Glossary of Military Terms
In evasion and recovery operations, source of subsistence
and supplies, typically containing items such as food, water,
medical items, and/or communications equipment, packaged to
prevent damage from exposure and hidden in isolated locations by
such methods as burial, concealment, and/or submersion, to
support evaders in current or future operations. See also
concealment; evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery;
calibrated focal length
An adjusted value of the equivalent focal length, so
computed as to equalize the positive and negative values of
distortion over the entire field used in a camera.
Fire delivered on a specific target in response to a
request from the supported unit. See also fire.
call for fire
A request for fire containing data necessary for
obtaining the required fire on a target.
Any combination of characters or pronounceable
words, which identifies a communication facility, a command, an
authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily for
establishing and maintaining communications. Also called CS. See
also collective call sign; indefinite call sign; international
call sign; net call sign; tactical call sign; visual call sign;
voice call sign.
An imaginary line through the optical center of the
lens perpendicular to the negative photo plane.
camera axis direction
Direction on the horizontal plane of the optical
axis of the camera at the time of exposure. This direction is
defined by its azimuth expressed in degrees in relation to
The determination of the calibrated focal length,
the location of the principal point with respect to the fiducial
marks and the lens distortion effective in the focal plane of
the camera referred to the particular calibrated focal length.
camera cycling rate
The frequency with which camera frames are exposed,
expressed as cycles per second.
See photo nadir.
The use of natural or artificial material on
personnel, objects, or tactical positions with the aim of
confusing, misleading, or evading the enemy
camouflage detection photography
Photography utilizing a special type of film
(usually infrared) designed for the detection of camouflage.
The resulting cavity in a deep underground burst
when there is no rupture of the surface. See also crater.
A series of related military operations aimed at
accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a
given time and space. See also campaign plan.
A plan for a series of related military operations aimed
at accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a
given time and space. See also campaign; campaign planning.
The process whereby combatant commanders and subordinate
joint force commanders translate national or theater strategic
and operational concepts through the development of campaign
plans. Campaign planning may begin during deliberate planning
when the actual threat, national guidance, and available
resources become evident, but is normally not completed until
after the Secretary of Defense selects the course of action
during crisis action planning. Campaign planning is conducted
when contemplated military operations exceed the scope of a
single major joint operation. See also campaign; campaign plan.
To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing
or reinforcing obstacles or by fire or bombing.
To remove serviceable parts from one item of equipment in
order to install them on another item of equipment.
A type of fire control which indicates that the
observer or spotter will be unable to adjust fire, but believes
a target exists at the given location and is of sufficient
importance to justify firing upon it without adjustment or
cantilever lifting frame
Used to move Navy lighterage causeway systems on to and
off of lighter aboard ship (LASH) vessels. This device is
suspended from the Morgan LASH barge crane and can lift one
causeway section at a time. It is designed to allow the long
sections to clear the rear of the ship as they are lowered into
the water. Also called CLF. See also causeway; lighterage.
The ability to execute a specified course of action. (A
capability may or may not be accompanied by an intention.)
capacity load (Navy)
The maximum quantity of all supplies (ammunition;
petroleum, oils, and lubricants; rations; general stores;
maintenance stores; etc.) which each vessel can carry in
proportions prescribed by proper authority. See also wartime
The top group of joint doctrine publications in the
hierarchy of joint publications. Capstone publications link
joint doctrine to national strategy and the contributions of
other government agencies, alliances, and coalitions. See also
above-the-line publications; below-the-line publications; joint
publication; keystone publications.
capstone requirements document
A document that contains performance-based requirements to
facilitate development of individual operational requirements
documents by providing a common framework and operational
concept to guide their development. Also called CRD.
1. A sealed, pressurized cabin for extremely high
altitude or space flight which provides an acceptable
environment for man, animal, or equipment. 2. An ejectable
sealed cabin having automatic devices for safe return of the
occupants to the surface.
A firing test of short duration, conducted with the
missile propulsion system operating while secured to a test
cardinal point effect
The increased intensity of a line or group of
returns on the radarscope occurring when the radar beam is
perpendicular to the rectangular surface of a line or group of
similarly aligned features in the ground pattern.
A nonoperating condition in which the installations,
materiel, and facilities are in a care and limited preservation
status. Only a minimum of personnel is required to safeguard
against fire, theft, and damage from the elements.
cargo classification (combat loading)
The division of military cargo into categories for combat
loading aboard ships.
cargo increment number
A seven-character alphanumeric field that uniquely
describes a non-unit-cargo entry (line) in the Joint Operation
Planning and Execution System time-phased force and deployment
cargo outturn message
A brief message report transmitted within 48 hours of
completion of ship discharge to advise both the Military Sealift
Command and the terminal of loading of the condition of the
cargo, including any discrepancies in the form of overages,
shortages, or damages between cargo as manifested and cargo as
checked at time of discharge.
cargo outturn report
A detailed report prepared by a discharging terminal to
record discrepancies in the form of over, short, and damaged
cargo as manifested, and cargo checked at a time and place of
discharge from ship.
A strap, chain, or other material used to hold cargo
items securely which are to be hoisted, lowered, or suspended.
cargo tie-down point
A point on military materiel designed for attachment of
various means for securing the item for transport.
A reusable metal shipping container designed for worldwide
surface and air movement of suitable military supplies and
equipment through the cargo transporter service.
The progressive distribution of a mass bomb load
upon an area defined by designated boundaries, in such manner as
to inflict damage to all portions thereof.
carrier air wing
Two or more aircraft squadrons formed under one commander
for administrative and tactical control of operations from a
carrier battle group
A standing naval task group consisting of a carrier,
surface combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct
support, operating in mutual support with the task of destroying
hostile submarine, surface, and air forces within the group's
assigned operational area and striking at targets along hostile
shore lines or projecting fire power inland. Also called CVBG.
carrier striking force
A naval task force composed of aircraft carriers and
supporting combatant ships capable of conducting strike
An association of independent businesses organized to
control prices and production, eliminate competition, and reduce
the cost of doing business.
A special operations forces acronym used throughout the
targeting and mission planning cycle to assess mission validity
and requirements. The acronym stands for criticality,
accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, and
1. An intelligence operation in its entirety. 2. Record of
the development of an intelligence operation, including
personnel, modus operandi, and objectives
Any person who is lost to the organization by having been
declared dead, duty status - whereabouts unknown, missing, ill,
or injured. See also casualty category; casualty status;
casualty type; duty status - whereabouts unknown; hostile
casualty; nonhostile casualty.
A term used to specifically classify a casualty for
reporting purposes based upon the casualty type and the casualty
status. Casualty categories include killed in action, died of
wounds received in action, and wounded in action. See also
casualty; casualty status; casualty type; duty status -
whereabouts unknown; missing.
The movement of casualties. It includes movement bothto
and between medical treatment facilities. Any vehicle may beused
to evacuate casualties. Also called CASEVAC. See also casualty;
evacuation; medical treatment facility.
casualty receiving and treatment ship
In amphibious operations, a ship designated to receive,
provide treatment for, and transfer casualties.
A term used to classify a casualty for reporting purposes.
There are seven casualty statuses: (1) deceased; (2) duty status
- whereabouts unknown; (3) missing; (4) very seriously ill or
injured; (5) seriously ill or injured; (6) incapacitating
illness or injury; and (7) not seriously injured. See also
casualty; casualty category; casualty type; deceased; duty
status - whereabouts unknown; incapacitating illness or injury;
missing; not seriously injured; seriously ill or injured; very
seriously ill or injured.
A term used to identify a casualty for reporting purposes
as either a hostile casualty or a nonhostile casualty. See also
casualty; casualty category; casualty status; hostile casualty;
An attack designed to bring about a war between major
powers through the disguised machinations of a third power.
Not to be used. See catalytic attack.
A structure which provides an auxiliary source of
thrust to a missile or aircraft; must combine the functions of
directing and accelerating the missile during its travel on the
catapult; serves the same functions for a missile as does a gun
tube for a shell.
categories of data
In the context of perception management and its
constituent approaches, data obtained by adversary individuals,
groups, intelligence systems, and officials. Such data fall in
two categories: a. information--A compilation of data provided
by protected or open sources that would provide a substantially
complete picture of friendly intentions, capabilities, or
activities. b. indicators--Data derived from open sources or
from detectable actions that adversaries can piece together or
interpret to reach personal conclusions or official estimates
concerning friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities.
(Note: In operations security, actions that convey indicators
exploitable by adversaries, but that must be carried out
regardless, to plan, prepare for, and execute activities, are
called "observables.") See also operations security.
A craft similar in design to a barge, but longer and
narrower, designed to assist in the discharge and transport of
cargo from vessels. See also barge; watercraft.
causeway launching area
An area located near the line of departure but clear of
the approach lanes, where ships can launch pontoon causeways.
A designator used with a classification to further limit
the dissemination of restricted information.
An unclassified term to terminate electronic attack
activities, including the use of electronic warfare
expendables.See also electronic attack; electronic warfare.
1. A command given to any unit or individual firing any
weapon to stop engaging the target. See also call for fire; fire
mission. 2. A command given to air defense artillery units to
refrain from firing on, but to continue to track, an airborne
object. Missiles already in flight will be permitted to continue
cease fire line
See armistice demarcation line. See also armistice; cease fire.
The height above the Earth's surface of the lowest layer
of clouds or obscuration phenomena that is reported as "broken,"
"overcast," or "obscured" and not classified as "thin" or
The guidance of a missile or other vehicle by reference to
An imaginary sphere of infinite radius concentric
with the Earth, on which all celestial bodies except the Earth
are imagined to be projected.
Small group of individuals who work together for
clandestine or subversive purposes.
See net, chain, cell system.
See armed forces censorship; civil censorship; field press
censorship; national censorship; primary censorship; prisoner of
war censorship; secondary censorship.
center of burst
See mean point of impact.
centers of gravity
Those characteristics, capabilities, or sources of power
from which a military force derives its freedom of action,
physical strength, or will to fight. Also called COGs. See also
capability; decisive point.
A unit of absorbed dose of radiation (one centigray
equals one rad).
central control officer
The officer designated by the amphibious task force
commander for the overall coordination of the waterborne
ship-to-shore movement. The central control officer is embarked
in the central control ship. Also called CCO.
1. In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon
makes direct target assignments to fire units. 2. In joint air
operations, placing within one commander the responsibility and
authority for planning, directing, and coordinating a military
operation or group/category of operations. See also
centralized receiving and shipping point
Actual location where containers with cargo must be sorted
before transshipment to the appropriate supply support activity
or owning unit. Single consignee cargo and ammunition will not
pass through the centralized receiving and shipping point. Cargo
will be shipped directly to the owner with the movement
organization maintaining visibility, and ammunition will go
directly to the appropriate ammunition storage facility. Also
centrally managed item
An item of materiel subject to inventory control point
(wholesale level) management.
The procurement of materiel, supplies, or services by an
officially designated command or agency with funds specifically
provided for such procurement for the benefit and use of the
entire component or, in the case of single managers, for the
Military Departments as a whole.
Radar confusion reflectors, consisting of thin, narrow
metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses,
which are used to reflect echoes for confusion purposes. Causes
enemy radar guided missiles to lock on to it instead of the real
aircraft, ship, or other platform. See also deception; rope.
See net, chain, cell system.
chain of command
The succession of commanding officers from a
superior to a subordinate through which command is exercised.
Also called command channel.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction
A replacement document for all types of correspondence
containing Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff policy and
guidance that does not involve the employment of forces. An
instruction is of indefinite duration and is applicable to
external agencies, or both the Joint Staff and external
agencies. It remains in effect until superseded, rescinded, or
otherwise canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
instructions, unlike joint publications, will not contain joint
doctrine. Terminology used in these publications will be
consistent with JP 1-02. Also called CJCSI. See also Chairman of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual
A document containing detailed procedures for performing
specific tasks that do not involve the employment of forces. A
manual is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external
agencies or both the Joint Staff and external agencies. It may
supplement a Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction
or stand alone and remains in effect until superseded,
rescinded, or otherwise canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff manuals, unlike joint publications, will not contain
joint doctrine. Terminology used in these publications will be
consistent with JP 1-02. Also called CJCSM. See also Chairman of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff memorandum of policy
A statement of policy approved by the Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff and issued for the guidance of the
Services, the combatant commands, and the Joint Staff.
Chairman's program assessment
Provides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's
personal appraisal on alternative program recommendations and
budget proposals to the Secretary of Defense for consideration
in refining the defense program and budget in accordance with 10
United States Code. The Chairman's program assessment comments
on the risk associated with the programmed allocation of Defense
resources and evaluates the conformance of program objective
memoranda to the priorities established in strategic plans and
combatant commanders' priority requirements. Also called CPA.
Chairman's program recommendations
Provides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff's
personal recommendations to the Secretary of Defense for the
programming and budgeting process before publishing the Defense
Planning Guidance (DPG) in accordance with 10 United States
Code. The Chairman's program recommendations articulates
programs the Chairman deems critical for the Secretary of
Defense to consider when identifying Department of Defense priorities and performance goals in the DPG and emphasizes
specific recommendations that will enhance joint readiness,
promote joint doctrine and training, improve joint warfighting
capabilities, and satisfy joint warfighting requirements within
DOD resource constraints and within acceptable risk levels. Also
The commander of all troops embarked under one chalk
number. See also chalk number; chalk troops.
The number given to a complete load and to the
transporting carrier. See also chalk commander; chalk troops.
A load of troops defined by a particular chalk
number. See also chalk commander; chalk number.
Any process carried out by one unit or person with
the object of ascertaining the friendly or hostile character or
identity of another. See also countersign; password.
The building upon a diplomatic or consular compound which
houses the offices of the chief of mission or principal officer.
change of operational control
The date and time (Coordinated Universal Time) at which a
force or unit is reassigned or attached from one commander to
another where the gaining commander will exercise operational
control over that force or unit. Also called CHOP. See also
Common-user airlift service provided on a scheduled basis
between two points. There are two types of channel airlift. A
requirements channel serves two or more points on a scheduled
basis depending upon the volume of traffic; a frequency channel
is time-based and serves two or more points at regular
characteristic actuation probability
In naval mine warfare, the average probability of a mine
of a given type being actuated by one run of the sweep within
the characteristic actuation width.
characteristic actuation width
In naval mine warfare, the width of path over which mines
can be actuated by a single run of the sweep gear.
characteristic detection probability
In naval mine warfare, the ratio of the number of mines
detected on a single run to the number of mines which could have
been detected within the characteristic detection width.
characteristic detection width
In naval mine warfare, the width of path over which mines
can be detected on a single run.
charged demolition target
A demolition target on which all charges have been
placed and which is in the states of readiness, either state 1
-- safe, or state 2 -- armed. See also state of readiness --
state 1 safe; state of readiness -- state 2 armed.
A chart used as a primary source for compilation or
as a framework on which new detail is printed. Also called
See map index.
chart location of the battery
See battery center.
See map; map series.
See map; map sheet.
In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, a command
to cause a temporary halt in firing. See also cease fire; fire
A sequence of functional, operational, and
calibrational tests to determine the condition and status of a
weapon system or element thereof.
1. A predetermined point on the surface of the Earth
used as a means of controlling movement, a registration target
for fire adjustment, or reference for location. 2. Center of
impact; a burst center. 3. Geographical location on land or
water above which the position of an aircraft in flight may be
determined by observation or by electrical means. 4. A place
where military police check vehicular or pedestrian traffic in
order to enforce circulation control measures and other laws,
orders, and regulations.
In naval mine warfare, sweeping to check that no
moored mines are left after a previous clearing operation
Any toxic chemical intended for use in military
operations. See also chemical ammunition; chemical defense;
chemical dose; chemical environment; chemical warfare; riot
chemical agent cumulative action
The building up, within the human body, of small
ineffective doses of certain chemical agents to a point where
eventual effect is similar to one large dose
A type of ammunition, the filler of which is
primarily a chemical agent.
chemical ammunition cargo
Cargo such as white phosphorous munitions (shell and
chemical, biological, and radiological operation
A collective term used only when referring to a
combined chemical, biological, and radiological operation.
The methods, plans, and procedures involved in
establishing and executing defensive measures against attack
utilizing chemical agents. See also nuclear, biological, and
The amount of chemical agent, expressed in
milligrams, that is taken or absorbed by the body.
Conditions found in an area resulting from direct or
persisting effects of chemical weapons.
In naval mine warfare, a mine horn containing an
electric battery, the electrolyte for which is in a glass tube
protected by a thin metal sheet. Also called Hertz Horn.
The continued or periodic process of determining
whether or not a chemical agent is present. See also chemical
Employment of chemical agents to kill, injure, or
incapacitate for a significant period of time, man or animals,
and deny or hinder the use of areas, facilities, or materiel; or
defense against such employment.
The directed effort to determine the nature and
degree of chemical hazard in an area and to delineate the
perimeter of the hazard area.
All aspects of military operations involving the
employment of lethal and incapacitating munitions/agents and the
warning and protective measures associated with such offensive
operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not
considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will
be referred to separately or under the broader term "chemical,"
which will be used to include all types of chemical
munitions/agents collectively. Also called CW. See also chemical
agent; chemical defense; chemical dose; chemical environment;
chemical weapon; riot control agent.
Together or separately, (a) a toxic chemical and its
precursors, except when intended for a purpose not prohibited
under the Chemical Weapons Convention; (b) a munition or device,
specifically designed to cause death or other harm through toxic
properties of those chemicals specified in (a), above, which
would be released as a result of the employment of such munition
or device; (c) any equipment specifically designed for use
directly in connection with the employment of munitions or
devices specified in (b), above. See also chemical agent;
chemical defense; chemical dose; chemical environment; chemical
warfare; riot control agent.
chief Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps censor
An officer appointed by the commander of the Army, Navy,
Air Force, or Marine Corps component of a unified command to
supervise all censorship activities of that Service.
chief of mission
A chief of mission (COM) (normally the ambassador) is the
principal officer in charge of a diplomatic facility of the
United States, including any individual assigned to be
temporarily in charge of such a facility. The COM is the
personal representative of the President to the country of
accreditation. The COM is responsible for the direction,
coordination, and supervision of all US Government executive
branch employees in that country (except those under the command
of a US area military commander). The security of the diplomatic
post is the COM's direct responsibility. Also called COM.
chief of staff
The senior or principal member or head of a staff, or the
principal assistant in a staff capacity to a person in a command
capacity; the head or controlling member of a staff, for
purposes of the coordination of its work; a position that in
itself is without inherent power of command by reason of
assignment, except that which is invested in such a position by
delegation to exercise command in another's name.
chronic radiation dose
A dose of ionizing radiation received either continuously
or intermittently over a prolonged period of time. A chronic
radiation dose may be high enough to cause radiation sickness
and death but, if received at a low dose rate, a significant
portion of the acute cellular damage may be repaired. See also
acute radiation dose; radiation dose; radiation dose rate.
The characteristic of some rockets to burn
intermittently and with an irregular noise.
Any cryptographic system in which arbitrary symbols (or
groups of symbols) represent units of plain text of regular
length, usually single letters; units of plain text are
rearranged; or both, in accordance with certain predetermined
rules. See also cryptosystem.
circular error probable
An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system,
used as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It
is the radius of a circle within which half of a missile's
projectiles are expected to fall. Also called CEP. See also
delivery error; deviation; dispersion error; horizontal error.
See military civic action.
An administration established by a foreign government in
(1) friendly territory, under an agreement with the government
of the area concerned, to exercise certain authority normally
the function of the local government; or (2) hostile territory,
occupied by United States forces, where a foreign government
exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority until
an indigenous civil government can be established. Also called
Designated Active and Reserve component forces and units
organized, trained, and equipped specifically to conduct civil
affairs activities and to support civil-military operations.
Also called CA. See also civil affairs activities;
civil affairs activities
Activities performed or supported by civil affairs that
(1) enhance the relationship between military forces and civil
authorities in areas where military forces are present; and (2)
involve application of civil affairs functional specialty
skills, in areas normally the responsibility of civil
government, toenhance conduct of civil-military operations. See
also civil affairs; civil-military operations.
civil affairs agreement
An agreement that governs the relationship between allied
armed forces located in a friendly country and the civil
authorities and people of that country. See also civil affairs.
civil augmentation program
Standing, long-term contacts designed to augment Service
logistic capabilities with contract support in both preplanned
and short notice contingencies. Examples include US Army
Logistics Civilian Augmentation Program, US Air Force Contract
Augmentation Program, and US Navy Construction Capabilities
Contract. See also contingency.
Censorship of civilian communications, such as messages,
printed matter, and films entering, leaving, or circulating
within areas or territories occupied or controlled by armed
forces. See also censorship.
civil damage assessment
An appraisal of damage to a nation's population, industry,
utilities, communications, transportation, food, water, and
medical resources to support planning for national recovery. See
also damage assessment.
All those activities and measures designed or undertaken
to: a. minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused
or which would be caused by an enemy attack on the United
States; b. deal with the immediate emergency conditions that
would be created by any such attack; and c. effectuate emergency
repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and
facilities destroyed or damaged by any such attack.
civil defense emergency
See domestic emergencies.
civil defense intelligence
The product resulting from the collection and evaluation
of information concerning all aspects of the situation in the
United States and its territories that are potential or actual
targets of any enemy attack including, in the preattack phase,
the emergency measures taken and estimates of the civil
populations' preparedness. In the event of an actual attack, the
information will include a description of conditions in the
affected area with emphasis on the extent of damage, fallout
levels, and casualty and resource estimates. The product is
required by civil and military authorities for use in the
formulation of decisions, the conduct of operations, and the
continuation of the planning processes.
Group acts of violence and disorder prejudicial to
public law and order. See also domestic emergencies.
civil disturbance readiness conditions
Required conditions of preparedness to be attained by
military forces in preparation for deployment to an objective
area in response to an actual or threatened civil disturbance.
Those combat support and combat service support activities
that identify, design, construct, lease, or provide facilities,
and which operate, maintain, and perform war damage repair and
other engineering functions in support of military operations.
See also civil engineering support plan; combat service support;
civil engineering support plan
An appendix to the logistics annex or separate annex of an
operation plan that identifies the minimum essential engineering
services and construction requirements required to support the
commitment of military forces. Also called CESP. See also civil
engineering; operation plan.
1. A civilian who is interned during armed conflict or
occupation for security reasons or for protection or because he
or she has committed an offense against the detaining power. 2.
A term used to refer to persons interned and protected in
accordance with the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection
of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949 (Geneva
Convention). Also called CI. See also prisoner of war.
civilian internee camp
An installation established for the internment and
administration of civilian internees.
The activities of a commander that establish,
maintain,influence, or exploit relations between military
forces, governmental and nongovernmental civilian organizations
andauthorities, and the civilian populace in a friendly,
neutral, or hostile operational area in order to facilitate
military operations, to consolidate and achieve operational US
objectives. Civil-military operations may include performance by
military forces of activities and functions normally the
responsibility of the local, regional, or national government.
These activities mayoccur prior to, during, or subsequent to
other military actions. They may also occur, if directed, in the
absence of other military operations. Civil-military operations
may be performed by designated civil affairs, by other military
forces, or by a combination of civil affairs and other forces.
Also called CMO. See also civil affairs; operation.
civil-military operations center
An ad hoc organization, normally established by the
geographic combatant commander or subordinate joint force
commander, to assist in the coordination of activities of
engaged military forces, and other United States Government
agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and regional and
international organizations. There is no established structure,
and its size and composition are situation dependent. Also
called CMOC. See also civil affairs activities; civil-military
civil nuclear power
A nation that has the potential to employ nuclear
technology for development of nuclear weapons but has
deliberately decided against doing so.
The necessary production and distribution of all types of
services, supplies, and equipment during periods of armed
conflict or occupation to ensure the productive efficiency of
the civilian economy and to provide to civilians the treatment
and protection to which they are entitled under customary and
conventional international law.
civil reserve air fleet
A program in which the Department of Defense contracts for
the services of specific aircraft, owned by a US entity or
citizen, during national emergencies and defense-oriented
situations when expanded civil augmentation of military airlift
activity is required. These aircraft are allocated, in
accordance with Department of Defense requirements, to segments,
according to their capabilities, such as international long
range and short range cargo and passenger sections, national
(domestic and Alaskan sections) and aeromedical evacuation and
other segments as may be mutually agreed upon by the Department
of Defense and the Department of Transportation. Also called
CRAF. See also reserve.
The movement of persons, property, or mail by civil
facilities, and the resources (including storage, except that
for agricultural and petroleum products) necessary to accomplish
the movement. (Excludes transportation operated or controlled by
the military as well as petroleum and gas pipelines.)
An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental
departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or
concealment. A clandestine operation differs from a covert
operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the
operation rather than on concealment of the identity of the
sponsor. In special operations, an activity may be both covert
and clandestine and may focus equally on operational
considerations and intelligence-related activities. See also
covert operation; overt operation.
classes of supply
There are ten categories into which supplies are grouped
in order to facilitate supply management and planning. I.Rations
and gratuitous issue of health, morale, andwelfare items. II.
Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, toolsets, and
administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment.III.
Petroleum, oils, and lubricants. IV. Constructionmateriels. V.
Ammunition. VI. Personal demand items. VII.Major end items,
including tanks, helicopters, and radios. VIII.Medical. IX.
Repair parts and components for equipmentmaintenance. X.
Nonstandard items to support nonmilitaryprograms such as
agriculture and economic development. See also ammunition;
petroleum, oils, and lubricants.
The determination that official information requires, in
the interests of national security, a specific degree of
protection against unauthorized disclosure, coupled with a
designation signifying that such a determination has been made.
See also security classification.
classification of bridges and vehicles
See military load classification.
Any contract that requires or will require access to
classified information by the contractor or the employees in the
performance of the contract. (A contract may be classified even
though the contract document itself is not classified.)
Official information that has been determined to require,
in the interests of national security, protection against
unauthorized disclosure and which has been so designated.
Official information or matter in any form or of any
nature which requires protection in the interests of national
security. See also unclassified matter.
1. An aircraft in flight configuration (versus landing
configuration); i.e., landing gear and flaps retracted, etc. 2.
An aircraft that does not have external stores.
See decontamination station.
1. To approve or authorize, or to obtain approval or
authorization for: a. a person or persons with regard to their
actions, movements, duties, etc.; b. an object or group of
objects, as equipment or supplies, with regard to quality,
quantity, purpose, movement, disposition, etc.; and c. a
request, with regard to correctness of form, validity, etc. 2.
To give one or more aircraft a clearance. 3. To give a person a
security clearance. 4. To fly over an obstacle without touching
it. 5. To pass a designated point, line, or object. The end of a
column must pass the designated feature before the latter is
cleared. 6. a. To operate a gun so as to unload it or make
certain no ammunition remains; and b. to free a gun of
stoppages. 7. To clear an engine; to open the throttle of an
idling engine to free it from carbon. 8. To clear the air to
gain either temporary or permanent air superiority or control in
a given sector.
An estimate expressed in terms of measurement or weight
tons per day of the cargo that may be transported inland from a
beach or port over the available means of inland communication,
including roads, railroads, and inland waterways. The estimate
is based on an evaluation of the physical characteristics of the
transportation facilities in the area. See also beach capacity;
The area which would be cleared per unit time with a
stated minimum percentage clearance, using specific minehunting
and/or minesweeping procedures.
An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and
obstacles from a route or area.
clock code position
The position of a target in relation to an aircraft or
ship with dead-ahead position considered as 12 o'clock.
close air support
Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against
hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces
and that require detailed integration of each air mission with
the fire and movement of those forces. Also called CAS. See also
air interdiction; air support; immediate mission request;
preplanned mission request.
close-controlled air interception
An interception in which the interceptor is
continuously controlled to a position from which the target is
within visual range or radar contact. See also air interception.
A designated area in or over which passage of any
kind is prohibited. See also prohibited area.
That action of the supporting force against targets
or objectives which are sufficiently near the supported force as
to require detailed integration or coordination of the
supporting action with the fire, movement, or other actions of
the supported force. See also direct support; general support;
mutual support; support.
close support area
Those parts of the ocean operating areas nearest to, but
not necessarily in, the objective area. They are assigned to
naval support carrier battle groups, surface action groups,
surface action units, and certain logistic combat service
In transportation, the process of a unit arriving at a
specified location. It begins when the first element arrives at
a designated location, e.g., port of entry and/or port of
departure, intermediate stops, or final destination, and ends
when the last element does likewise. For the purposes of studies
and command post exercises, a unit is considered essentially
closed after 95 percent of its movement requirements for
personnel and equipment are completed.
In naval mine warfare, a minefield which is planned
to present such a threat that waterborne shipping is prevented
The specified movement requirement or portion thereof that
did not meet scheduling criteria and/or movement dates.
The proportion of sky obscured by cloud, expressed
as a fraction of sky covered.
cloud chamber effect
See condensation cloud.
cloud top height
The maximal altitude to which a nuclear mushroom cloud
cluster bomb unit
An aircraft store composed of a dispenser and
submunitions. Also called CBU
Permanent echoes, cloud, or other atmospheric echo on
radar scope; as contact has entered scope clutter. See also
An ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for
common action. See also alliance; multinational.
Multinational action outside the bounds of established
alliances, usually for single occasions or longer cooperation in
a narrow sector of common interest. See also alliance;
coalition; multinational operations.
coalition coordination cell
An ad hoc unified or sub-unified staff organization
composed of staff elements required to integrate coalition
contributions (forces and capabilities) into a contingency
operation. Also called CCC.
In naval mine warfare, a relatively insensitive
With respect to exports, a cooperative arrangement (e.g.,
US Government or company with foreign government or company) by
which finished parts, components, assemblies, or subassemblies
are provided to an eligible foreign government, international
organization, or commercial producer for the assembly of an
end-item or system. This is normally accomplished under the
provisions of a manufacturing license agreement per the US
International Traffic in Arms Regulation and could involve the
implementation of a government-to-government memorandum of
A convoy whose voyage lies in general on the
continental shelf and in coastal waters.
A geographic division of a coastal area, established for
organization and command purposes in order to ensure the
effective coordination of military forces employed in military
operations within the coastal frontier area.
The change of the direction of travel of a radio
ground wave as it passes from land to sea or from sea to land.
Also called land effect or shoreline effect.
coastal sea control
The employment of forces to ensure the unimpeded use of an
offshore coastal area by friendly forces and, as appropriate, to
deny the use of the area to enemy forces.
1. Any system of communication in which arbitrary groups
of symbols represent units of plain text of varying length.
Codes may be used for brevity or for security. 2. A cryptosystem
in which the cryptographic equivalents (usually called "code
groups"), typically consisting of letters or digits (or both) in
otherwise meaningless combinations, are substituted for plain
text elements which are primarily words, phrases, or sentences.
See also cryptosystem.
1. A word that has been assigned a classification
and a classified meaning to safeguard intentions and information
regarding a classified plan or operation. 2. A cryptonym used to
identify sensitive intelligence data.
A state of international tension wherein political,
economic, technological, sociological, psychological,
paramilitary, and military measures short of overt armed
conflict involving regular military forces are employed to
achieve national objectives.
A method of purchase whereby, in buying similar
commodities, buyers for two or more departments exchange
information concerning planned purchases in order to minimize
competition between them for commodities in the same market.
The design depth, referenced to the axis of the
pressure hull, beyond which the hull structure or hull
penetrations are presumed to suffer catastrophic failure to the
point of total collapse.
1. The grouping together of related items to provide a
record of events and facilitate further processing. 2. To
compare critically two or more items or documents concerning the
same general subject; normally accomplished in the processing
and exploitation phase in the intelligence cycle. See also
Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or
objects that would not be lawful military targets in the
circumstances ruling at the time. Such damage is not unlawful so
long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military
advantage anticipated from the attack.
In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information and
the provision of this information to processing elements. See
also intelligence process.
The obtaining of information in any manner, including
direct observation, liaison with official agencies, or
solicitation from official, unofficial, or public sources.
Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to
sources of information and the capability of collecting
information from them. See also agency.
A collection system, platform, or capability that is
supporting, assigned, or attached to a particular commander. See
also capability; collection.
collection coordination facility line number
An arbitrary number assigned to contingency intelligence
reconnaissance objectives by the Defense Intelligence Agency
collection coordination facility to facilitate all-source
In intelligence usage, the process of converting
intelligence requirements into collection requirements,
establishing priorities, tasking or coordinating with
appropriate collection sources or agencies, monitoring results,
and retasking, as required. See also collection; collection
requirement; collection requirements management; intelligence;
collection management authority
Constitutes the authority to establish, prioritize, and
validate theater collection requirements, establish sensor
tasking guidance, and develop theater collection plans. Also
called CMA. See also collection manager; collection plan;
An individual with responsibility for the timely and
efficient tasking of organic collection resources and the
development of requirements for theater and national assets that
could satisfy specific information needs in support of the
mission. Also called CM. See also collection; collection
collection operations management
The authoritative direction, scheduling, and control of
specific collection operations and associated processing,
exploitation, and reporting resources. Also called COM. See also
collection management; collections requirements management.
A plan for collecting information from all available
sources to meet intelligence requirements and for transforming
those requirements into orders and requests to appropriate
agencies. See also information; information requirements;
A continuous process that coordinates and integrates the
efforts of all collection units and agencies. See also
A point designated for the assembly of personnel
casualties, stragglers, disabled materiel, salvage, etc., for
further movement to collecting stations or rear installations.
An established intelligence need considered in the
allocation of intelligence resources to fulfill the essential
elements of information and other intelligence needs of a
collection requirements management
The authoritative development and control of collection,
processing, exploitation, and/or reporting requirements that
normally result in either the direct tasking of assets over
which the collection manager has authority, or the generation of
tasking requests to collection management authorities at a
higher, lower, or lateral echelon to accomplish the collection
mission. Also called CRM. See also collection; collection
management; collection operations management.
A collection system, platform, or capability that is not
assigned or attached to a specific unit or echelon which must be
requested and coordinated through the chain of command. See also
collective call sign
Any call sign which represents two or more
facilities, commands, authorities, or units. The collective call
sign for any of these includes the commander thereof and all
subordinate commanders therein. See also call sign.
collective nuclear, biological, and chemical protection
Protection provided to a group of individuals in a
nuclear, biological, and chemical environment which permits
relaxation of individual nuclear, biological, and chemical
Collective self-defense is the act of defending other
designated non-US forces. Only the President or Secretary of
Defense may authorize US forces to exercise the right of
The physical placement of two or more detachments,
units, organizations, or facilities at a specifically defined
That portion of usable coastline sufficient for the
assault landing of a regimental landing team or similar sized
unit. In the event that the landing force consists of a single
battalion landing team, a colored beach will be used and no
further subdivision of the beach is required. See also numbered
A formation in which elements are placed one behind
The space between two consecutive elements
proceeding on the same route. It can be calculated in units of
length or in units of time measured from the rear of one element
to the front of the following element.
The length of the roadway occupied by a column or a
convoy in movement. See also road space.
combat air patrol
An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area,
the force protected, the critical area of a combat zone, or in
an air defense area, for the purpose of intercepting and
destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their targets.
Also called CAP. See also airborne alert; barrier combat air
patrol; patrol; rescue combat air patrol.
combat airspace control
See airspace control in the combat zone.
combat and operational stress
The expected and predictable emotional, intellectual,
physical, and/or behavioral reactions of Service members who
have been exposed to stressful events in war or military
operations other than war. Combat stress reactions vary in
quality and severity as a function of operational conditions,
such as intensity, duration, rules of engagement, leadership,
effective communication, unit morale, unit cohesion, and
perceived importance of the mission.
A unified or specified command with a broad continuing
mission under a single commander established and so designated
by the President, through the Secretary of Defense and with the
advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff. Combatant commands typically have geographic or
functional responsibilities. See also specified command; unified
combatant command chaplain
The senior chaplain assigned to the staff of, or
designated by, the combatant commander to provide advice on
religion, ethics, and morale of assigned personnel and to
coordinate religious ministries within the combatant commander's
area of responsibility. See also command chaplain; lay leader;
religious support; religious support plan; religious support
combatant command (command authority)
Nontransferable command authority established by title 10
("Armed Forces"), United States Code, section 164, exercised
only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands
unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of
Defense. Combatant command (command authority) cannot be
delegated and is the authority of a combatant commander to
perform those functions of command over assigned forces
involving organizing and employing commands and forces,
assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving
authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations,
joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the
missions assigned to the command. Combatant command (command
authority) should be exercised through the commanders of
subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised
through subordinate joint force commanders and Service and/or
functional component commanders. Combatant command (command
authority) provides full authority to organize and employ
commands and forces as the combatant commander considers
necessary to accomplish assigned missions. Operational control
is inherent in combatant command (command authority). Also
called COCOM. See also combatant command; combatant commander;
operational control; tactical control.
A commander of one of the unified or specified
combatantcommands established by the President. See also
combatant command; specified combatant command; unified
combatant commander's required date
The original date relative to C-day, specified by the
combatant commander for arrival of forces or cargo at the
destination; shown in the time-phased force and deployment data
to assess the impact of later arrival. Also called CRD.
combatant commander's strategic concept
Final document produced in step 5 of the concept
development phase of the deliberate planning process. The
combatant commander's strategic concept is used as the vehicle
to distribute the combatant commander's decision and planning
guidance for accomplishing Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or
other Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) taskings.
CJCS approval of the strategic concept becomes the basis of the
plan for development into an operation plan or operation plan in
concept format. Also called CSC.
A restricted area (air, land, or sea) that is established
to prevent or minimize mutual interference between friendly
forces engaged in combat operations. See also combat zone.
The determination of the overall effectiveness of force
employment during military operations. Combat assessment is
composed of three major components: (a) battle damage
assessment; (b) munitions effectiveness assessment; and (c)
reattack recommendation. Also called CA. See also battle damage
assessment; munitions effectiveness assessment; reattack
The acquisition and utilization of still and motion
imagery in support of combat, information, humanitarian, special
force, intelligence, reconnaissance, engineering, legal, public
affairs, and other operations involving the Military Services.
Also called COMCAM. See also visual information; visual
combat cargo officer
An embarkation officer assigned to major amphibious ships
or naval staffs, functioning primarily as an adviser to and
representative of the naval commander in matters pertaining to
embarkation and debarkation of troops and their supplies and
equipment. Also called CCO. See also embarkation officer.
A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000, designed
for naval surface fire support and close air support during
coastal or amphibious operations and showing detailed
hydrography and topography in the coastal belt. See also
combat control team
A small task organized team of Air Force parachute and
combat diver qualified personnel trained and equipped to rapidly
establish and control drop, landing, and extraction zone air
traffic in austere or hostile conditions. They survey and
establish terminal airheads as well as provide guidance to
aircraft for airlift operations. They provide command and
control, and conduct reconnaissance, surveillance, and survey
assessments of potential objective airfields or assault zones.
They also can perform limited weather observations and removal
of obstacles or unexploded ordinance with demolitions. Also
Those engineering tasks that assist the tactical and/or
operational commander to "shape" the battlespace by enhancing
mobility creating the space and time necessary to generate mass
and speed while protecting the force, and denying mobility and
key terrain to the enemy. These tasks include breaching,
bridging, and emplacement of obstacles to deny mobility to the
Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in
combat. See also operating forces.
Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the
tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or
the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into
tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user's tactical
intelligence requirements. See also information.
combat information center
The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped
to collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical
information for the use of the embarked flag officer, commanding
officer, and certain control agencies. Certain control,
assistance, and coordination functions may be delegated by
command to the combat information center. Also called action
information center; CIC. See also air defense control center.
Actions, including antiterrorism (defensive measures taken
to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism
(offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to
terrorism), taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire
threat spectrum. Also called CBT. See also antiterrorism;
That knowledge of the enemy, weather, and geographical
features required by a commander in the planning and conduct of
The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of
equipment and supplies in a manner designed to conform to the
anticipated tactical operation of the organization embarked.
Each individual item is stowed so that it can be unloaded at the
required time. See also loading.
The total means of destructive and/or disruptive
force which a military unit/formation can apply against the
opponent at a given time.
Synonymous with operational readiness, with respect to
missions or functions performed in combat.
combat search and rescue
A specific task performed by rescue forces to effect the
recovery of distressed personnel during war or military
operations other than war. Also called CSAR. See also search and
combat search and rescue mission coordinator
The designated person or organization selected to direct
and coordinate support for a specific combat search and rescue
mission. Also called CSAR mission coordinator. See also combat
search and rescue; component search and rescue controller;
search and rescue; search and rescue mission coordinator.
combat search and rescue task force
All forces committed to a specific combat search and
rescue operation to search for, locate, identify, and recover
isolated personnel during wartime or contingency operations.
This includes those elements assigned to provide command and
control and protect the recovery vehicle from enemy air or
ground attack. Also called CSARTF. See also combat search and
rescue; search; search and rescue.
combat service support
The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and
tasks necessary to sustain all elements of operating forces in
theater at all levels of war. Within the national and theater
logistic systems, it includes but is not limited to that support
rendered by service forces in ensuring the aspects of supply,
maintenance, transportation, health services, and other services
required by aviation and ground combat troops to permit those
units to accomplish their missions in combat. Combat service
support encompasses those activities at all levels of war that
produce sustainment to all operating forces on the battlefield.
Also called CSS. See also combat support.
combat service support area
An area ashore that is organized to contain the necessary
supplies, equipment, installations, and elements to provide the
landing force with combat service support throughout the
operation. Also called CSSA.
combat service support element
The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF)
that is task-organized to provide the combat service support
necessary to accomplish the MAGTF mission. The combat service
support element varies in size from a small detachment to one or
more force service support groups. It provides supply,
maintenance, transportation, general engineering, health
services, and a variety of other services to the MAGTF. The
combat service support element itself is not a formal command.
Also called CSSE. See also aviation combat element; command
element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force;
Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force
(forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine
air-ground task force; task force.
combat service support elements
Those elements whose primary missions are to provide
service support to combat forces and which are a part, or
prepared to become a part, of a theater, command, or task force
formed for combat operations. See also operating forces; service
Fire support and operational assistance provided to combat
elements. Also called CS. See also combat service support.
combat support elements
Those elements whose primary missions are to provide
combat support to the combat forces and which are a part, or
prepared to become a part, of a theater, command, or task force
formed for combat operations. See also operating forces.
combat support troops
Those units or organizations whose primary mission is to
furnish operational assistance for the combat elements. See also
A continuous, all-weather, day-and-night, systematic watch
over the battle area in order to provide timely information for
tactical combat operations.
combat surveillance radar
Radar with the normal function of maintaining continuous
watch over a combat area.
Those measures to be taken by Service personnel when
involuntarily separated from friendly forces in combat,
including procedures relating to individual survival, evasion,
escape, and conduct after capture.
A vehicle, with or without armor, designed for a specific
fighting function. Armor protection or armament mounted as
supplemental equipment on noncombat vehicles will not change the
classification of such vehicles to combat vehicles.
combat visual information support center
A visual information support facility established at a
base of operations during war or military operations other than
war to provide limited visual information support to the base
and its supported elements. Also called CVISC
1. That area required by combat forces for the conduct of
operations. 2. The territory forward of the Army rear area
boundary. See also combat area; communications zone.
combination influence mine
A mine designed to actuate only when two or more
different influences are received either simultaneously or in a
predetermined order. Also called combined influence mine. See
combination mission/level of effort-oriented items
Items for which requirement computations are based on the
criteria used for both level of effort-oriented and
Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more
allies. (When all allies or services are not involved, the
participating nations and services shall be identified, e.g.,
combined navies.) See also joint.
combined airspeed indicator
An instrument which displays both indicated airspeed
and mach number.
combined arms team
The full integration and application of two or more arms
or elements of one Military Service into an operation.
A military force composed of elements of two or more
allied nations. See also force(s).
combined influence mine
See combination influence mine.
combined joint special operations task force
A task force composed of special operations units from one
or more foreign countries and more than one US Military
Department formed to carry out a specific special operation or
prosecute special operations in support of a theater campaign or
other operations. The combined joint special operations task
force may have conventional nonspecial operations units assigned
or attached to support the conduct of specific missions. Also
called CJSOTF. See also joint special operations task force;
special operations; task force.
An operation conducted by forces of two or more
Allied nations acting together for the accomplishment of a
A name generally assigned to the combination of
flame holder or stabilizer, igniter, combustion chamber, and
injection system of a ramjet or gas turbine.
1. The authority that a commander in the Armed Forces
lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or
assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility
for effectively using available resources and for planning the
employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and
controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned
missions. It also includes responsibility for health, welfare,
morale, and discipline of assigned personnel. 2. An order given
by a commander; that is, the will of the commander expressed for
the purpose of bringing about a particular action. 3. A unit or
units, an organization, or an area under the command of one
individual. Also called CMD. See also area command; base
command; combatant command; combatant command (command
command and control
The exercise of authority and direction by a properly
designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the
accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are
performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment,
communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a
commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling
forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. Also
command and control system
The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and
personnel essential to a commander for planning, directing, and
controlling operations of assigned forces pursuant to the
command and control warfare
The integrated use of operations security, military
deception, psychological operations, electronic warfare, and
physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to
deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary
command and control capabilities, while protecting friendly
command and control capabilities against such actions. Command
and control warfare is an application of information operations
in military operations. Also called C2W. C2W is both offensive
and defensive: a. C2-attack. Prevent effective C2 of adversary
forces by denying information to, influencing, degrading, or
destroying the adversary C2 system. b. C2-protect. Maintain
effective command and control of own forces by turning to
friendly advantage or negating adversary efforts to deny
information to, influence, degrade, or destroy the friendly C2
system. See also command and control; electronic warfare;
information operations; intelligence; military deception;
operations security; psychological operations.
A line along which a headquarters will move.
A facility from which a commander and his or her
representatives direct operations and control forces. It is
organized to gather, process, analyze, display, and disseminate
planning and operational data and perform other related tasks.
Also called CC.
See chain of command.
The senior chaplain assigned to or designated by a
commander of a staff, command, or unit. See also combatant
command chaplain; lay leader; religious support; religious
command, control, communications, and computer systems
Integrated systems of doctrine, procedures, organizational
structures, personnel, equipment, facilities, and communications
designed to support a commander's exercise of command and
control across the range of military operations. Also called C4
systems. See also command and control; tactical command,
control, communications, and computer system(s).
command controlled stocks
Stocks which are placed at the disposal of a
designated NATO commander in order to provide him with a
flexibility with which to influence the battle logistically.
"Placed at the disposal of" implies responsibility for storage,
maintenance, accounting, rotation or turnover, physical
security, and subsequent transportation to a particular battle
command destruct signal
A signal used to operate intentionally the
destruction signal in a missile.
command detonated mine
A mine detonated by remotely controlled means.
command ejection system
See ejection systems.
The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF)
that is the headquarters. The command element is composed of the
commander, general or executive and special staff sections,
headquarters section, and requisite communications support,
intelligence, and reconnaissance forces necessary to accomplish
the MAGTF mission. The command element provides command and
control, intelligence, and other support essential for effective
planning and execution of operations by the other elements of
the MAGTF. The command element varies in size and composition.
Also called CE. See also aviation combat element; combat service
support element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task
force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force
(forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine
air-ground task force; task force.
commander, amphibious task force
The Navy officer designated in the order initiating
theamphibious operation as the commander of the amphibious
taskforce. Also called CATF. See also amphibious operation;
amphibious task force; commander, landing force.
commander, landing force
The officer designated in the order initiating the
amphibious operation as the commander of the landing force for
an amphibious operation. Also called CLF. See also amphibious
operation; commander, amphibious task force; landing force.
See concept of operations.
commander's critical information requirements
Commander's critical information requirements comprise
information requirements identified by the commander as being
critical in facilitating timely information management and the
decision-making process that affect successful mission
accomplishment. The two key subcomponents are critical friendly
force information and priority intelligence requirements. Also
called CCIRs. See also critical information; information;
information requirements; intelligence; priority intelligence
commander's estimate of the situation
A logical process of reasoning by which a commander
considers all the circumstances affecting the military situation
and arrives at a decision as to a course of action to be taken
in order to accomplish the mission. A commander's estimate that
considers a military situation so far in the future as to
require major assumptions is called a commander's long-range
estimate of the situation.
A concise expression of the purpose of the operation and
the desired end state that serves as the initial impetus for the
planning process. It may also include the commander's
assessmentof the adversary commander's intent and an assessment
of where and how much risk is acceptable during the operation.
See also assessment; end state.
A guidance system wherein intelligence transmitted
to the missile from an outside source causes the missile to
traverse a directed flight path.
Communication by a military organization with Service
members, civilian employees, retirees, and family members of the
organization that creates an awareness of the organization's
goals, informs them of significant developments affecting them
and the organization, increases their effectiveness as
ambassadors of the organization, and keeps them informed about
what is going on in the organization. Also called internal
information. See also command; information; public affairs.
commanding officer of troops
On a ship that has embarked units, a designated officer
(usually the senior embarking unit commander) who is responsible
for the administration, discipline, and training of all embarked
units. Also called COT.
A communications network which connects an echelon
of command with some or all of its subordinate echelons for the
purpose of command and control.
A unit's or subunit's headquarters where the
commander and the staff perform their activities. In combat, a
unit's or subunit's headquarters is often divided into echelons;
the echelon in which the unit or subunit commander is located or
from which such commander operates is called a command post.
Also called CP.
command post exercise
An exercise in which the forces are simulated, involving
the commander, the staff, and communications within and between
headquarters. Also called CPX. See also exercise; maneuver.
The interrelated responsibilities between commanders, as
well as the operational authority exercised by commanders in the
chain of command; defined further as combatant command
(commandauthority), operational control, tactical control, or
support. See also chain of command; combatant command (command
authority); command; operational control; support; tactical
command select ejection system
See ejection systems.
A dependent entitled to travel to overseas commands at
Government expense and endorsed by the appropriate military
commander to be present in a dependent's status.
Articles of supply readily available from established
commercial distribution sources which the Department of Defense
or inventory managers in the Military Services have designated
to be obtained directly or indirectly from such sources.
See administrative loading.
A vehicle that has evolved in the commercial market to
meet civilian requirements and which is selected from existing
production lines for military use.
1. To put in or make ready for service or use, as to
commission an aircraft or a ship. 2. A written order giving a
person rank and authority as an officer in the armed forces. 3.
The rank and the authority given by such an order. See also
The process of committing one or more air interceptors or
surface-to-air missiles for interception against a target track.
A method of loading in which various types of
cargoes are loaded together, such as ammunition, rations, or
boxed vehicles, in order that each commodity can be discharged
without disturbing the others. See also combat loading; loading.
An individual within the organization of an inventory
control point or other such organization assigned management
responsibility for homogeneous grouping of materiel items.
A quality that applies to materiel or systems: a.
possessing like and interchangeable characteristics enabling
each to be utilized, or operated and maintained, by personnel
trained on the others without additional specialized training;
b. having interchangeable repair parts and/or components; and c.
applying to consumable items interchangeably equivalent without
common control (artillery)
Horizontal and vertical map or chart location of points in
the target area and position area, tied in with the horizontal
and vertical control in use by two or more units. May be
established by firing, survey, or combination of both, or by
assumption. See also control point; ground control.
Infrastructure essential to the training of NATO
forces or to the implementation of NATO operational plans which,
owing to its degree of common use or interest and its compliance
with criteria laid down from time to time by the North Atlantic
Council, is commonly financed by NATO members. See also
1. Any item of materiel that is required for use by more
than one activity. 2. Sometimes loosely used to denote any
consumable item except repair parts or other technical items. 3.
Any item of materiel that is procured for, owned by (Service
stock), or used by any Military Department of the Department of
Defense and is also required to be furnished to a recipient
country under the grant-aid Military Assistance Program. 4.
Readily available commercial items. 5. Items used by two or more
Military Services of similar manufacture or fabrication that may
vary between the Services as to color or shape (as vehicles or
clothing). 6. Any part or component that is required in the
assembly of two or more complete end-items.
common operating environment
Automation services that support the development of the
common reusable software modules that enable interoperability
across multiple combat support applications. This includes
segmentation of common software modules from existing
applications, integration of commercial products, development of
a common architecture, and development of common tools for
application developers. Also called COE.
common operational picture
A single identical display of relevant information shared
by more than one command. A common operational picture
facilitates collaborative planning and assists all echelons to
achieve situational awareness. Also called COP.
That function performed by one Military Service in support
of another Military Service for which reimbursement is not
required from the Service receiving support. See also servicing.
Those supplies common to two or more Services.
Services, materiel, or facilities provided by a Department
of Defense agency or a Military Department on a common basis for
two or more Department of Defense agencies, elements, or other
organizations as directed.
common use alternatives
Systems, subsystems, devices, components, and materials,
already developed or under development, that could be used to
reduce the cost of new systems acquisition and support by
reducing duplication of research and development effort and by
limiting the addition of support base.
Any Department of Defense-owned, -leased, or -controlled
20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization
container managed by US Transportation Command as an element of
the Department of Defense common-use container system. See also
component-owned container; Service-unique container.
common-user airlift service
The airlift service provided on a common basis for all
Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other
agencies of the US Government.
An item of an interchangeable nature which is in common
use by two or more nations or Services of a nation.
Materiel or service support shared with or provided by two
or more Services, Department of Defense agencies, or
multinational partners to another Service, DOD agency, non-DOD
agency, and/or multinational partner in an operation.
Common-user logistics is usually restricted to a particular type
of supply and/or service and may be further restricted to
specific unit(s) or types of units, specific times, missions,
and/or geographic areas. Also called CUL. See also common use.
common-user military land transportation
Point-to-point land transportation service operated by a
single Service for common use by two or more Services.
A system of circuits or channels allocated to furnish
communication paths between switching centers to provide
communication service on a common basis to all connected
stations or subscribers. It is sometimes described as a general
common-user ocean terminals
A military installation, part of a military installation,
or a commercial facility operated under contract or arrangement
by the Military Traffic Management Command that regularly
provides for two or more Services terminal functions of receipt,
transit storage or staging, processing, and loading and
unloading of passengers or cargo aboard ships.
The sealift services provided on a common basis for all
Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other
agencies of the US Government. The Military Sealift Command, a
transportation component command of the US Transportation
Command, provides common-user sealift for which users reimburse
the transportation accounts of the Transportation Working
Capital Fund. See also Military Sealift Command; transportation
Transportation and transportation services provided on a
common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, non-DOD agencies. Common-user
assets are under the combatant command (command authority) of
Commander, United States Transportation Command, excluding
Service-organic or theater-assigned transportation assets. See
also common use.
To use any means or method to convey information of any
kind from one person or place to another.
Use of devices, operations, and techniques with the intent
of confusing or misleading the user of a communications link or
a navigation system.
communication operation instructions
See signal operation instructions.
An agency charged with the responsibility for
handling and controlling communications traffic. The center
normally includes message center, transmitting, and receiving
facilities. Also called COMCEN. See also telecommunications
Technical information and intelligence derived from
foreign communications by other than the intended recipients.
Also called COMINT.
communications intelligence database
The aggregate of technical information and intelligence
derived from the interception and analysis of foreign
communications (excluding press, propaganda, and public
broadcast) used in the direction and redirection of
communications intelligence intercept, analysis, and reporting
An electronic indicator used for directing attention to a
particular object or position of mutual interest within or
between command and control systems.
An organization of stations capable of direct
communications on a common channel or frequency.
An organization of stations capable of
intercommunications, but not necessarily on the same channel.
An orbiting vehicle, which relays signals between
communications stations. There are two types: a. active
communications satellite--A satellite that receives,
regenerates, and retransmits signals between stations; b.
passive communications satellite--A satellite which reflects
communications signals between stations. Also called COMSAT.
The protection resulting from all measures designed to
deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be
derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or
to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the
results of such possession and study. Also called COMSEC.
Communications security includes: cryptosecurity, transmission
security, emission security, and physical security of
communications security materials and information. a.
cryptosecurity--The component of communications security that
results from the provision of technically sound cryptosystems
and their proper use. b. transmission security--The component of
communications security that results from all measures designed
to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by
means other than cryptanalysis. c. emission security--The
component of communications security that results from all
measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value
that might be derived from intercept and analysis of
compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and
telecommunications systems. d. physical security--The component
of communications security that results from all physical
measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment, material,
and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by
communications security equipment
Equipment designed to provide security to
telecommunications by converting information to a form
unintelligible to an unauthorized interceptor and by
reconverting such information to its original form for
authorized recipients, as well as equipment designed
specifically to aid in (or as an essential element of) the
conversion process. Communications security equipment is
cryptoequipment, cryptoancillary equipment, cryptoproduction
equipment, and authentication equipment.
communications security material
All documents, devices, equipment, or apparatus, including
cryptomaterial, used in establishing or maintaining secure
communications security monitoring
The act of listening to, copying, or recording
transmissions of one's own circuits (or when specially agreed,
e.g., in allied exercises, those of friendly forces) to provide
material for communications security analysis in order to
determine the degree of security being provided to those
transmissions. In particular, the purposes include providing a
basis for advising commanders on the security risks resulting
from their transmissions, improving the security of
communications, and planning and conducting manipulative
communications deception operations.
Terminus of a communications circuit at which data can be
either entered or received; located with the originator or
ultimate addressee. Also called CT