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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources


Glossary of Military Terms

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cache
In evasion and recovery operations, source of subsistence and supplies, typically containing items such as food, water, medical items, and/or communications equipment, packaged to prevent damage from exposure and hidden in isolated locations by such methods as burial, concealment, and/or submersion, to support evaders in current or future operations. See also concealment; evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations.

calibrated focal length
An adjusted value of the equivalent focal length, so computed as to equalize the positive and negative values of distortion over the entire field used in a camera.

call fire
Fire delivered on a specific target in response to a request from the supported unit. See also fire.

call for fire
A request for fire containing data necessary for obtaining the required fire on a target.

call sign
Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily for establishing and maintaining communications. Also called CS. See also collective call sign; indefinite call sign; international call sign; net call sign; tactical call sign; visual call sign; voice call sign.

camera axis
An imaginary line through the optical center of the lens perpendicular to the negative photo plane.

camera axis direction
Direction on the horizontal plane of the optical axis of the camera at the time of exposure. This direction is defined by its azimuth expressed in degrees in relation to true/magnetic north.

camera calibration
The determination of the calibrated focal length, the location of the principal point with respect to the fiducial marks and the lens distortion effective in the focal plane of the camera referred to the particular calibrated focal length.

camera cycling rate
The frequency with which camera frames are exposed, expressed as cycles per second.

camera nadir
See photo nadir.

camouflage
The use of natural or artificial material on personnel, objects, or tactical positions with the aim of confusing, misleading, or evading the enemy

camouflage detection photography
Photography utilizing a special type of film (usually infrared) designed for the detection of camouflage.

camouflet
The resulting cavity in a deep underground burst when there is no rupture of the surface. See also crater.

campaign
A series of related military operations aimed at accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a given time and space. See also campaign plan.

campaign plan
A plan for a series of related military operations aimed at accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a given time and space. See also campaign; campaign planning.

campaign planning
The process whereby combatant commanders and subordinate joint force commanders translate national or theater strategic and operational concepts through the development of campaign plans. Campaign planning may begin during deliberate planning when the actual threat, national guidance, and available resources become evident, but is normally not completed until after the Secretary of Defense selects the course of action during crisis action planning. Campaign planning is conducted when contemplated military operations exceed the scope of a single major joint operation. See also campaign; campaign plan.

canalize
To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing or reinforcing obstacles or by fire or bombing.

cannibalize
To remove serviceable parts from one item of equipment in order to install them on another item of equipment.

cannot observe
A type of fire control which indicates that the observer or spotter will be unable to adjust fire, but believes a target exists at the given location and is of sufficient importance to justify firing upon it without adjustment or observation.

cantilever lifting frame
Used to move Navy lighterage causeway systems on to and off of lighter aboard ship (LASH) vessels. This device is suspended from the Morgan LASH barge crane and can lift one causeway section at a time. It is designed to allow the long sections to clear the rear of the ship as they are lowered into the water. Also called CLF. See also causeway; lighterage.

capability
The ability to execute a specified course of action. (A capability may or may not be accompanied by an intention.)

capacity load (Navy)
The maximum quantity of all supplies (ammunition; petroleum, oils, and lubricants; rations; general stores; maintenance stores; etc.) which each vessel can carry in proportions prescribed by proper authority. See also wartime load.

capstone publications
The top group of joint doctrine publications in the hierarchy of joint publications. Capstone publications link joint doctrine to national strategy and the contributions of other government agencies, alliances, and coalitions. See also above-the-line publications; below-the-line publications; joint publication; keystone publications.

capstone requirements document
A document that contains performance-based requirements to facilitate development of individual operational requirements documents by providing a common framework and operational concept to guide their development. Also called CRD.

capsule
1. A sealed, pressurized cabin for extremely high altitude or space flight which provides an acceptable environment for man, animal, or equipment. 2. An ejectable sealed cabin having automatic devices for safe return of the occupants to the surface.

captive firing
A firing test of short duration, conducted with the missile propulsion system operating while secured to a test stand.

captured
See missing.

cardinal point effect
The increased intensity of a line or group of returns on the radarscope occurring when the radar beam is perpendicular to the rectangular surface of a line or group of similarly aligned features in the ground pattern.

caretaker status
A nonoperating condition in which the installations, materiel, and facilities are in a care and limited preservation status. Only a minimum of personnel is required to safeguard against fire, theft, and damage from the elements.

cargo classification (combat loading)
The division of military cargo into categories for combat loading aboard ships.

cargo increment number
A seven-character alphanumeric field that uniquely describes a non-unit-cargo entry (line) in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System time-phased force and deployment data.

cargo outturn message
A brief message report transmitted within 48 hours of completion of ship discharge to advise both the Military Sealift Command and the terminal of loading of the condition of the cargo, including any discrepancies in the form of overages, shortages, or damages between cargo as manifested and cargo as checked at time of discharge.

cargo outturn report
A detailed report prepared by a discharging terminal to record discrepancies in the form of over, short, and damaged cargo as manifested, and cargo checked at a time and place of discharge from ship.

cargo sling
A strap, chain, or other material used to hold cargo items securely which are to be hoisted, lowered, or suspended.

cargo tie-down point
A point on military materiel designed for attachment of various means for securing the item for transport.

cargo transporter
A reusable metal shipping container designed for worldwide surface and air movement of suitable military supplies and equipment through the cargo transporter service.

carpet bombing
The progressive distribution of a mass bomb load upon an area defined by designated boundaries, in such manner as to inflict damage to all portions thereof.

carrier air wing
Two or more aircraft squadrons formed under one commander for administrative and tactical control of operations from a carrier.
carrier battle group
A standing naval task group consisting of a carrier, surface combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct support, operating in mutual support with the task of destroying hostile submarine, surface, and air forces within the group's assigned operational area and striking at targets along hostile shore lines or projecting fire power inland. Also called CVBG.

carrier striking force
A naval task force composed of aircraft carriers and supporting combatant ships capable of conducting strike operations.

cartel
An association of independent businesses organized to control prices and production, eliminate competition, and reduce the cost of doing business.

CARVER
A special operations forces acronym used throughout the targeting and mission planning cycle to assess mission validity and requirements. The acronym stands for criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, and recognizability.

case
1. An intelligence operation in its entirety. 2. Record of the development of an intelligence operation, including personnel, modus operandi, and objectives

casual
See transient.

casualty
Any person who is lost to the organization by having been declared dead, duty status - whereabouts unknown, missing, ill, or injured. See also casualty category; casualty status; casualty type; duty status - whereabouts unknown; hostile casualty; nonhostile casualty.

casualty category
A term used to specifically classify a casualty for reporting purposes based upon the casualty type and the casualty status. Casualty categories include killed in action, died of wounds received in action, and wounded in action. See also casualty; casualty status; casualty type; duty status - whereabouts unknown; missing.

casualty evacuation
The movement of casualties. It includes movement bothto and between medical treatment facilities. Any vehicle may beused to evacuate casualties. Also called CASEVAC. See also casualty; evacuation; medical treatment facility.

casualty receiving and treatment ship
In amphibious operations, a ship designated to receive, provide treatment for, and transfer casualties.

casualty status
A term used to classify a casualty for reporting purposes. There are seven casualty statuses: (1) deceased; (2) duty status - whereabouts unknown; (3) missing; (4) very seriously ill or injured; (5) seriously ill or injured; (6) incapacitating illness or injury; and (7) not seriously injured. See also casualty; casualty category; casualty type; deceased; duty status - whereabouts unknown; incapacitating illness or injury; missing; not seriously injured; seriously ill or injured; very seriously ill or injured.

casualty type
A term used to identify a casualty for reporting purposes as either a hostile casualty or a nonhostile casualty. See also casualty; casualty category; casualty status; hostile casualty; nonhostile casualty.

catalytic attack
An attack designed to bring about a war between major powers through the disguised machinations of a third power.

catalytic war
Not to be used. See catalytic attack.

catapult
A structure which provides an auxiliary source of thrust to a missile or aircraft; must combine the functions of directing and accelerating the missile during its travel on the catapult; serves the same functions for a missile as does a gun tube for a shell.

categories of data
In the context of perception management and its constituent approaches, data obtained by adversary individuals, groups, intelligence systems, and officials. Such data fall in two categories: a. information--A compilation of data provided by protected or open sources that would provide a substantially complete picture of friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities. b. indicators--Data derived from open sources or from detectable actions that adversaries can piece together or interpret to reach personal conclusions or official estimates concerning friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities. (Note: In operations security, actions that convey indicators exploitable by adversaries, but that must be carried out regardless, to plan, prepare for, and execute activities, are called "observables.") See also operations security.

causeway
A craft similar in design to a barge, but longer and narrower, designed to assist in the discharge and transport of cargo from vessels. See also barge; watercraft.

causeway launching area
An area located near the line of departure but clear of the approach lanes, where ships can launch pontoon causeways.

caveat
A designator used with a classification to further limit the dissemination of restricted information.

C-day
See times.

CEASE BUZZER
An unclassified term to terminate electronic attack activities, including the use of electronic warfare expendables.See also electronic attack; electronic warfare.

cease fire
1. A command given to any unit or individual firing any weapon to stop engaging the target. See also call for fire; fire mission. 2. A command given to air defense artillery units to refrain from firing on, but to continue to track, an airborne object. Missiles already in flight will be permitted to continue to intercept.

cease fire line
See armistice demarcation line. See also armistice; cease fire.

ceiling
The height above the Earth's surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuration phenomena that is reported as "broken," "overcast," or "obscured" and not classified as "thin" or "partial."

celestial guidance
The guidance of a missile or other vehicle by reference to celestial bodies.

celestial sphere
An imaginary sphere of infinite radius concentric with the Earth, on which all celestial bodies except the Earth are imagined to be projected.

cell
Small group of individuals who work together for clandestine or subversive purposes.

cell system
See net, chain, cell system.

censorship
See armed forces censorship; civil censorship; field press censorship; national censorship; primary censorship; prisoner of war censorship; secondary censorship.

center of burst
See mean point of impact.

centers of gravity
Those characteristics, capabilities, or sources of power from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength, or will to fight. Also called COGs. See also capability; decisive point.

centigray
A unit of absorbed dose of radiation (one centigray equals one rad).

central control officer
The officer designated by the amphibious task force commander for the overall coordination of the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. The central control officer is embarked in the central control ship. Also called CCO.

centralized control
1. In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes direct target assignments to fire units. 2. In joint air operations, placing within one commander the responsibility and authority for planning, directing, and coordinating a military operation or group/category of operations. See also decentralized control.

centralized receiving and shipping point
Actual location where containers with cargo must be sorted before transshipment to the appropriate supply support activity or owning unit. Single consignee cargo and ammunition will not pass through the centralized receiving and shipping point. Cargo will be shipped directly to the owner with the movement organization maintaining visibility, and ammunition will go directly to the appropriate ammunition storage facility. Also called CRSP.

centrally managed item
An item of materiel subject to inventory control point (wholesale level) management.

central procurement
The procurement of materiel, supplies, or services by an officially designated command or agency with funds specifically provided for such procurement for the benefit and use of the entire component or, in the case of single managers, for the Military Departments as a whole.

chaff
Radar confusion reflectors, consisting of thin, narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses, which are used to reflect echoes for confusion purposes. Causes enemy radar guided missiles to lock on to it instead of the real aircraft, ship, or other platform. See also deception; rope.

chain
See net, chain, cell system.

chain of command
The succession of commanding officers from a superior to a subordinate through which command is exercised. Also called command channel.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction
A replacement document for all types of correspondence containing Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff policy and guidance that does not involve the employment of forces. An instruction is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies, or both the Joint Staff and external agencies. It remains in effect until superseded, rescinded, or otherwise canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instructions, unlike joint publications, will not contain joint doctrine. Terminology used in these publications will be consistent with JP 1-02. Also called CJCSI. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual
A document containing detailed procedures for performing specific tasks that do not involve the employment of forces. A manual is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies or both the Joint Staff and external agencies. It may supplement a Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction or stand alone and remains in effect until superseded, rescinded, or otherwise canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manuals, unlike joint publications, will not contain joint doctrine. Terminology used in these publications will be consistent with JP 1-02. Also called CJCSM. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff memorandum of policy
A statement of policy approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and issued for the guidance of the Services, the combatant commands, and the Joint Staff.

Chairman's program assessment
Provides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's personal appraisal on alternative program recommendations and budget proposals to the Secretary of Defense for consideration in refining the defense program and budget in accordance with 10 United States Code. The Chairman's program assessment comments on the risk associated with the programmed allocation of Defense resources and evaluates the conformance of program objective memoranda to the priorities established in strategic plans and combatant commanders' priority requirements. Also called CPA.

Chairman's program recommendations
Provides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's personal recommendations to the Secretary of Defense for the programming and budgeting process before publishing the Defense Planning Guidance (DPG) in accordance with 10 United States Code. The Chairman's program recommendations articulates programs the Chairman deems critical for the Secretary of Defense to consider when identifying Department of Defense priorities and performance goals in the DPG and emphasizes specific recommendations that will enhance joint readiness, promote joint doctrine and training, improve joint warfighting capabilities, and satisfy joint warfighting requirements within DOD resource constraints and within acceptable risk levels. Also called CPR.

chalk commander
The commander of all troops embarked under one chalk number. See also chalk number; chalk troops.

chalk number
The number given to a complete load and to the transporting carrier. See also chalk commander; chalk troops.

chalk troops
A load of troops defined by a particular chalk number. See also chalk commander; chalk number.

challenge
Any process carried out by one unit or person with the object of ascertaining the friendly or hostile character or identity of another. See also countersign; password.

chancery
The building upon a diplomatic or consular compound which houses the offices of the chief of mission or principal officer.

change of operational control
The date and time (Coordinated Universal Time) at which a force or unit is reassigned or attached from one commander to another where the gaining commander will exercise operational control over that force or unit. Also called CHOP. See also operational control.

channel airlift
Common-user airlift service provided on a scheduled basis between two points. There are two types of channel airlift. A requirements channel serves two or more points on a scheduled basis depending upon the volume of traffic; a frequency channel is time-based and serves two or more points at regular intervals.

characteristic actuation probability
In naval mine warfare, the average probability of a mine of a given type being actuated by one run of the sweep within the characteristic actuation width.

characteristic actuation width
In naval mine warfare, the width of path over which mines can be actuated by a single run of the sweep gear.

characteristic detection probability
In naval mine warfare, the ratio of the number of mines detected on a single run to the number of mines which could have been detected within the characteristic detection width.

characteristic detection width
In naval mine warfare, the width of path over which mines can be detected on a single run.

charged demolition target
A demolition target on which all charges have been placed and which is in the states of readiness, either state 1 -- safe, or state 2 -- armed. See also state of readiness -- state 1 safe; state of readiness -- state 2 armed.

chart base
A chart used as a primary source for compilation or as a framework on which new detail is printed. Also called topographic base.

chart index
See map index.

chart location of the battery
See battery center.

chart series
See map; map series.

chart sheet
See map; map sheet.

check firing
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, a command to cause a temporary halt in firing. See also cease fire; fire mission.

checkout
A sequence of functional, operational, and calibrational tests to determine the condition and status of a weapon system or element thereof.

checkpoint
1. A predetermined point on the surface of the Earth used as a means of controlling movement, a registration target for fire adjustment, or reference for location. 2. Center of impact; a burst center. 3. Geographical location on land or water above which the position of an aircraft in flight may be determined by observation or by electrical means. 4. A place where military police check vehicular or pedestrian traffic in order to enforce circulation control measures and other laws, orders, and regulations.

check sweeping
In naval mine warfare, sweeping to check that no moored mines are left after a previous clearing operation

chemical agent
Any toxic chemical intended for use in military operations. See also chemical ammunition; chemical defense; chemical dose; chemical environment; chemical warfare; riot control agent.

chemical agent cumulative action
The building up, within the human body, of small ineffective doses of certain chemical agents to a point where eventual effect is similar to one large dose

chemical ammunition
A type of ammunition, the filler of which is primarily a chemical agent.

chemical ammunition cargo
Cargo such as white phosphorous munitions (shell and grenades).

chemical, biological, and radiological operation
A collective term used only when referring to a combined chemical, biological, and radiological operation.

chemical contamination
See contamination.

chemical defense
The methods, plans, and procedures involved in establishing and executing defensive measures against attack utilizing chemical agents. See also nuclear, biological, and chemical defense.

chemical dose
The amount of chemical agent, expressed in milligrams, that is taken or absorbed by the body.

chemical environment
Conditions found in an area resulting from direct or persisting effects of chemical weapons.

chemical horn
In naval mine warfare, a mine horn containing an electric battery, the electrolyte for which is in a glass tube protected by a thin metal sheet. Also called Hertz Horn.

chemical monitoring
The continued or periodic process of determining whether or not a chemical agent is present. See also chemical survey.

chemical operation
Employment of chemical agents to kill, injure, or incapacitate for a significant period of time, man or animals, and deny or hinder the use of areas, facilities, or materiel; or defense against such employment.

chemical survey
The directed effort to determine the nature and degree of chemical hazard in an area and to delineate the perimeter of the hazard area.

chemical warfare
All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will be referred to separately or under the broader term "chemical," which will be used to include all types of chemical munitions/agents collectively. Also called CW. See also chemical agent; chemical defense; chemical dose; chemical environment; chemical weapon; riot control agent.

chemical weapon
Together or separately, (a) a toxic chemical and its precursors, except when intended for a purpose not prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention; (b) a munition or device, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those chemicals specified in (a), above, which would be released as a result of the employment of such munition or device; (c) any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices specified in (b), above. See also chemical agent; chemical defense; chemical dose; chemical environment; chemical warfare; riot control agent.

chief Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps censor
An officer appointed by the commander of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps component of a unified command to supervise all censorship activities of that Service.

chief of mission
A chief of mission (COM) (normally the ambassador) is the principal officer in charge of a diplomatic facility of the United States, including any individual assigned to be temporarily in charge of such a facility. The COM is the personal representative of the President to the country of accreditation. The COM is responsible for the direction, coordination, and supervision of all US Government executive branch employees in that country (except those under the command of a US area military commander). The security of the diplomatic post is the COM's direct responsibility. Also called COM.

chief of staff
The senior or principal member or head of a staff, or the principal assistant in a staff capacity to a person in a command capacity; the head or controlling member of a staff, for purposes of the coordination of its work; a position that in itself is without inherent power of command by reason of assignment, except that which is invested in such a position by delegation to exercise command in another's name.

chronic radiation dose
A dose of ionizing radiation received either continuously or intermittently over a prolonged period of time. A chronic radiation dose may be high enough to cause radiation sickness and death but, if received at a low dose rate, a significant portion of the acute cellular damage may be repaired. See also acute radiation dose; radiation dose; radiation dose rate.

chuffing
The characteristic of some rockets to burn intermittently and with an irregular noise.

cipher
Any cryptographic system in which arbitrary symbols (or groups of symbols) represent units of plain text of regular length, usually single letters; units of plain text are rearranged; or both, in accordance with certain predetermined rules. See also cryptosystem.

circular error probable
An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within which half of a missile's projectiles are expected to fall. Also called CEP. See also delivery error; deviation; dispersion error; horizontal error.

civic action
See military civic action.

civil administration
An administration established by a foreign government in (1) friendly territory, under an agreement with the government of the area concerned, to exercise certain authority normally the function of the local government; or (2) hostile territory, occupied by United States forces, where a foreign government exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority until an indigenous civil government can be established. Also called CA.

civil affairs
Designated Active and Reserve component forces and units organized, trained, and equipped specifically to conduct civil affairs activities and to support civil-military operations. Also called CA. See also civil affairs activities; civil-military operations.

civil affairs activities
Activities performed or supported by civil affairs that (1) enhance the relationship between military forces and civil authorities in areas where military forces are present; and (2) involve application of civil affairs functional specialty skills, in areas normally the responsibility of civil government, toenhance conduct of civil-military operations. See also civil affairs; civil-military operations.

civil affairs agreement
An agreement that governs the relationship between allied armed forces located in a friendly country and the civil authorities and people of that country. See also civil affairs.

civil augmentation program
Standing, long-term contacts designed to augment Service logistic capabilities with contract support in both preplanned and short notice contingencies. Examples include US Army Logistics Civilian Augmentation Program, US Air Force Contract Augmentation Program, and US Navy Construction Capabilities Contract. See also contingency.

civil censorship
Censorship of civilian communications, such as messages, printed matter, and films entering, leaving, or circulating within areas or territories occupied or controlled by armed forces. See also censorship.

civil damage assessment
An appraisal of damage to a nation's population, industry, utilities, communications, transportation, food, water, and medical resources to support planning for national recovery. See also damage assessment.

civil defense
All those activities and measures designed or undertaken to: a. minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused or which would be caused by an enemy attack on the United States; b. deal with the immediate emergency conditions that would be created by any such attack; and c. effectuate emergency repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities destroyed or damaged by any such attack.

civil defense emergency
See domestic emergencies.

civil defense intelligence
The product resulting from the collection and evaluation of information concerning all aspects of the situation in the United States and its territories that are potential or actual targets of any enemy attack including, in the preattack phase, the emergency measures taken and estimates of the civil populations' preparedness. In the event of an actual attack, the information will include a description of conditions in the affected area with emphasis on the extent of damage, fallout levels, and casualty and resource estimates. The product is required by civil and military authorities for use in the formulation of decisions, the conduct of operations, and the continuation of the planning processes.

civil disturbance
Group acts of violence and disorder prejudicial to public law and order. See also domestic emergencies.

civil disturbance readiness conditions
Required conditions of preparedness to be attained by military forces in preparation for deployment to an objective area in response to an actual or threatened civil disturbance.

civil engineering
Those combat support and combat service support activities that identify, design, construct, lease, or provide facilities, and which operate, maintain, and perform war damage repair and other engineering functions in support of military operations. See also civil engineering support plan; combat service support; combat support.

civil engineering support plan
An appendix to the logistics annex or separate annex of an operation plan that identifies the minimum essential engineering services and construction requirements required to support the commitment of military forces. Also called CESP. See also civil engineering; operation plan.

civilian internee
1. A civilian who is interned during armed conflict or occupation for security reasons or for protection or because he or she has committed an offense against the detaining power. 2. A term used to refer to persons interned and protected in accordance with the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949 (Geneva Convention). Also called CI. See also prisoner of war.

civilian internee camp
An installation established for the internment and administration of civilian internees.

civil-military operations
The activities of a commander that establish, maintain,influence, or exploit relations between military forces, governmental and nongovernmental civilian organizations andauthorities, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile operational area in order to facilitate military operations, to consolidate and achieve operational US objectives. Civil-military operations may include performance by military forces of activities and functions normally the responsibility of the local, regional, or national government. These activities mayoccur prior to, during, or subsequent to other military actions. They may also occur, if directed, in the absence of other military operations. Civil-military operations may be performed by designated civil affairs, by other military forces, or by a combination of civil affairs and other forces. Also called CMO. See also civil affairs; operation.

civil-military operations center
An ad hoc organization, normally established by the geographic combatant commander or subordinate joint force commander, to assist in the coordination of activities of engaged military forces, and other United States Government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and regional and international organizations. There is no established structure, and its size and composition are situation dependent. Also called CMOC. See also civil affairs activities; civil-military operations; operation.

civil nuclear power
A nation that has the potential to employ nuclear technology for development of nuclear weapons but has deliberately decided against doing so.

civil requirements
The necessary production and distribution of all types of services, supplies, and equipment during periods of armed conflict or occupation to ensure the productive efficiency of the civilian economy and to provide to civilians the treatment and protection to which they are entitled under customary and conventional international law.

civil reserve air fleet
A program in which the Department of Defense contracts for the services of specific aircraft, owned by a US entity or citizen, during national emergencies and defense-oriented situations when expanded civil augmentation of military airlift activity is required. These aircraft are allocated, in accordance with Department of Defense requirements, to segments, according to their capabilities, such as international long range and short range cargo and passenger sections, national (domestic and Alaskan sections) and aeromedical evacuation and other segments as may be mutually agreed upon by the Department of Defense and the Department of Transportation. Also called CRAF. See also reserve.

civil transportation
The movement of persons, property, or mail by civil facilities, and the resources (including storage, except that for agricultural and petroleum products) necessary to accomplish the movement. (Excludes transportation operated or controlled by the military as well as petroleum and gas pipelines.)

clandestine operation
An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of the identity of the sponsor. In special operations, an activity may be both covert and clandestine and may focus equally on operational considerations and intelligence-related activities. See also covert operation; overt operation.

classes of supply
There are ten categories into which supplies are grouped in order to facilitate supply management and planning. I.Rations and gratuitous issue of health, morale, andwelfare items. II. Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, toolsets, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment.III. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants. IV. Constructionmateriels. V. Ammunition. VI. Personal demand items. VII.Major end items, including tanks, helicopters, and radios. VIII.Medical. IX. Repair parts and components for equipmentmaintenance. X. Nonstandard items to support nonmilitaryprograms such as agriculture and economic development. See also ammunition; petroleum, oils, and lubricants.

classification
The determination that official information requires, in the interests of national security, a specific degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure, coupled with a designation signifying that such a determination has been made. See also security classification.

classification of bridges and vehicles
See military load classification.

classified contract
Any contract that requires or will require access to classified information by the contractor or the employees in the performance of the contract. (A contract may be classified even though the contract document itself is not classified.)

classified information
Official information that has been determined to require, in the interests of national security, protection against unauthorized disclosure and which has been so designated.

classified matter
Official information or matter in any form or of any nature which requires protection in the interests of national security. See also unclassified matter.

clean aircraft
1. An aircraft in flight configuration (versus landing configuration); i.e., landing gear and flaps retracted, etc. 2. An aircraft that does not have external stores.

cleansing station
See decontamination station.

clear
1. To approve or authorize, or to obtain approval or authorization for: a. a person or persons with regard to their actions, movements, duties, etc.; b. an object or group of objects, as equipment or supplies, with regard to quality, quantity, purpose, movement, disposition, etc.; and c. a request, with regard to correctness of form, validity, etc. 2. To give one or more aircraft a clearance. 3. To give a person a security clearance. 4. To fly over an obstacle without touching it. 5. To pass a designated point, line, or object. The end of a column must pass the designated feature before the latter is cleared. 6. a. To operate a gun so as to unload it or make certain no ammunition remains; and b. to free a gun of stoppages. 7. To clear an engine; to open the throttle of an idling engine to free it from carbon. 8. To clear the air to gain either temporary or permanent air superiority or control in a given sector.

clearance capacity
An estimate expressed in terms of measurement or weight tons per day of the cargo that may be transported inland from a beach or port over the available means of inland communication, including roads, railroads, and inland waterways. The estimate is based on an evaluation of the physical characteristics of the transportation facilities in the area. See also beach capacity; port capacity.

clearance rate
The area which would be cleared per unit time with a stated minimum percentage clearance, using specific minehunting and/or minesweeping procedures.

clearing operation
An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and obstacles from a route or area.

clock code position
The position of a target in relation to an aircraft or ship with dead-ahead position considered as 12 o'clock.

close air support
Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and that require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. Also called CAS. See also air interdiction; air support; immediate mission request; preplanned mission request.

close-controlled air interception
An interception in which the interceptor is continuously controlled to a position from which the target is within visual range or radar contact. See also air interception.

closed area
A designated area in or over which passage of any kind is prohibited. See also prohibited area.

close support
That action of the supporting force against targets or objectives which are sufficiently near the supported force as to require detailed integration or coordination of the supporting action with the fire, movement, or other actions of the supported force. See also direct support; general support; mutual support; support.

close support area
Those parts of the ocean operating areas nearest to, but not necessarily in, the objective area. They are assigned to naval support carrier battle groups, surface action groups, surface action units, and certain logistic combat service support elements.

closure
In transportation, the process of a unit arriving at a specified location. It begins when the first element arrives at a designated location, e.g., port of entry and/or port of departure, intermediate stops, or final destination, and ends when the last element does likewise. For the purposes of studies and command post exercises, a unit is considered essentially closed after 95 percent of its movement requirements for personnel and equipment are completed.

closure minefield
In naval mine warfare, a minefield which is planned to present such a threat that waterborne shipping is prevented from moving.

closure shortfall
The specified movement requirement or portion thereof that did not meet scheduling criteria and/or movement dates.

cloud amount
The proportion of sky obscured by cloud, expressed as a fraction of sky covered.

cloud chamber effect
See condensation cloud.

cloud top height
The maximal altitude to which a nuclear mushroom cloud rises.

cluster bomb unit
An aircraft store composed of a dispenser and submunitions. Also called CBU

clutter
Permanent echoes, cloud, or other atmospheric echo on radar scope; as contact has entered scope clutter. See also radar clutter.

coalition
An ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for common action. See also alliance; multinational.

coalition action
Multinational action outside the bounds of established alliances, usually for single occasions or longer cooperation in a narrow sector of common interest. See also alliance; coalition; multinational operations.

coalition coordination cell
An ad hoc unified or sub-unified staff organization composed of staff elements required to integrate coalition contributions (forces and capabilities) into a contingency operation. Also called CCC.

coarse mine
In naval mine warfare, a relatively insensitive influence mine.

coassembly
With respect to exports, a cooperative arrangement (e.g., US Government or company with foreign government or company) by which finished parts, components, assemblies, or subassemblies are provided to an eligible foreign government, international organization, or commercial producer for the assembly of an end-item or system. This is normally accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license agreement per the US International Traffic in Arms Regulation and could involve the implementation of a government-to-government memorandum of understanding.

coastal convoy
A convoy whose voyage lies in general on the continental shelf and in coastal waters.

coastal frontier
A geographic division of a coastal area, established for organization and command purposes in order to ensure the effective coordination of military forces employed in military operations within the coastal frontier area.

coastal refraction
The change of the direction of travel of a radio ground wave as it passes from land to sea or from sea to land. Also called land effect or shoreline effect.

coastal sea control
The employment of forces to ensure the unimpeded use of an offshore coastal area by friendly forces and, as appropriate, to deny the use of the area to enemy forces.

code
1. Any system of communication in which arbitrary groups of symbols represent units of plain text of varying length. Codes may be used for brevity or for security. 2. A cryptosystem in which the cryptographic equivalents (usually called "code groups"), typically consisting of letters or digits (or both) in otherwise meaningless combinations, are substituted for plain text elements which are primarily words, phrases, or sentences. See also cryptosystem.

code word
1. A word that has been assigned a classification and a classified meaning to safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or operation. 2. A cryptonym used to identify sensitive intelligence data.

cold war
A state of international tension wherein political, economic, technological, sociological, psychological, paramilitary, and military measures short of overt armed conflict involving regular military forces are employed to achieve national objectives.

collaborative purchase
A method of purchase whereby, in buying similar commodities, buyers for two or more departments exchange information concerning planned purchases in order to minimize competition between them for commodities in the same market.

collapse depth
The design depth, referenced to the axis of the pressure hull, beyond which the hull structure or hull penetrations are presumed to suffer catastrophic failure to the point of total collapse.

collate
1. The grouping together of related items to provide a record of events and facilitate further processing. 2. To compare critically two or more items or documents concerning the same general subject; normally accomplished in the processing and exploitation phase in the intelligence cycle. See also intelligence process.

collateral damage
Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. Such damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military advantage anticipated from the attack.

collection
In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information and the provision of this information to processing elements. See also intelligence process.

collection (acquisition)
The obtaining of information in any manner, including direct observation, liaison with official agencies, or solicitation from official, unofficial, or public sources.

collection agency
Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to sources of information and the capability of collecting information from them. See also agency.

collection asset
A collection system, platform, or capability that is supporting, assigned, or attached to a particular commander. See also capability; collection.

collection coordination facility line number
An arbitrary number assigned to contingency intelligence reconnaissance objectives by the Defense Intelligence Agency collection coordination facility to facilitate all-source collection.

collection management
In intelligence usage, the process of converting intelligence requirements into collection requirements, establishing priorities, tasking or coordinating with appropriate collection sources or agencies, monitoring results, and retasking, as required. See also collection; collection requirement; collection requirements management; intelligence; intelligence process.

collection management authority
Constitutes the authority to establish, prioritize, and validate theater collection requirements, establish sensor tasking guidance, and develop theater collection plans. Also called CMA. See also collection manager; collection plan; collection requirement.

collection manager
An individual with responsibility for the timely and efficient tasking of organic collection resources and the development of requirements for theater and national assets that could satisfy specific information needs in support of the mission. Also called CM. See also collection; collection management authority.

collection operations management
The authoritative direction, scheduling, and control of specific collection operations and associated processing, exploitation, and reporting resources. Also called COM. See also collection management; collections requirements management.

collection plan
A plan for collecting information from all available sources to meet intelligence requirements and for transforming those requirements into orders and requests to appropriate agencies. See also information; information requirements; intelligence process.

collection planning
A continuous process that coordinates and integrates the efforts of all collection units and agencies. See also collection.

collection point
A point designated for the assembly of personnel casualties, stragglers, disabled materiel, salvage, etc., for further movement to collecting stations or rear installations.

collection requirement
An established intelligence need considered in the allocation of intelligence resources to fulfill the essential elements of information and other intelligence needs of a commander.

collection requirements management
The authoritative development and control of collection, processing, exploitation, and/or reporting requirements that normally result in either the direct tasking of assets over which the collection manager has authority, or the generation of tasking requests to collection management authorities at a higher, lower, or lateral echelon to accomplish the collection mission. Also called CRM. See also collection; collection management; collection operations management.

collection resource
A collection system, platform, or capability that is not assigned or attached to a specific unit or echelon which must be requested and coordinated through the chain of command. See also collection management.

collective call sign
Any call sign which represents two or more facilities, commands, authorities, or units. The collective call sign for any of these includes the commander thereof and all subordinate commanders therein. See also call sign.

collective nuclear, biological, and chemical protection
Protection provided to a group of individuals in a nuclear, biological, and chemical environment which permits relaxation of individual nuclear, biological, and chemical protection.

collective self-defense
Collective self-defense is the act of defending other designated non-US forces. Only the President or Secretary of Defense may authorize US forces to exercise the right of collective self-defense.

collocation
The physical placement of two or more detachments, units, organizations, or facilities at a specifically defined location.

colored beach
That portion of usable coastline sufficient for the assault landing of a regimental landing team or similar sized unit. In the event that the landing force consists of a single battalion landing team, a colored beach will be used and no further subdivision of the beach is required. See also numbered beach.

column formation
A formation in which elements are placed one behind the other.

column gap
The space between two consecutive elements proceeding on the same route. It can be calculated in units of length or in units of time measured from the rear of one element to the front of the following element.

column length
The length of the roadway occupied by a column or a convoy in movement. See also road space.

combat air patrol
An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, the force protected, the critical area of a combat zone, or in an air defense area, for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their targets. Also called CAP. See also airborne alert; barrier combat air patrol; patrol; rescue combat air patrol.

combat airspace control
See airspace control in the combat zone.

combat and operational stress
The expected and predictable emotional, intellectual, physical, and/or behavioral reactions of Service members who have been exposed to stressful events in war or military operations other than war. Combat stress reactions vary in quality and severity as a function of operational conditions, such as intensity, duration, rules of engagement, leadership, effective communication, unit morale, unit cohesion, and perceived importance of the mission.

combatant command
A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Combatant commands typically have geographic or functional responsibilities. See also specified command; unified command

combatant command chaplain
The senior chaplain assigned to the staff of, or designated by, the combatant commander to provide advice on religion, ethics, and morale of assigned personnel and to coordinate religious ministries within the combatant commander's area of responsibility. See also command chaplain; lay leader; religious support; religious support plan; religious support team.

combatant command (command authority)
Nontransferable command authority established by title 10 ("Armed Forces"), United States Code, section 164, exercised only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense. Combatant command (command authority) cannot be delegated and is the authority of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Combatant command (command authority) should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate joint force commanders and Service and/or functional component commanders. Combatant command (command authority) provides full authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Also called COCOM. See also combatant command; combatant commander; operational control; tactical control.

combatant commander
A commander of one of the unified or specified combatantcommands established by the President. See also combatant command; specified combatant command; unified combatant command.

combatant commander's required date
The original date relative to C-day, specified by the combatant commander for arrival of forces or cargo at the destination; shown in the time-phased force and deployment data to assess the impact of later arrival. Also called CRD.

combatant commander's strategic concept
Final document produced in step 5 of the concept development phase of the deliberate planning process. The combatant commander's strategic concept is used as the vehicle to distribute the combatant commander's decision and planning guidance for accomplishing Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or other Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) taskings. CJCS approval of the strategic concept becomes the basis of the plan for development into an operation plan or operation plan in concept format. Also called CSC.

combat area
A restricted area (air, land, or sea) that is established to prevent or minimize mutual interference between friendly forces engaged in combat operations. See also combat zone.

combat assessment
The determination of the overall effectiveness of force employment during military operations. Combat assessment is composed of three major components: (a) battle damage assessment; (b) munitions effectiveness assessment; and (c) reattack recommendation. Also called CA. See also battle damage assessment; munitions effectiveness assessment; reattack recommendation.

combat camera
The acquisition and utilization of still and motion imagery in support of combat, information, humanitarian, special force, intelligence, reconnaissance, engineering, legal, public affairs, and other operations involving the Military Services. Also called COMCAM. See also visual information; visual information documentation.

combat cargo officer
An embarkation officer assigned to major amphibious ships or naval staffs, functioning primarily as an adviser to and representative of the naval commander in matters pertaining to embarkation and debarkation of troops and their supplies and equipment. Also called CCO. See also embarkation officer.

combat chart
A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000, designed for naval surface fire support and close air support during coastal or amphibious operations and showing detailed hydrography and topography in the coastal belt. See also amphibious chart.

combat control team
A small task organized team of Air Force parachute and combat diver qualified personnel trained and equipped to rapidly establish and control drop, landing, and extraction zone air traffic in austere or hostile conditions. They survey and establish terminal airheads as well as provide guidance to aircraft for airlift operations. They provide command and control, and conduct reconnaissance, surveillance, and survey assessments of potential objective airfields or assault zones. They also can perform limited weather observations and removal of obstacles or unexploded ordinance with demolitions. Also called CCT.

combat engineering
Those engineering tasks that assist the tactical and/or operational commander to "shape" the battlespace by enhancing mobility creating the space and time necessary to generate mass and speed while protecting the force, and denying mobility and key terrain to the enemy. These tasks include breaching, bridging, and emplacement of obstacles to deny mobility to the enemy.

combat forces
Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat. See also operating forces.

combat information
Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user's tactical intelligence requirements. See also information.

combat information center
The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Certain control, assistance, and coordination functions may be delegated by command to the combat information center. Also called action information center; CIC. See also air defense control center.

combating terrorism
Actions, including antiterrorism (defensive measures taken to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism), taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire threat spectrum. Also called CBT. See also antiterrorism; counterterrorism.

combat intelligence
That knowledge of the enemy, weather, and geographical features required by a commander in the planning and conduct of combat operations.

combat loading
The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of equipment and supplies in a manner designed to conform to the anticipated tactical operation of the organization embarked. Each individual item is stowed so that it can be unloaded at the required time. See also loading.

combat power
The total means of destructive and/or disruptive force which a military unit/formation can apply against the opponent at a given time.

combat readiness
Synonymous with operational readiness, with respect to missions or functions performed in combat.

combat search and rescue
A specific task performed by rescue forces to effect the recovery of distressed personnel during war or military operations other than war. Also called CSAR. See also search and rescue.

combat search and rescue mission coordinator
The designated person or organization selected to direct and coordinate support for a specific combat search and rescue mission. Also called CSAR mission coordinator. See also combat search and rescue; component search and rescue controller; search and rescue; search and rescue mission coordinator.

combat search and rescue task force
All forces committed to a specific combat search and rescue operation to search for, locate, identify, and recover isolated personnel during wartime or contingency operations. This includes those elements assigned to provide command and control and protect the recovery vehicle from enemy air or ground attack. Also called CSARTF. See also combat search and rescue; search; search and rescue.

combat service support
The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of operating forces in theater at all levels of war. Within the national and theater logistic systems, it includes but is not limited to that support rendered by service forces in ensuring the aspects of supply, maintenance, transportation, health services, and other services required by aviation and ground combat troops to permit those units to accomplish their missions in combat. Combat service support encompasses those activities at all levels of war that produce sustainment to all operating forces on the battlefield. Also called CSS. See also combat support.

combat service support area
An area ashore that is organized to contain the necessary supplies, equipment, installations, and elements to provide the landing force with combat service support throughout the operation. Also called CSSA.

combat service support element
The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is task-organized to provide the combat service support necessary to accomplish the MAGTF mission. The combat service support element varies in size from a small detachment to one or more force service support groups. It provides supply, maintenance, transportation, general engineering, health services, and a variety of other services to the MAGTF. The combat service support element itself is not a formal command. Also called CSSE. See also aviation combat element; command element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

combat service support elements
Those elements whose primary missions are to provide service support to combat forces and which are a part, or prepared to become a part, of a theater, command, or task force formed for combat operations. See also operating forces; service troops; troops.

combat support
Fire support and operational assistance provided to combat elements. Also called CS. See also combat service support.

combat support elements
Those elements whose primary missions are to provide combat support to the combat forces and which are a part, or prepared to become a part, of a theater, command, or task force formed for combat operations. See also operating forces.

combat support troops
Those units or organizations whose primary mission is to furnish operational assistance for the combat elements. See also troops.

combat surveillance
A continuous, all-weather, day-and-night, systematic watch over the battle area in order to provide timely information for tactical combat operations.

combat surveillance radar
Radar with the normal function of maintaining continuous watch over a combat area.

combat survival
Those measures to be taken by Service personnel when involuntarily separated from friendly forces in combat, including procedures relating to individual survival, evasion, escape, and conduct after capture.

combat vehicle
A vehicle, with or without armor, designed for a specific fighting function. Armor protection or armament mounted as supplemental equipment on noncombat vehicles will not change the classification of such vehicles to combat vehicles.

combat visual information support center
A visual information support facility established at a base of operations during war or military operations other than war to provide limited visual information support to the base and its supported elements. Also called CVISC

combat zone
1. That area required by combat forces for the conduct of operations. 2. The territory forward of the Army rear area boundary. See also combat area; communications zone.

combination influence mine
A mine designed to actuate only when two or more different influences are received either simultaneously or in a predetermined order. Also called combined influence mine. See also mine.

combination mission/level of effort-oriented items
Items for which requirement computations are based on the criteria used for both level of effort-oriented and mission-oriented items.

combined
Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more allies. (When all allies or services are not involved, the participating nations and services shall be identified, e.g., combined navies.) See also joint.

combined airspeed indicator
An instrument which displays both indicated airspeed and mach number.

combined arms team
The full integration and application of two or more arms or elements of one Military Service into an operation.

combined force
A military force composed of elements of two or more allied nations. See also force(s).

combined influence mine
See combination influence mine.

combined joint special operations task force
A task force composed of special operations units from one or more foreign countries and more than one US Military Department formed to carry out a specific special operation or prosecute special operations in support of a theater campaign or other operations. The combined joint special operations task force may have conventional nonspecial operations units assigned or attached to support the conduct of specific missions. Also called CJSOTF. See also joint special operations task force; special operations; task force.

combined operation
An operation conducted by forces of two or more Allied nations acting together for the accomplishment of a single mission.

combustor
A name generally assigned to the combination of flame holder or stabilizer, igniter, combustion chamber, and injection system of a ramjet or gas turbine.

command
1. The authority that a commander in the Armed Forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions. It also includes responsibility for health, welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel. 2. An order given by a commander; that is, the will of the commander expressed for the purpose of bringing about a particular action. 3. A unit or units, an organization, or an area under the command of one individual. Also called CMD. See also area command; base command; combatant command; combatant command (command authority).

command and control
The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. Also called C2.

command and control system
The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel essential to a commander for planning, directing, and controlling operations of assigned forces pursuant to the missions assigned.

command and control warfare
The integrated use of operations security, military deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control capabilities, while protecting friendly command and control capabilities against such actions. Command and control warfare is an application of information operations in military operations. Also called C2W. C2W is both offensive and defensive: a. C2-attack. Prevent effective C2 of adversary forces by denying information to, influencing, degrading, or destroying the adversary C2 system. b. C2-protect. Maintain effective command and control of own forces by turning to friendly advantage or negating adversary efforts to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy the friendly C2 system. See also command and control; electronic warfare; information operations; intelligence; military deception; operations security; psychological operations.

command axis
A line along which a headquarters will move.

command center
A facility from which a commander and his or her representatives direct operations and control forces. It is organized to gather, process, analyze, display, and disseminate planning and operational data and perform other related tasks. Also called CC.

command channel
See chain of command.

command chaplain
The senior chaplain assigned to or designated by a commander of a staff, command, or unit. See also combatant command chaplain; lay leader; religious support; religious support plan.

command, control, communications, and computer systems
Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications designed to support a commander's exercise of command and control across the range of military operations. Also called C4 systems. See also command and control; tactical command, control, communications, and computer system(s).

command controlled stocks
Stocks which are placed at the disposal of a designated NATO commander in order to provide him with a flexibility with which to influence the battle logistically. "Placed at the disposal of" implies responsibility for storage, maintenance, accounting, rotation or turnover, physical security, and subsequent transportation to a particular battle area.

command destruct signal
A signal used to operate intentionally the destruction signal in a missile.

command detonated mine
A mine detonated by remotely controlled means.

command ejection system
See ejection systems.

command element
The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is the headquarters. The command element is composed of the commander, general or executive and special staff sections, headquarters section, and requisite communications support, intelligence, and reconnaissance forces necessary to accomplish the MAGTF mission. The command element provides command and control, intelligence, and other support essential for effective planning and execution of operations by the other elements of the MAGTF. The command element varies in size and composition. Also called CE. See also aviation combat element; combat service support element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

commander, amphibious task force
The Navy officer designated in the order initiating theamphibious operation as the commander of the amphibious taskforce. Also called CATF. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force; commander, landing force.

commander, landing force
The officer designated in the order initiating the amphibious operation as the commander of the landing force for an amphibious operation. Also called CLF. See also amphibious operation; commander, amphibious task force; landing force.

commander's concept
See concept of operations.

commander's critical information requirements
Commander's critical information requirements comprise information requirements identified by the commander as being critical in facilitating timely information management and the decision-making process that affect successful mission accomplishment. The two key subcomponents are critical friendly force information and priority intelligence requirements. Also called CCIRs. See also critical information; information; information requirements; intelligence; priority intelligence requirements.

commander's estimate of the situation
A logical process of reasoning by which a commander considers all the circumstances affecting the military situation and arrives at a decision as to a course of action to be taken in order to accomplish the mission. A commander's estimate that considers a military situation so far in the future as to require major assumptions is called a commander's long-range estimate of the situation.

commander's intent
A concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the desired end state that serves as the initial impetus for the planning process. It may also include the commander's assessmentof the adversary commander's intent and an assessment of where and how much risk is acceptable during the operation. See also assessment; end state.

command guidance
A guidance system wherein intelligence transmitted to the missile from an outside source causes the missile to traverse a directed flight path.

command information
Communication by a military organization with Service members, civilian employees, retirees, and family members of the organization that creates an awareness of the organization's goals, informs them of significant developments affecting them and the organization, increases their effectiveness as ambassadors of the organization, and keeps them informed about what is going on in the organization. Also called internal information. See also command; information; public affairs.

commanding officer of troops
On a ship that has embarked units, a designated officer (usually the senior embarking unit commander) who is responsible for the administration, discipline, and training of all embarked units. Also called COT.

command net
A communications network which connects an echelon of command with some or all of its subordinate echelons for the purpose of command and control.

command post
A unit's or subunit's headquarters where the commander and the staff perform their activities. In combat, a unit's or subunit's headquarters is often divided into echelons; the echelon in which the unit or subunit commander is located or from which such commander operates is called a command post. Also called CP.

command post exercise
An exercise in which the forces are simulated, involving the commander, the staff, and communications within and between headquarters. Also called CPX. See also exercise; maneuver.

command relationships
The interrelated responsibilities between commanders, as well as the operational authority exercised by commanders in the chain of command; defined further as combatant command (commandauthority), operational control, tactical control, or support. See also chain of command; combatant command (command authority); command; operational control; support; tactical control.

command select ejection system
See ejection systems.

command-sponsored dependent
A dependent entitled to travel to overseas commands at Government expense and endorsed by the appropriate military commander to be present in a dependent's status.

commercial items
Articles of supply readily available from established commercial distribution sources which the Department of Defense or inventory managers in the Military Services have designated to be obtained directly or indirectly from such sources.

commercial loading
See administrative loading.

commercial vehicle
A vehicle that has evolved in the commercial market to meet civilian requirements and which is selected from existing production lines for military use.

commission
1. To put in or make ready for service or use, as to commission an aircraft or a ship. 2. A written order giving a person rank and authority as an officer in the armed forces. 3. The rank and the authority given by such an order. See also constitute.

commit
The process of committing one or more air interceptors or surface-to-air missiles for interception against a target track.

commodity loading
A method of loading in which various types of cargoes are loaded together, such as ammunition, rations, or boxed vehicles, in order that each commodity can be discharged without disturbing the others. See also combat loading; loading.

commodity manager
An individual within the organization of an inventory control point or other such organization assigned management responsibility for homogeneous grouping of materiel items.

commonality
A quality that applies to materiel or systems: a. possessing like and interchangeable characteristics enabling each to be utilized, or operated and maintained, by personnel trained on the others without additional specialized training; b. having interchangeable repair parts and/or components; and c. applying to consumable items interchangeably equivalent without adjustment.

common control (artillery)
Horizontal and vertical map or chart location of points in the target area and position area, tied in with the horizontal and vertical control in use by two or more units. May be established by firing, survey, or combination of both, or by assumption. See also control point; ground control.

common infrastructure
Infrastructure essential to the training of NATO forces or to the implementation of NATO operational plans which, owing to its degree of common use or interest and its compliance with criteria laid down from time to time by the North Atlantic Council, is commonly financed by NATO members. See also infrastructure.

common item
1. Any item of materiel that is required for use by more than one activity. 2. Sometimes loosely used to denote any consumable item except repair parts or other technical items. 3. Any item of materiel that is procured for, owned by (Service stock), or used by any Military Department of the Department of Defense and is also required to be furnished to a recipient country under the grant-aid Military Assistance Program. 4. Readily available commercial items. 5. Items used by two or more Military Services of similar manufacture or fabrication that may vary between the Services as to color or shape (as vehicles or clothing). 6. Any part or component that is required in the assembly of two or more complete end-items.

common operating environment
Automation services that support the development of the common reusable software modules that enable interoperability across multiple combat support applications. This includes segmentation of common software modules from existing applications, integration of commercial products, development of a common architecture, and development of common tools for application developers. Also called COE.

common operational picture
A single identical display of relevant information shared by more than one command. A common operational picture facilitates collaborative planning and assists all echelons to achieve situational awareness. Also called COP.

common servicing
That function performed by one Military Service in support of another Military Service for which reimbursement is not required from the Service receiving support. See also servicing.

common supplies
Those supplies common to two or more Services.

common use
Services, materiel, or facilities provided by a Department of Defense agency or a Military Department on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies, elements, or other organizations as directed.

common use alternatives
Systems, subsystems, devices, components, and materials, already developed or under development, that could be used to reduce the cost of new systems acquisition and support by reducing duplication of research and development effort and by limiting the addition of support base.

common-use container
Any Department of Defense-owned, -leased, or -controlled 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container managed by US Transportation Command as an element of the Department of Defense common-use container system. See also component-owned container; Service-unique container.

common-user airlift service
The airlift service provided on a common basis for all Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the US Government.

common-user item
An item of an interchangeable nature which is in common use by two or more nations or Services of a nation.

common-user logistics
Materiel or service support shared with or provided by two or more Services, Department of Defense agencies, or multinational partners to another Service, DOD agency, non-DOD agency, and/or multinational partner in an operation. Common-user logistics is usually restricted to a particular type of supply and/or service and may be further restricted to specific unit(s) or types of units, specific times, missions, and/or geographic areas. Also called CUL. See also common use.

common-user military land transportation
Point-to-point land transportation service operated by a single Service for common use by two or more Services.

common-user network
A system of circuits or channels allocated to furnish communication paths between switching centers to provide communication service on a common basis to all connected stations or subscribers. It is sometimes described as a general purpose network.

common-user ocean terminals
A military installation, part of a military installation, or a commercial facility operated under contract or arrangement by the Military Traffic Management Command that regularly provides for two or more Services terminal functions of receipt, transit storage or staging, processing, and loading and unloading of passengers or cargo aboard ships.

common-user sealift
The sealift services provided on a common basis for all Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the US Government. The Military Sealift Command, a transportation component command of the US Transportation Command, provides common-user sealift for which users reimburse the transportation accounts of the Transportation Working Capital Fund. See also Military Sealift Command; transportation component command.

common-user transportation
Transportation and transportation services provided on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, non-DOD agencies. Common-user assets are under the combatant command (command authority) of Commander, United States Transportation Command, excluding Service-organic or theater-assigned transportation assets. See also common use.

communicate
To use any means or method to convey information of any kind from one person or place to another.

communication deception
Use of devices, operations, and techniques with the intent of confusing or misleading the user of a communications link or a navigation system.

communication operation instructions
See signal operation instructions.

communications center
An agency charged with the responsibility for handling and controlling communications traffic. The center normally includes message center, transmitting, and receiving facilities. Also called COMCEN. See also telecommunications center.

communications intelligence
Technical information and intelligence derived from foreign communications by other than the intended recipients. Also called COMINT.

communications intelligence database
The aggregate of technical information and intelligence derived from the interception and analysis of foreign communications (excluding press, propaganda, and public broadcast) used in the direction and redirection of communications intelligence intercept, analysis, and reporting activities.

communications mark
An electronic indicator used for directing attention to a particular object or position of mutual interest within or between command and control systems.

communications net
An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a common channel or frequency.

communications network
An organization of stations capable of intercommunications, but not necessarily on the same channel.

communications satellite
An orbiting vehicle, which relays signals between communications stations. There are two types: a. active communications satellite--A satellite that receives, regenerates, and retransmits signals between stations; b. passive communications satellite--A satellite which reflects communications signals between stations. Also called COMSAT.

communications security
The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Also called COMSEC. Communications security includes: cryptosecurity, transmission security, emission security, and physical security of communications security materials and information. a. cryptosecurity--The component of communications security that results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use. b. transmission security--The component of communications security that results from all measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptanalysis. c. emission security--The component of communications security that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and telecommunications systems. d. physical security--The component of communications security that results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment, material, and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by unauthorized persons.

communications security equipment
Equipment designed to provide security to telecommunications by converting information to a form unintelligible to an unauthorized interceptor and by reconverting such information to its original form for authorized recipients, as well as equipment designed specifically to aid in (or as an essential element of) the conversion process. Communications security equipment is cryptoequipment, cryptoancillary equipment, cryptoproduction equipment, and authentication equipment.

communications security material
All documents, devices, equipment, or apparatus, including cryptomaterial, used in establishing or maintaining secure communications.

communications security monitoring
The act of listening to, copying, or recording transmissions of one's own circuits (or when specially agreed, e.g., in allied exercises, those of friendly forces) to provide material for communications security analysis in order to determine the degree of security being provided to those transmissions. In particular, the purposes include providing a basis for advising commanders on the security risks resulting from their transmissions, improving the security of communications, and planning and conducting manipulative communications deception operations.

communications terminal
Terminus of a communications circuit at which data can be either entered or received; located with the originator or ultimate addressee. Also called CT


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