site located where practicable outside a prime target area to which all or portions of a civilian or military headquarters may be moved. As a minimum, it is manned to provide for the maintenance of the facility, communications, and database. It should be capable of rapid activation, of supporting the initial requirements of the relocated headquarters for a predetermined period, and of expansion to meet wartime requirements of the relocated headquarters.

emergency repair
The least amount of immediate repair to damaged facilities necessary for the facilities to support the mission. These repairs will be made using expedient materials and methods (such as AM-2 aluminum matting, cold-mix asphalt, plywood scabs, temporary utility lines, and emergency generators). Modular or kit-type facility substitutes would be appropriate if repairs cannot be made in time to meet mission requirements. See also facility substitutes.

emergency resupply
A resupply mission that occurs based on a predetermined set of circumstances and time interval should radio contact not be established or, once established, is lost between a special operations tactical element and its base. See also automatic resupply; on-call resupply.

emergency risk (nuclear)
A degree of risk where anticipated effects may cause some temporary shock, casualties and may significantly reduce the unit's combat efficiency. See also degree of risk; negligible risk (nuclear).

emergency substitute
A product which may be used, in an emergency only, in place of another product, but only on the advice of technically qualified personnel of the nation using the product, who will specify the limitations.

emission control
The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception plan. Also called EMCON. See also electronic warfare.

emission control orders
Orders used to authorize, control, or prohibit the use of electronic emission equipment. Also called EMCON orders. See also control of electromagnetic radiation.

emplacement
1. A prepared position for one or more weapons or pieces of equipment, for protection against hostile fire or bombardment, and from which they can execute their tasks. 2. The act of fixing a gun in a prepared position from which it may be fired.

employment
The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces. See also employment planning.

employment planning
Planning that prescribes how to apply force and/or forces to attain specified military objectives. Employment planning concepts are developed by combatant commanders through their component commanders. See also employment.

enabling force
Early deploying forces that establish critical capabilities to facilitate deployment and initial employment (including sustainment) of a force. See also deployment; employment; force.

enabling mine countermeasures
Countermeasures designed to counter mines once they have been laid. This includes both passive and active mine countermeasures. See also mine countermeasures.

encipher
To convert plain text into unintelligible form by means of a cipher system.

end evening civil twilight
The time period when the sun has dropped 6 degrees beneath the western horizon; it is the instant at which there is no longer sufficient light to see objects with the unaided eye. Light intensification devices are recommended from this time until begin morning civil twilight. Also called EECT.

end item
A final combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that is ready for its intended use, e.g., ship, tank, mobile machine shop, or aircraft.

end of evening nautical twilight
Occurs when the sun has dropped 12 degrees below the western horizon, and is the instant of last available daylight for the visual control of limited ground operations. At end of evening nautical twilight there is no further sunlight available.See also horizon

end of mission
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, an order given to terminate firing on a specific target. See also cease loading; call for fire; fire mission.

end state
The set of required conditions that defines achievement of the commander's objectives.

endurance
The time an aircraft can continue flying, or a ground vehicle or ship can continue operating, under specified conditions, e.g., without refueling. See also endurance distance.

endurance distance
Total distance that a ground vehicle or ship can be self-propelled at any specified endurance speed.

endurance loading
The stocking aboard ship for a period of time, normally covering the number of months between overhauls, of items with all of the following characteristics: a. low price; b. low weight and cube; c. a predictable usage rate; and d. nondeteriorative. See also loading.

enemy capabilities
Those courses of action of which the enemy is physically capable and that, if adopted, will affect accomplishment of the friendly mission. The term "capabilities" includes not only the general courses of action open to the enemy, such as attack, defense, reinforcement, or withdrawal, but also all the particular courses of action possible under each general course of action. "Enemy capabilities" are considered in the light of all known factors affecting military operations, including time, space, weather, terrain, and the strength and disposition of enemy forces. In strategic thinking, the capabilities of a nation represent the courses of action within the power of the nation for accomplishing its national objectives throughout the range of military operations. See also capability; course of action; mission.

enemy combatant
Any person in an armed conflict who could be properly detained under the laws and customs of war. Also called EC.

engage
1. In air defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or weapon systems to fire on a designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire. 2. (DOD only) To bring the enemy under fire.

engagement
1. In air defense, an attack with guns or air-to-air missiles by an interceptor aircraft, or the launch of an air defense missile by air defense artillery and the missile's subsequent travel to intercept. 2. A tactical conflict, usually between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces. See also battle; campaign.

enlisted terminal attack controller
Tactical air party member who assists in mission planning and provides final control of close air support aircraft in support of ground forces. Also called ETAC. See also close air support; mission; terminal.

en route care
The care required to maintain the phase treatment initiated prior to evacuation and the sustainment of the patient's medical condition during evacuation. See also evacuation; patient.

envelopment
An offensive maneuver in which the main attacking force passes around or over the enemy's principal defensive positions to secure objectives to the enemy's rear. See also turning movement.

environmental cleanup
The process of removing solid, liquid, and hazardous wastes, except for unexploded ordnance, resulting from the joint operation of US forces to a condition that approaches the one existing prior to operation as determined by the environmental baseline survey, if one was conducted. The extent of this process will depend upon the operational situation at the time that cleanup is accomplished.

environmental considerations
The spectrum of environmental media, resources, or programs that may impact on, or are affected by, the planning and execution of military operations. Factors may include, but are not limited to, environmental compliance, pollution prevention, conservation, protection of historical and cultural sites, and protection of flora and fauna.

environmental services
The various combinations of scientific, technical, and advisory activities (including modification processes, i.e., the influence of manmade and natural factors) required to acquire, produce, and supply information on the past, present, and future states of space, atmospheric, oceanographic, and terrestrial surroundings for use in military planning and decisionmaking processes, or to modify those surroundings to enhance military operations.

environmental stewardship
The integration and application of environmental values into the military mission in order to sustain readiness, improve quality of life, strengthen civil relations, and preserve valuable natural resources.

equipment
In logistics, all nonexpendable items needed to outfit or equip an individual or organization. See also assembly; component; subassembly; supplies

equipment operationally ready
The status of an item of equipment in the possession of an operating unit that indicates it is capable of fulfilling its intended mission and in a system configuration that offers a high assurance of an effective, reliable, and safe performance.

escalation
A deliberate or unpremeditated increase in scope or violence of a conflict.

escapee
Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy and succeeds in getting free. See also evasion and escape.

escape line
A planned route to allow personnel engaged in clandestine activity to depart from a site or area when possibility of compromise or apprehension exists.

escape route
See evasion and escape route.

escort
1. A combatant unit(s) assigned to accompany and protect another force or convoy. 2. Aircraft assigned to protect other aircraft during a mission. 3. An armed guard that accompanies a convoy, a train, prisoners, etc. 4. An armed guard accompanying persons as a mark of honor. 5. (DOD only) To convoy. 6. (DOD only) A member of the Armed Forces assigned to accompany, assist, or guide an individual or group, e.g., an escort officer.

escort forces
Combat forces of various types provided to protect other forces against enemy attack.

espionage
The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation. Espionage is a violation of 18 United States Code 792-798 and Article 106, Uniform Code ofMilitary Justice. See also counterintelligence.

espionage against the United States
Overt, covert, or clandestine activity designed to obtain information relating to the national defense with intent or reason to believe that it will be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation. For espionage crimes see Chapter 37 of Title 18, United States Code.

essential care
That care received within a theater that is dependent upon the mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time available, and other civilian considerations. It includes first responder care, forward resuscitative surgery, and en route care as well as treatment and hospitalization to return the patient to duty or to stabilize for movement to a higher level of care. See also en route care; first responder phase; forward resuscitative surgery; patient; theater.

essential chemicals
In counterdrug operations, compounds that are required in the synthetic or extraction processes of drug production, but in most cases do not become part of the drug molecule. Essential chemicals are used in the production of cocaine or heroin.

essential communications traffic
Transmissions (record or voice) of any precedence that must be sent electrically in order for the command or activity concerned to avoid a serious impact on mission accomplishment or safety or life.

essential elements of friendly information
Key questions likely to be asked by adversary officials and intelligence systems about specific friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities, so they can obtain answers critical to their operational effectiveness. Also called EEFI.

essential elements of information
The most critical information requirements regarding the adversary and the environment needed by the commander by a particular time to relate with other available information and intelligence in order to assist in reaching a logical decision. Also called EEIs.

essential industry
Any industry necessary to the needs of a civilian or war economy. The term includes the basic industries as well as the necessary portions of those other industries that transform the crude basic raw materials into useful intermediate or end products, e.g., the iron and steel industry, the food industry, and the chemical industry.

essential secrecy
The condition achieved from the denial of critical information to adversaries.

establishment
An installation, together with its personnel and equipment, organized as an operating entity. See also activity; base; equipment.

estimate
1. An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or trend that identifies its major elements, interprets the significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the prospective results of the various actions that might be taken. 2. An appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or contemplated course of action. 3. An analysis of an actual or contemplated clandestine operation in relation to the situation in which it is or would be conducted in order to identify and appraise such factors as available as well as needed assets and potential obstacles, accomplishments, and consequences. See also intelligence estimate.

evacuation
1. The process of moving any person who is wounded, injured, or ill to and/or between medical treatment facilities. 2. The clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given locality. 3. The controlled process of collecting, classifying, and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel, US or foreign, to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence, or disposal facilities. 4. The ordered or authorized departure of noncombatants from a specific area by Department of State, Department of Defense, or appropriate military commander. This refers to the movement from one area to another in the same or different countries. The evacuation is caused by unusual or emergency circumstances and applies equally to command or non-command sponsored family members. See also evacuee; noncombatant evacuation operations.

evacuation control ship
In an amphibious operation, a ship designated as a control point for landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters evacuating casualties from the beaches. Medical personnel embarked in the evacuation control ship effect distribution of casualties throughout the attack force in accordance with ship's casualty capacities and specialized medical facilities available, and also perform emergency surgery.

evacuation convoy
A convoy which is used for evacuation of dangerously exposed waters. See also evacuation of dangerously exposed waters.

evacuation of dangerously exposed waters
The movement of merchant ships under naval control from severely threatened coastlines and dangerously exposed waters to safer localities. See also dangerously exposed waters.

evacuation of port equipment
The transfer of mobile/movable equipment from a threatened port to another port or to a working anchorage.

evacuation policy
1. Command decision establishing the maximum number of days that patients may be held within the command for treatment. Patients who, in the opinion of responsible medical officers, cannot be returned to a duty status within the period prescribed are evacuated by the first available means, provided the travelinvolved will not aggravate their disabilities. 2. A commanddecision concerning the movement of civilians from the proximityof military operations for security and safety reasons andinvolving the need to arrange for movement, reception, care, andcontrol of such individuals. 3. Command policy concerning theevacuation of unserviceable or abandoned materiel and includingdesignation of channels and destinations for evacuated materiel,the establishment of controls and procedures, and the dissemination of condition standards and dispositioninstructions. See also evacuation; patient.

evacuee
A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation. See also displaced person; expellee; refugee.

evader
Any person isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory who eludes capture.

evaluation
In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information in terms of credibility, reliability, pertinence, and accuracy.

evaluation agent
That command or agency designated in the evaluation directive to be responsible for the planning, coordination, and conduct of the required evaluation of a joint test publication. The evaluation agent, normally the US Joint Forces Command, identifies evaluation criteria and the media to be used, develops a proposed evaluation directive, coordinates exercise-related evaluation requirements with the sponsoring commands, and provides required evaluation reports to the Director, J-7. Also called EA. See also joint doctrine; joint test publication.

evaluation and feedback
In intelligence usage, continuous assessment of intelligence operations throughout the intelligence process to ensure that the commander's intelligence requirements are being met. See intelligence process.

evasion
The process whereby individuals who are isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory avoid capture with the goal of successfully returning to areas under friendly control. See also evasion and recovery.

evasion aid
In evasion and recovery operations, any piece of information or equipment designed to assist an individual in evading capture. Evasion aids include, but are not limited to, blood chits, pointee-talkees, evasion charts, barter items, and equipment designed to complement issued survival equipment. See also blood chit; evasion; evasion and recovery; evasion chart; pointee-talkee; recovery; recovery operations.

evasion and escape
The procedures and operations whereby military personnel and other selected individuals are enabled to emerge from an enemy-held or hostile area to areas under friendly control. Also called E&E.

evasion and escape intelligence
Processed information prepared to assist personnel to escape if captured by the enemy or to evade capture if lost in enemy-dominated territory

evasion and escape net
The organization within enemy-held or hostile areas that operates to receive, move, and exfiltrate military personnel or selected individuals to friendly control. See also unconventional warfare.

evasion and escape route
A course of travel, preplanned or not, that an escapee or evader uses in an attempt to depart enemy territory in order to return to friendly lines.

evasion and recovery
The full spectrum of coordinated actions carried out by evaders, recovery forces, and operational recovery planners to effect the successful return of personnel isolated in hostile territory to friendly control. See also evader; evasion; hostile; recovery force.

evasion chart
Special map or chart designed as an evasion aid. See also evasion; evasion aid.

evasion plan of action
A course of action, developed before executing a combat mission, that is intended to improve a potential evader's chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing recovery forces with an additional source of information that can increase the predictability of the evader's actions and movement. Also called EPA. See also course of action; evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery force.

event matrix
A description of the indicators and activity expected to occur in each named area of interest. It normally cross-references each named area of interest and indicator with the times they are expected to occur and the courses of action they will confirm or deny. There is no prescribed format. See also activity; area of interest; indicator.

event template
A guide for collection planning. The event template depicts the named areas of interest where activity, or its lack of activity, will indicate which course of action the adversary has adopted. See also activity; area of interest; collection planning; course of action.

exaggerated stereoscopy
See hyperstereoscopy.

exceptional transport
In railway terminology, transport of a load whose size, weight, or preparation entails special difficulties vis-a-vis the facilities or equipment of even one of the railway systems to be used. See also ordinary transport.

excess property
The quantity of property in possession of any component of the Department of Defense that exceeds the quantity required or authorized for retention by that component.

exclusion zone
A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in a specific geographic area. The purpose may be to persuade nations or groups to modify their behavior to meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force.

exclusive economic zone
A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the coastal state has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the seabed, subsoil, and the subjacent waters and, with regard to other activities, for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone (e.g., the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds). Within the EEZ, the coastal state has jurisdiction with regard to establishing and using artificial islands, installations, and structures having economic purposes as well as for marine scientific research and the protection and preservation of the marine environment. Other states may, however, exercise traditional high seas freedoms of navigation, overflight, and related freedoms, such as conducting military exercises in the EEZ. Also called EEZ.

execute order
1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, by the authority and at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a Presidential decision to initiate military operations. 2. An order to initiate military operations as directed. Also called EXORD.

executing commander (nuclear weapons)
A commander to whom nuclear weapons are released for delivery against specific targets or in accordance with approved plans. See also commander(s); releasing commander (nuclear weapons).

execution planning
The phase of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System crisis action planning process that provides for the translation of an approved course of action into an executable plan of action through the preparation of a complete operation plan or operation order. Execution planning is detailed planning for the commitment of specified forces and resources. During crisis action planning, an approved operation plan or other Secretary of Defense-approved course of action is adjusted, refined, and translated into an operation order. Execution planning can proceed on the basis of prior deliberate planning, or it can take place in the absence of prior planning. Also called EP. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System.

executive agent
A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by theSecretary of Defense to a subordinate to act on the Secretary'sbehalf. An agreement between equals does not create an executiveagent. For example, a Service cannot become a Department ofDefense executive agent for a particular matter with simply theagreement of the other Services; such authority must be delegatedby the Secretary of Defense. Designation as executive agent, inand of itself, confers no authority. The exact nature and scopeof the authority delegated must be stated in the documentdesignating the executive agent. An executive agent may belimited to providing only administration and support orcoordinating common functions, or it may be delegated authority,direction, and control over specified resources for specifiedpurposes. Also called EA. See also agent.

exercise
A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution. It is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. It may be a multinational, joint, or single-Service exercise, depending on participating organizations. See also command post exercise; field exercise; maneuver.

exercise directing staff
A group of officers who by virtue of experience, qualifications, and a thorough knowledge of the exercise instructions, are selected to direct or control an exercise.

exercise filled mine
In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an inert filling and an indicating device. See also explosive filled mine; fitted mine; mine.

exercise incident
An occurrence injected by directing staffs into the exercise which will have an effect on the forces being exercised, or their facilities, and which will require action by the appropriate commander and/or staff being exercised.

exercise mine
In naval mine warfare, a mine suitable for use in mine warfare exercises, fitted with visible or audible indicating devices to show where and when it would normally fire. See also drill mine; mine; practice mine.

exercise specifications
The fundamental requirements for an exercise, providing in advance an outline of the concept, form, scope, setting, aim, objectives, force requirements, political implications, analysis arrangements, and costs.

exercise sponsor
The commander who conceives a particular exercise and orders that it be planned and executed either by the commander's staff or by a subordinate headquarters.

exercise study
An activity which may take the form of a map exercise, a war game, a series of lectures, a discussion group, or an operational analysis

exercise term
A combination of two words, normally unclassified, used exclusively to designate a test, drill, or exercise. An exercise term is employed to preclude the possibility of confusing exercise directives with actual operations directives

exfiltration
The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control by stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means. See also special operations; unconventional warfare.

existence load
Consists of items other than those in the fighting load that are required to sustain or protect the combat soldier. These items may be necessary for increased personal and environmental protection and are not normally carried by the individual. See also fighting load.

exoatmosphere
See nuclear exoatmospheric burst.

expedition
A military operation conducted by an armed force to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country.

expeditionary force
An armed force organized to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country.

expellee
A civilian outside the boundaries of the country of his or her nationality or ethnic origin who is being forcibly repatriated to that country or to a third country for political or other purposes. See also displaced person; evacuee; refugee.

expendable property
Property that may be consumed in use or loses its identity in use and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is issued or used.

expendable supplies and materiel
Supplies that are consumed in use, such as ammunition, paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical dressings, drugs, medicines, etc., or that lose their identity, such as spare parts, etc. Also called consumable supplies and materiel.

exploder
A device designed to generate an electric current in a firing circuit after deliberate action by the user in order to initiate an explosive charge or charges.

exploitation
1. (DOD only) Taking full advantage of success in military operations, following up initial gains, and making permanent the temporary effects already achieved. 2. Taking full advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical, operational, or strategic purposes. 3. An offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. See also attack; pursuit.

exploratory hunting
In naval mine warfare, a parallel operation to search sweeping, in which a sample of the route or area is subjected to minehunting procedures to determine the presence or absence of mines.

explosive filled mine
In mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive charge but not necessarily the firing train needed to detonate it. See also exercise filled mine; fitted mine.

explosive ordnance
All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission or fusion materials, and biological and chemical agents. This includes bombs and warheads; guided and ballistic missiles; artillery, mortar, rocket, and small arms ammunition; all mines, torpedoes, and depth charges; demolition charges; pyrotechnics; clusters and dispensers; cartridge and propellant actuated devices; electro-explosive devices; clandestine and improvised explosive devices; and all similar or related items or components explosive in nature.

explosive ordnance disposal procedures
Those particular courses or modes of action taken by explosive ordnance disposal personnel for access to, diagnosis, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of explosive ordnance or any hazardous material associated with an explosive ordnance disposal incident. a. access procedures--Those actions taken to locate exactly and gain access to unexploded explosive ordnance. b. diagnostic procedures--Those actions taken to identify and evaluate unexploded explosive ordnance. c. render safe procedures--The portion of the explosive ordnance disposal procedures involving the application of special explosive ordnance disposal methods and tools to provide for the interruption of functions or separation of essential components of unexploded explosive ordnance to prevent an unacceptable detonation. d. recovery procedures--Those actions taken to recover unexploded explosive ordnance. e. final disposal procedures--The final disposal of explosive ordnance which may include demolition or burning in place, removal to a disposal area, or other appropriate means.

explosive ordnance disposal unit
Personnel with special training and equipment who render explosive ordnance safe (such as bombs, mines, projectiles, and booby traps), make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and supervise the safe removal thereof.

explosive ordnance disposal procedures

explosive ordnance disposal unit

explosive ordnance disposal
The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. It may also include explosive ordnance which has become hazardous by damage or deterioration. Also called EOD.

explosive ordnance disposal incident
The suspected or detected presence of unexploded or damaged explosive ordnance which constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material. Not included in this definition are the accidental arming or other conditions that develop during the manufacture of high explosive material, technical service assembly operations or the laying of mines and demolition charges.

explosive train
A succession of initiating and igniting elements arranged to cause a charge to function.

exposure dose
The exposure dose at a given point is a measurement of radiation in relation to its ability to produce ionization. The unit of measurement of the exposure dose is the roentgen.

exposure station
See air station.

extended communications search
In search and rescue operations, consists of contacting all possible sources of information on the missing craft, including physically checking possible locations such as harbors, marinas, and airport ramps. An extended communications search is normally conducted after a preliminary communications search has yielded no results and when the mission is upgraded to the alert phase. Also called EXCOM. See also preliminary communications search; search and rescue incident classification, Subpart b.

extent of a military exercise
The scope of an exercise in relation to the involvement of NATO and/or national commands. See also intra-command exercise.

extent of damage
The visible plan area of damage to a target element, usually expressed in units of 1,000 square feet, in detailed damage analysis and in approximate percentages in immediate-type damage assessment reports; e.g., 50 percent structural damage.

external audience
All people who are not part of the internal audience of US military members and civilian employees and their immediate families. Part of the concept of "publics." Includes many varied subsets that may be referred to as "audiences" or "publics." See also internal audience; public.

external reinforcing force
A reinforcing force which is principally stationed in peacetime outside its intended Major NATO Command area of operations.

external support contractors
US national or third party contract personnel hired from outside the operational area. See also systems support contractors; theater support contractors

extraction parachute
An auxiliary parachute designed to release and extract and deploy cargo from aircraft in flight and deploy cargo parachutes. See also gravity extraction.

extraction zone
A specified drop zone used for the delivery of supplies and/or equipment by means of an extraction technique from an aircraft flying very close to the ground.

463L system
Aircraft pallets, nets, tie down, and coupling devices, facilities, handling equipment, procedures, and other components designed to interface with military and civilian aircraft cargo restraint systems. Though designed for airlift, system components may have to move intermodally via surface to support geographic combatant commander objectives.

 


 
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