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MilitaryTerms.INFO - Terms and definitions used in the US Military

























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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources

Glossary of Military Terms

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communications zone
Rear part of a theater of war or theater of operations (behind but contiguous to the combat zone) which contains the lines of communications, establishments for supply and evacuation, and other agencies required for the immediate support and maintenance of the field forces. Also called COMMZ. See also combat zone; line of communications; rear area; theater of operations; theater of war.

community relations
1. The relationship between military and civilian communities. 2. Those public affairs programs that address issues of interest to the general public, business, academia, veterans, Service organizations, military-related associations, and other non-news media entities. These programs are usually associated with the interaction between US military installations and their surrounding or nearby civilian communities. Interaction with overseas non-news media civilians in an operational area is handled by civil-military operations with public affairs support as required. See also public affairs.

community relations program
That command function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies the mission of a military organization with the public interest, and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.

comparative cover
Coverage of the same area or object taken at different times, to show any changes in details. See also cover.

1. Establishment and management of an organization so that information about the personnel, internal organization, or activities of one component is made available to any other component only to the extent required for the performance of assigned duties. 2. Effects of relief and drainage upon avenues of approach so as to produce areas bounded on at least two sides by terrain features such as woods, ridges, or ravines that limit observation or observed fire into the area from points outside the area.

compass rose
A graduated circle, usually marked in degrees, indicating directions and printed or inscribed on an appropriate medium.

complaint-type investigation
A counterintelligence investigation in which sabotage, espionage, treason, sedition, subversive activity, or disaffection is suspected.

complete round
A term applied to an assemblage of explosive and nonexplosive components designed to perform a specific function at the time and under the conditions desired. Examples of complete rounds of ammunition are: a. separate loading, consisting of a primer, propelling charge and, except for blank ammunition, a projectile and a fuze; b. fixed or semifixed, consisting of a primer, propelling charge, cartridge case, a projectile and, except when solid projectiles are used, a fuze; c. bomb, consisting of all component parts required to drop and function the bomb once; d. missile, consisting of a complete warhead section and a missile body with its associated components and propellants; and e. rocket, consisting of all components necessary to function.

complex contingency operations
Large-scale peace operations (or elements thereof) conducted by a combination of military forces and nonmilitary organizations that combine one or more of the elements of peace operations which include one or more elements of other types of operations such as foreign humanitarian assistance, nation assistance, support to insurgency, or support to counterinsurgency. See also operation; peace operations.

1. One of the subordinate organizations that constitute a joint force. Normally a joint force is organized with a combination of Service and functional components. 2. In logistics, a part or combination of parts having a specific function, which can be installed or replaced only as an entity. Also called COMP. See also functional component command; Service component command.

component (materiel)
An assembly or any combination of parts, subassemblies, and assemblies mounted together in manufacture, assembly, maintenance, or rebuild.

component-owned container
A 20- or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container procured and owned by a single Department of Defense component. May be either on an individual unit property book or contained within a component pool (e.g., Marine Corps maritime pre-positioning force containers). May be temporarily assigned to the Department of Defense common-use container system. Also called Service-unique container. See also common-use container.

component search and rescue controller
The designated search and rescue representative of a component commander of a joint force who is responsible for coordinating and controlling that component's search and rescue forces. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescue mission coordinator; search and rescue; search and rescue mission coordinator.

composite air photography
Air photographs made with a camera having one principal lens and two or more surrounding and oblique lenses. The several resulting photographs are corrected or transformed in printing to permit assembly as verticals with the same scale.

composite warfare commander
The officer in tactical command is normally the composite warfare commander. However the composite warfare commander concept allows an officer in tactical command to delegate tactical command to the composite warfare commander. The composite warfare commander wages combat operations to counter threats to the force and to maintain tactical sea control with assets assigned; while the officer in tactical command retains close control of power projection and strategic sea control operations.

composite wing
An Air Force wing that operates more than one type of weapon system. Some composite wings are built from the ground up and designed to put all resources required to meet a specific warfighting objective in a single wing under one commander at one location. Other composite wings need not be built from the ground up but combine different weapon systems operating at the same base into a single wing.

compression chamber
See hyperbaric chamber.

The known or suspected exposure of clandestine personnel, installations, or other assets or of classified information or material, to an unauthorized person.

A term applied to classified matter, knowledge of which has, in whole or in part, passed to an unauthorized person or persons, or which has been subject to risk of such passing. See also classified matter.

computed air release point
A computed air position where the first paratroop or cargo item is released to land on a specified impact point.

computer intrusion
An incident of unauthorized access to data or an automated information system.

computer intrusion detection
The process of identifying that a computer intrusion has been attempted, is occurring, or has occurred.

computer modeling
See configuration management; independent review; validation; verification.

computer network attack
Operations to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves. Electronic attack (EA) can be used against a computer, but it is not computer network attack (CNA). CNA relies on the data stream to execute the attack while EA relies on the electromagnetic spectrum. An example of the two operations is the following: sending a code or instruction to a central processing unit that causes the computer to short out the power supply is CNA. Using an electromagnetic pulse device to destroy a computer's electronics and causing the same result is EA. Also called CNA. See also computer network defense; electronic attack; offensive information operations.

computer network defense
Defensive measures to protect and defend information, computers, and networks from disruption, denial, degradation, or destruction. Also called CND. See also computer network attack.

computer security
The protection resulting from all measures to deny unauthorized access and exploitation of friendly computer systems. Also called COMPUSEC. See also communications security.

computer simulation
See configuration management; independent review; validation; verification.

The protection from observation or surveillance. See also camouflage; cover; screen.

concentration area
1. An area, usually in the theater of operations, where troops are assembled before beginning active operations. 2. A limited area on which a volume of gunfire is placed within a limited time.

concept of intelligence operations
A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of an intelligence directorate's assumptions or intent in regard to intelligence support of an operation or series of operations. The concept of intelligence operations, which complements the commander's concept of operations, is contained in the intelligence annex of operation plans. The concept of intelligence operations is designed to give an overall picture of intelligence support for joint operations. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. See also concept of operations.

concept of logistic support
A verbal or graphic statement, in a broad outline, of how a commander intends to support and integrate with a concept of operations in an operation or campaign.

concept of operations
A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of a commander's assumptions or intent in regard to an operation or series of operations. The concept of operations frequently is embodied in campaign plans and operation plans; in the latter case, particularly when the plans cover a series of connected operations to be carried out simultaneously or in succession. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation. It is included primarily for additional clarity of purpose. Also called commander's concept or CONOPS.

concept plan
An operation plan in concept format. Also called CONPLAN. See also operation plan.

condensation cloud
A mist or fog of minute water droplets that temporarily surrounds the fireball following a nuclear (or atomic) detonation in a comparatively humid atmosphere. The expansion of the air inthe negative phase of the blast wave from the explosion results in a lowering of the temperature, so that condensation of water vapor present in the air occurs and a cloud forms. The cloud is soon dispelled when the pressure returns to normal and the air warms up again. The phenomenon is similar to that used by physicists in the Wilson cloud chamber and is sometimes called the cloud chamber effect.

condensation trail
A visible cloud streak, usually brilliantly white in color, which trails behind a missile or other vehicle in flight under certain conditions. Also called CONTRAIL.

Those variables of an operational environment or situation in which a unit, system, or individual is expected to operate and may affect performance. See also joint mission-essential tasks; standard.

conducting staff
See exercise directing staff.

configuration management
A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: (1) identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item; (2) control changes to those characteristics; and (3) record and report changes to processing and implementation status.

confirmation of information (intelligence)
An information item is said to be confirmed when it is reported for the second time, preferably by another independent source whose reliability is considered when confirming information.

An armed struggle or clash between organized groups within a nation or between nations in order to achieve limited political or military objectives. Although regular forces are often involved, irregular forces frequently predominate. Conflict often is protracted, confined to a restricted geographic area, and constrained in weaponry and level of violence. Within this state, military power in response to threats may be exercised in an indirect manner while supportive of other instruments of national power. Limited objectives may be achieved by the short, focused, and direct application of force.

confusion agent
An individual who is dispatched by the sponsor for the primary purpose of confounding the intelligence or counterintelligence apparatus of another country rather than for the purpose of collecting and transmitting information.

confusion reflector
A reflector of electromagnetic radiations used to create echoes for confusion purposes. Radar confusion reflectors include such devices as chaff, rope, and corner reflectors.

connecting route
A route connecting axial and/or lateral routes. See also route.

The ability to exchange information by electronic means.

consecutive voyage charter
A contract by which a commercial ship is chartered by the Military Sealift Command for a series of specified voyages.

consequence management
Those measures taken to protect public health and safety, restore essential government services, and provide emergency relief to governments, businesses, and individuals affected by the consequences of a chemical, biological, nuclear, and/or high-yield explosive situation. For domestic consequence management, the primary authority rests with the States to respond and the Federal Government to provide assistance as required. Also called CM. See also nuclear, biological, and chemical defense.

A grouping of controls, indicators, and similar electronic or mechanical equipment, used to monitor readiness of, and/or control specific functions of, a system, such as missile checkout, countdown, or launch operations.

consolidated vehicle table
A summary of all vehicles loaded on a ship, listed by types and showing the units to which they belong.

The combining or merging of elements to perform a common or related function.

consolidation of position
Organizing and strengthening a newly captured position so that it can be used against the enemy.

A number of like satellites that are part of a system. Satellites in a constellation generally have a similar orbit. For example, the Global Positioning System constellation consists of 24 satellites distributed in six orbital planes with similar eccentricities, altitudes, and inclinations. See also global positioning system.

To provide the legal authority for the existence of a new unit of the Armed Services. The new unit is designated and listed, but it has no specific existence until it is activated. See also commission.

constructive presence
Doctrine of constructive presence allows a coastal State to exercise jurisdiction over a foreign flag vessel that remains seaward of coastal State waters but acts in concert with another vessel (contact vessel) or aircraft that violates coastal State laws in waters over which the coastal State may exercise jurisdiction. In order to exercise jurisdiction over a "mothership" located seaward of coastal State waters, the contact vessel must be physically present in coastal State waters or be subject to coastal State jurisdiction under the doctrine of hot pursuit. Once pursuit of the mothership has legitimately commenced, it may proceed until it ceases to be continuous or until the mothership enters foreign territorial waters. Cases potentially involving the doctrine of constructive presence can be complex and should be quickly referred to higher authority.

consumable supplies and materiel
See expendable supplies and materiel.

Person or agency that uses information or intelligence produced by either its own staff or other agencies.

consumer logistics
That part of logistics concerning reception of the initial product, storage, inspection, distribution, transport, maintenance (including repair and serviceability), and disposal of materiel as well as the provision of support and services. In consequence, consumer logistics includes materiel requirements determination, follow-on support, stock control, provision or construction of facilities (excluding any materiel element and those facilities needed to support production logistic activities), movement control, codification, reliability and defect reporting, storage, transport and handling safety standards, and related training.

consumption rate
The average quantity of an item consumed or expended during a given time interval, expressed in quantities by the most appropriate unit of measurement per applicable stated basis.

1. In air intercept, a term meaning, "Unit has an unevaluated target." 2. In health services, an unevaluated individual who is known to have been sufficiently near an infected individual to have been exposed to the transfer of infectious material.

contact burst preclusion
A fuzing arrangement that prevents an unwanted surface burst in the event of failure of the air burst fuze.

contact mine
A mine detonated by physical contact. See also mine.

contact point
1. In land warfare, a point on the terrain, easily identifiable, where two or more units are required to make contact. 2. In air operations, the position at which a mission leader makes radio contact with an air control agency. 3. (DOD only) In evasion and recovery operations, a location where an evader can establish contact with friendly forces. Also called CP. See also checkpoint; control point; coordinating point.

contact print
A print made from a negative or a diapositive in direct contact with sensitized material.

contact procedure
Those predesignated actions taken by evaders and recovery forces that permit link-up between the two parties in hostile territory and facilitate the return of evaders to friendly control. See also evader; hostile; recovery force.

contact reconnaissance
Locating isolated units out of contact with the main force.

contact report
A report indicating any detection of the enemy.

To stop, hold, or surround the forces of the enemy or to cause the enemy to center activity on a given front and to prevent the withdrawal of any part of the enemy's forces for use elsewhere.

An article of transport equipment that meets American National Standards Institute/International Organization for Standardization standards that is designed to be transported by various modes of transportation. These containers are also designed to facilitate and optimize the carriage of goods by one or more modes of transportation without intermediate handling of the contents and equipped with features permitting ready handling and transfer from one mode to another. Containers may be fully enclosed with one or more doors, open top, refrigerated, tank, open rack, gondola, flatrack, and other designs. See also containerization

container anchorage terminal
A sheltered anchorage (not a port) with the appropriate facilities for the transshipment of containerized cargo from containerships to other vessels

container control officer
A designated official (E6 or above or civilian equivalent) within a command, installation, or activity who is responsible for control, reporting, use, and maintenance of all Department of Defense-owned and controlled intermodal containers and equipment. This officer has custodial responsibility for containers from time received until dispatched.

container-handling equipment
Items of materials-handling equipment required to specifically receive, maneuver, and dispatch International Organization for Standardization containers. Also called CHE. See also materials handling equipment.

The use of containers to unitize cargo for transportation, supply, and storage. Containerization incorporates supply, transportation, packaging, storage, and security together with visibility of container and its contents into a distribution system from source to user. See also container.

A ship specially constructed and equipped to carry only containers without associated equipment, in all available cargo spaces, either below or above deck. Containerships are usually non-self-sustaining, do not have built-in capability to load or off-load containers, and require port crane service. A containership with shipboard-installed cranes capable of loading and off-loading containers without assistance of port crane service is considered self-sustaining. See also non-self-sustaining containership; self-sustaining containership.

container ship cargo stowage adapter
Serves as the bottom-most SEASHED and precludes the necessity of strengthening of tank tops or the installation of hard points on decks, thereby accelerating container ship readiness. See also container ship; SEASHED; stowage.

See contamination.

contaminated remains
Remains of personnel which have absorbed or upon which have been deposited radioactive material, or biological or chemical agents. See also mortuary affairs.

1. The deposit, absorption, or adsorption of radioactive material, or of biological or chemical agents on or by structures, areas, personnel, or objects. See also fallout; induced radiation; residual radiation. 2. (DOD only) Food and/or water made unfit for consumption by humans or animals because of the presence of environmental chemicals, radioactive elements, bacteria or organisms, the byproduct of the growth of bacteria or organisms, the decomposing material (to include the food substance itself), or waste in the food or water.

contamination control
Procedures to avoid, reduce, remove, or render harmless (temporarily or permanently) nuclear, biological, and chemical contamination for the purpose of maintaining or enhancing the efficient conduct of military operations. See also biological agent; biological ammunition; biological defense; biological environment; biological threat; chemical agent; chemical ammunition; chemical, biological, and radiological operation; chemical defense; chemical environment; contamination.

contiguous zone
1. A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles (nms) from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Within the contiguous zone the coastal state may exercise the control necessary to prevent and punish infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea. In all other respects the contiguous zone is an area subject to high seas freedom of navigation, overflight, and related freedoms, such as the conduct of military exercises. 2. The zone of the ocean extending 3-12 nms from the US coastline.

continental United States
United States territory, including the adjacent territorial waters, located within North America between Canada and Mexico. Also called CONUS.

continental United States replacement center
The processing centers at selected Army installations through which individual personnel will be processed to ensure that soldier readiness processing actions have been completed prior to reporting to the aerial port of embarkation for deployment to a theater of operations. See also continental United States; deployment.

An emergency involving military forces caused by natural disasters, terrorists, subversives, or by required military operations. Due to the uncertainty of the situation, contingencies require plans, rapid response, and special procedures to ensure the safety and readiness of personnel, installations, and equipment. See also contingency contracting.

contingency contracting
Contracting performed in support of a peacetime contingency in an overseas location pursuant to the policies and procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulatory System. See also contingency.

contingency engineering management organization
An organization that may be formed by the combatant commander, or subordinate joint force commander to augment the combatant command, or subordinate joint force staffs to provide additional Service engineering expertise to support both deliberate and crisis action planning and to provide construction management in contingency and wartime operations. The combatant commander may form a theater contingency engineering management cell, and similar organizations may be formed at subordinate levels of command (e.g., regional contingency engineering management cell and/or joint task force contingency engineering management cell). These organizations should be staffed with expertise in combat engineering, general engineering, and topographic engineering. See also combat engineering; contingency; crisis action planning; topographic engineering.

contingency operation
A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of law (10 United States code (USC) 101[a][13]). It is a military operation that: a. is designated by the Secretary of Defense as an operation in which members of the Armed Forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing force; or b. is created by definition of law. Under 10 USC 101 (a)(13)(B), a contingency operation exists if a military operation results in the (1) callup to (or retention on) active duty of members of the uniformed Services under certain enumerated statutes (10 USC Sections 688, 12301(a), 12302, 12304, 12305, 12406, or 331-335); and (2) the callup to (or retention on) active duty of members of the uniformed Services under other (non-enumerated) statutes during war or national emergency declared by the President or Congress. See also contingency; operation.

contingency plan
A plan for major contingencies that can reasonably be anticipated in the principal geographic subareas of the command. See also joint operation planning.

contingency planning facilities list program
A joint Defense Intelligence Agency and unified and specified command program for the production and maintenance of current target documentation of all countries of contingency planning interest to US military planners.

Contingency Planning Guidance
The Contingency Planning Guidance (CPG) fulfills the statutory duty of the Secretary of Defense to furnish written policy guidance annually to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for contingency planning. The Secretary issues this guidance with the approval of the President after consultation with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CPG focuses the guidance given in the National Security Strategy and Defense Planning Guidance, and is the principal source document for the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan. Also called CPG.

contingency response program
Fast reaction transportation procedures intended to provide for priority use of land transportation assets by Department of Defense when required. Also called CORE.

contingency retention stock
That portion of the quantity of an item excess to the approved force retention level for which there is no predictable demand or quantifiable requirement, and which normally would be allocated as potential DOD excess stock, except for a determination that the quantity will be retained for possible contingencies for United States forces. (Category C ships, aircraft, and other items being retained as contingency reserve are included in this stratum.)

contingency ZIP Code
A ZIP Code assigned by Military Postal Service Agency to a contingency post office for the tactical use of the Armed Forces on a temporary basis. The number consists of a five-digit base with a four-digit add-on to assist in routing and sorting.

contingent effects
The effects, both desirable and undesirable, that are in addition to the primary effects associated with a nuclear detonation.

continuity of command
The degree or state of being continuous in the exercise of the authority vested in an individual of the Armed Forces for the direction, coordination, and control of military forces.

continuity of operations
The degree or state of being continuous in the conduct of functions, tasks, or duties necessary to accomplish a military action or mission in carrying out the national military strategy. It includes the functions and duties of the commander, as well as the supporting functions and duties performed by the staff and others acting under the authority and direction of the commander. Also called COOP.

continuous fire
1. Fire conducted at a normal rate without interruption for application of adjustment corrections or for other causes. 2. In field artillery and naval gunfire support, loading and firing at a specified rate or as rapidly as possible consistent with accuracy within the prescribed rate of fire for the weapon. Firing will continue until terminated by the command "end of mission" or temporarily suspended by the command "cease loading" or "check firing."

continuous illumination fire
A type of fire in which illuminating projectiles are fired at specified time intervals to provide uninterrupted lighting on the target or specified area.

continuous strip camera
A camera in which the film moves continuously past a slit in the focal plane, producing a photograph in one unbroken length by virtue of the continuous forward motion of the aircraft.

continuous strip imagery
Imagery of a strip of terrain in which the image remains unbroken throughout its length, along the line of flight.

contour flight
See terrain flight.

contour interval
Difference in elevation between two adjacent contour lines.

contour line
A line on a map or chart connecting points of equal elevation.

contracted logistic support
Support in which maintenance operations for a particular military system are performed exclusively by contract support personnel. Also called CLS. See also logistic support; support.

contracting officer
A US military officer or civilian employee who has a valid appointment as a contracting officer under the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation. The individual has the authority to enter into and administer contracts and determinations as well as findings about such contracts.

contract maintenance
The maintenance of materiel performed under contract by commercial organizations (including prime contractors) on a one-time or continuing basis, without distinction as to the levelof maintenance accomplished.

contract termination
Defense procurement: the cessation or cancellation, in whole or in part, of work under a prime contract or a subcontract thereunder for the convenience of, or at the option of, the government, or due to failure of the contractor to perform in accordance with the terms of the contract (default).

1. Authority that may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations. 2. In mapping, charting, and photogrammetry, a collective term for a system of marks or objects on the Earth or on a map or a photograph, whose positions or elevations (or both) have been or will be determined. 3. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to assure that an agent or group will respond as directed. 4. An indicator governing the distribution and use of documents, information, or material. Such indicators are the subject of intelligence community agreement and are specifically defined in appropriate regulations. See also administrative control; operational control; tactical control.

control area
A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the Earth. See also airway; controlled airspace; control zone; terminal control area.

control group
Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne ship-to-shore movement.

control (intelligence)
See control, Parts 3 and 4.

controllable mine
A mine which after laying can be controlled by the user, to the extent of making the mine safe or live, or to fire the mine. See also mine.

controlled airspace
An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to controlled flights.

controlled dangerous air cargo
Cargo which is regarded as highly dangerous and which may only be carried by cargo aircraft operating within specific safety regulations.

controlled effects nuclear weapons
Nuclear weapons designed to achieve variation in the intensity of specific effects other than normal blast effect.

controlled exercise
An exercise characterized by the imposition of constraints on some or all of the participating units by planning authorities with the principal intention of provoking types of interaction. See also free play exercise.

controlled firing area
An area in which ordnance firing is conducted under controlled conditions so as to eliminate hazard to aircraft in flight. See also restricted area.

controlled forces
Military or paramilitary forces under effective and sustained political and military direction.

controlled information
1. Information conveyed to an adversary in a deception operation to evoke desired appreciations. 2. Information and indicators deliberately conveyed or denied to foreign targets to evoke invalid official estimates that result in foreign official actions advantageous to US interests and objectives.

controlled item
See regulated item.

controlled map
A map with precise horizontal and vertical ground control as a basis. Scale, azimuth, and elevation are accurate. See also map.

controlled map
A map with precise horizontal and vertical ground control as a basis. Scale, azimuth, and elevation are accurate. See also map.

controlled passing
A traffic movement procedure whereby two lines of traffic travelling in opposite directions are enabled to traverse alternately a point or section of route which can take only one line of traffic at a time.

controlled port
A harbor or anchorage at which entry and departure, assignment of berths, and traffic within the harbor or anchorage are controlled by military authorities.

controlled reprisal
Not to be used. See controlled response.

controlled response
The selection from a wide variety of feasible options one of which will provide the specific military response most advantageous in the circumstances.

controlled route
A route, the use of which is subject to traffic or movement restrictions which may be supervised. See also route.

controlled shipping
Shipping that is controlled by the Military Sealift Command. Included in this category are Military Sealift Command ships (United States Naval Ships), government-owned ships operated under a general agency agreement, and commercial ships under charter to the Military Sealift Command. See also Military Sealift Command; United States Naval Ship.

controlled substance
A drug or other substance, or immediate precursor included in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of the Controlled Substances Act.

controlled war
Not to be used. See limited war.

control of electromagnetic radiation
A national operation plan to minimize the use of electromagnetic radiation in the United States and its possessions and the Panama Canal Zone in the event of attack or imminent threat thereof, as an aid to the navigation of hostile aircraft, guided missiles, or other devices. See also emission control orders.

control point
1. A position along a route of march at which men are stationed to give information and instructions for the regulation of supply or traffic. 2. A position marked by a buoy, boat, aircraft, electronic device, conspicuous terrain feature, or other identifiable object which is given a name or number and used as an aid to navigation or control of ships, boats, or aircraft. 3. In marking mosaics, a point located by ground survey with which a corresponding point on a photograph is matched as a check.

control zone
A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the Earth to a specified upper limit. See also airway; control area; controlled airspace; terminal control area.

conventional forces
1. Those forces capable of conducting operations using nonnuclear weapons. 2. Those forces other than designated special operations forces.

conventional mines
Land mines, other than nuclear or chemical, that are not designed to self-destruct. They are designed to be emplaced by hand or mechanical means. Conventional mines can be buried or surface laid and are normally emplaced in a pattern to aid in recording. See also mine.

conventional recovery operation
Evader recovery operations conducted by conventional forces. See also conventional forces; evader; recovery; recovery operations.

conventional weapon
A weapon which is neither nuclear, biological, nor chemical.

A request or command used in a call for fire to indicate that the observer or spotter desires a sheaf in which the planes of fire intersect at a point.

converged sheaf
The lateral distribution of fire of two or more pieces so that the planes of fire intersect at a given point. See also parallel sheaf.

See convergence factor; grid convergence; grid convergence factor; map convergence; true convergence.

convergence factor
The ratio of the angle between any two meridians on the chart to their actual change of longitude. See also convergence.

convergence zone
That region in the deep ocean where sound rays, refractured from the depths, return to the surface.

conversion angle
The angle between a great circle (orthodromic) bearing and a rhumb line (loxodromic) bearing of a point, measured at a common origin.

conversion scale
A scale indicating the relationship between two different units of measurement. See also scale.

1. A number of merchant ships and/or naval auxiliaries usually escorted by warships and/or aircraft-or a single merchant ship or naval auxiliary under surface escort-assembled and organized for the purpose of passage together. 2. A group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection that moves over the same route at the same time and under one commander. See also coastal convoy; evacuation convoy; ocean convoy.

convoy commodore
A naval officer, or master of one of the ships in a convoy, designated to command the convoy, subject to the orders of the officer in tactical command. If no surface escort is present, the convoy commodore takes entire command.

convoy dispersal point
The position at sea where a convoy breaks up, each ship proceeding independently thereafter.

convoy escort
1. A naval ship(s) or aircraft in company with a convoy and responsible for its protection. 2. An escort to protect a convoy of vehicles from being scattered, destroyed, or captured. See also escort

convoy joiner
See joiner. See also joiner convoy; joiner section.

convoy leaver
See leaver. See also leaver convoy; leaver section.

convoy loading
The loading of troop units with their equipment and supplies in vessels of the same movement group, but not necessarily in the same vessel. See also loading.

convoy route
The specific route assigned to each convoy by the appropriate routing authority.

convoy schedule
Planned convoy sailings showing the shipping lanes, assembly and terminal areas, scheduled speed, and sailing interval.

convoy speed
For ships, the speed which the convoy commodore orders the guide of the convoy to make good through the water.

convoy terminal area
A geographical area, designated by the name of a port or anchorage on which it is centered, at which convoys or sections of convoys arrive and from which they will be dispersed to coastal convoy systems or as independents to their final destination.

convoy through escort
Those ships of the close escort which normally remain with the convoy from its port of assembly to its port of arrival.

convoy title
A combination of letters and numbers that gives the port of departure and arrival, speed, and serial number of each convoy.

cooperative logistics
The logistic support provided a foreign government or agency through its participation in the US Department of Defense logistic system, with reimbursement to the United States for support provided.

cooperative logistic support arrangements
The combining term for procedural arrangements (cooperative logistic arrangements) and implementing procedures (supplementary procedures) that together support, define, or implement cooperative logistic understandings between the United States and a friendly foreign government under peacetime conditions.

coordinated draft plan
A plan for which a draft plan has been coordinated with the nations involved. It may be used for future planning and exercises and may be implemented during an emergency. See also draft plan; final plan; initial draft plan; operation plan.

coordinated fire line
The coordinated fire line (CFL) is a line beyond which conventional, direct, and indirect surface fire support means may fire at any time within the boundaries of the establishing headquarters without additional coordination. The purpose of the CFL is to expedite the surface-to-surface attack of targets beyond the CFL without coordination with the ground commander in whose area the targets are located. Also called CFL. See also fire support.

coordinated procurement assignee
The agency or Military Service assigned purchase responsibility for all Department of Defense requirements of a particular Federal Supply Group/class, commodity, or item.

Coordinated Universal Time
An atomic time scale that is the basis for broadcast time signals. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) differs from International Atomic Time by an integral number of seconds; it is maintained within 0.9 seconds of UT1 (see Universal Time) by introduction of Leap Seconds. The rotational orientation of the Earth, specified by UT1, may be obtained to an accuracy of a tenth of a second by applying the UTC to the increment DUT1 (where DUT1 = UT1 - UTC) that is broadcast in code with the time signals. Also called UTC. See also International Atomic Time; Universal Time; ZULU Time.

Linear or angular quantities which designate the position that a point occupies in a given reference frame or system. Also used as a general term to designate the particular kind of reference frame or system such as plane rectangular coordinates or spherical coordinates. See also geographic coordinates; georef; grid coordinates.

coordinating altitude
A procedural airspace control method to separate fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft by determining an altitude below which fixed-wing aircraft will normally not fly and above which rotary-wing aircraft normally will not fly. The coordinating altitude is normally specified in the airspace control plan and may include a buffer zone for small altitude deviations.

coordinating authority
A commander or individual assigned responsibility forcoordinating specific functions or activities involving forces oftwo or more Military Departments, two or more joint force components, or two or more forces of the same Service. The commander or individual has the authority to require consultation between the agencies involved, but does not have the authority to compel agreement. In the event that essential agreement cannot be obtained, the matter shall be referred to the appointing authority. Coordinating authority is a consultation relationship, not an authority through which command may be exercised. Coordinating authority is more applicable to planning and similar activities than to operations

coordinating point
Designated point at which, in all types of combat, adjacent units/formations must make contact for purposes of control and coordination.

coordinating review authority
An agency appointed by a Service or combatant command to coordinate with and assist the primary review authority in joint doctrine development and maintenance. Each Service or combatant command must assign a coordinating review authority. When authorized by the appointing Service or combatant command, coordinating review authority comments provided to designated primary review authorities will represent the position of the appointing Service or combatant command with regard to the publication under development. Also called CRA. See also joint doctrine; joint publication; lead agent; primary review authority.

1. With respect to exports, a cooperative manufacturing arrangement (e.g., US Government or company with foreign government or company) providing for the transfer of production information that enables an eligible foreign government, international organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of US defense equipment. Such an arrangement would include the functions of production engineering, controlling, quality assurance, and determination of resource requirements. This is normally accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license agreement per the US International Traffic in Arms Regulation and could involve the implementation of a government-to-government memorandum of understanding. 2. A cooperative manufacturing arrangement (US Government or company with foreign government or company) providing for the transfer of production information which enables the receiving government, international organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of defense equipment. The receiving party could be an eligible foreign government, international organization, or foreign producer; or the US Government or a US producer, depending on which direction the information is to flow. A typical coproduction arrangement would include the functions of production engineering, controlling, quality assurance, and determining of resource requirements. It may or may not include design engineering information and critical materials production and design information.

copy negative
A negative produced from an original not necessarily at the same scale.

corner reflector
1. A device, normally consisting of three metallic surfaces or screens perpendicular to one another, designed to act as a radar target or marker. 2. In radar interpretation, an object which, by means of multiple reflections from smooth surfaces, produces a radar return of greater magnitude than might be expected from the physical size of the object.

ccorps support command
Provides corps logistic support and command and control of water supply battalions.

corps troops
Troops assigned or attached to a corps, but not a part of one of the divisions that make up the corps.

correlation factor
The ratio of a ground dose rate reading to a reading taken at approximately the same time at survey height over the same point on the ground.

cost contract
1. A contract that provides for payment to the contractor of allowable costs, to the extent prescribed in the contract, incurred in performance of the contract. 2. A cost-reimbursement type contract under which the contractor receives no fee.

cost-plus a fixed-fee contract
A cost-reimbursement type contract that provides for the payment of a fixed fee to the contractor. The fixed fee, once negotiated, does not vary with actual cost but may be adjusted as a result of any subsequent changes in the scope of work or services to be performed under the contract.

cost sharing contract
A cost-reimbursement type contract under which the contractor receives no fee but is reimbursed only for an agreed portion of its allowable costs

A mission that integrates offensive and defensive operations to attain and maintain a desired degree of air superiority. Counterair missions are designed to destroy or negate enemy aircraft and missiles, both before and after launch. See also air superiority; mission; offensive counterair.

Attack by part or all of a defending force against an enemy attacking force, for such specific purposes as regaining ground lost or cutting off or destroying enemy advance units, and with the general objective of denying to the enemy the attainment of the enemy's purpose in attacking. In sustained defensive operations, it is undertaken to restore the battle position and is directed at limited objectives. See also countermove; counteroffensive.

counterbattery fire
Fire delivered for the purpose of destroying or neutralizing indirect fire weapon systems.

Efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain advantage from a foreign deception operation. Counterdeception does not include the intelligence function of identifying foreign deception operations. See also deception.

Those active measures taken to detect, monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs. Also called CD.

counterdrug nonoperational support
Support provided to law enforcement agencies or host nations that includes loan or lease of equipment without operators, use of facilities (such as buildings, training areas, and ranges), training conducted in formal schools, transfer of excess equipment, or other support provided by the Services from forces not assigned or made available to the combatant commanders. See also counterdrug operational support; counterdrug operations.

counterdrug operational support
Support to host nations and drug law enforcement agencies involving military personnel and their associated equipment, and provided by the geographic combatant commanders from forces assigned to them or made available to them by the Services for this purpose. Operational support does not include support in the form of equipment alone, nor the conduct of joint law enforcement investigations with cooperating civilian law enforcement agencies. See also counterdrug nonoperational support; counterdrug operations.

counterdrug operations
Civil or military actions taken to reduce or eliminate illicit drug trafficking. See also counterdrug; counterdrug nonoperational support; counterdrug operational support.

counterdrug support office
In counterdrug operations, offices under the office of the Department of Defense Coordinator for Drug Enforcement Policy and Support, responsible for processing, tracking, and coordinating all nonoperational support requests from drug law enforcement officials. Also called CDSO. See also counterdrug; counterdrug operations.

That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, exploit, or prevent espionage activities through identification, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting espionage activities.

Fire intended to destroy or neutralize enemy weapons. (DOD only) Includes counterbattery, counterbombardment, and countermortar fire. See also fire.

The employment of strategic air and missile forces in an effort to destroy, or render impotent, selected military capabilities of an enemy force under any of the circumstances by which hostilities may be initiated.

counterguerrilla warfare
Operations and activities conducted by armed forces, paramilitary forces, or nonmilitary agencies against guerrillas.

Those military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency. Also called COIN.

Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities. Also called CI. See also counterespionage; countersabotage; countersubversion; security; security intelligence.

counterintelligence activities
The four functions of counterintelligence: operations; investigations; collection; and analysis and production. See also analysis and production; collection; counterintelligence; operation.

counterintelligence collection
The systematic acquisition of information (through investigations, operations, or liaison) concerning espionage, sabotage, terrorism, other intelligence activities or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons that are directed against or threaten Department of Defense interests. See also counterintelligence.

counterintelligence investigations
Counterintelligence (CI) investigations are conducted to prove or disprove an allegation of espionage or otherintelligence activities, such as sabotage, assassination, or other national security crimes conducted by or on behalf of aforeign government, organization, or person or international terrorists. CI investigations may establish the elementsof proof for prosecution or administrative actions, provide a basis for CI operations, or validate the suitability of personnel for access to classified information. CI investigations are conducted against individuals or groups for committing majorsecurity violations, as well as failure to follow Defense agency and Military Service directives governing reporting contacts with foreign citizens and out-of-channel requests for defense information. CI investigations provide military commanders and policymakers with information used to eliminate securityvulnerabilities and otherwise improve the security posture of threatened interests. See also counterintelligence; espionage; sabotage.

counterintelligence operational tasking authority
The levying of counterintelligence requirements specificto joint military activities and operations. Counterintelligence operational tasking authority is exercised through supportingcomponents. Also called CIOTA. See also counterintelligence.

counterintelligence operations
Proactive activities designed to identify, exploit,neutralize, or deter foreign intelligence collection and terrorist activities directed against the Department of Defense (DOD). Operations are conducted to: manipulate, disrupt, neutralize, and/or destroy the effectiveness of foreign intelligence activities; recruit or induce defection offoreign intelligence officers and personnel; collect threat information on foreign intelligence operations, modusoperandi, intelligence requirements, targeting, objectives, personalities, communications, capabilities, limitations,and vulnerabilities; provide information and operations databases to support decision makers; provide counterintelligence (CI) support to clandestine human intelligence operations; identify post, ongoing, or planned espionage; support force protection, operations other than war, and peacekeeping; acquire foreign intelligence espionage equipment for analysis and countermeasures development; develop operational data, threat data, and espionage leads for future CI operations, investigations, and projects and develop the potential of these leads to enhance DOD security overall; and support specific Chairman of the Joint Chiefs ofStaff, DOD, and national plans. See also counterintelligence; operation.

counterintelligence production
The process of analyzing all-source information concerning espionage or other multidiscipline intelligence collection threats, sabotage, terrorism, and other related threats to US military commanders, the Department of Defense, and the US Intelligence Community and developing it into a final product that is disseminated. Counterintelligence production is used in formulating security policy, plans, and operations. See also counterintelligence.

counterintelligence support
Conducting counterintelligence activities to protect against espionage and other foreign intelligence activities, sabotage, international terrorist activities, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations, or persons. See also counterintelligence.

That form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity. See also electronic warfare

To explode the main charge in a mine by the shock of a nearby explosion of another mine or independent explosive charge. The explosion of the main charge may be caused either by sympathetic detonation or through the explosive train and/or firing mechanism of the mine.

countermine operation
In land mine warfare, an operation to reduce or eliminate the effects of mines or minefields. See also countermine; countermining; mine warfare.

1. Land mine warfare--Tactics and techniques used to detect, avoid, breach, and/or neutralize enemy mines and the use of available resources to deny the enemy the opportunity to employ mines. 2. Naval mine warfare--The detonation of mines by nearby explosions, either accidental or deliberate.

countermobility operations
The construction of obstacles and emplacement of minefields to delay, disrupt, and destroy the enemy by reinforcement of the terrain. The primary purpose of countermobility operations is to slow or divert the enemy, to increase time for target acquisition, and to increase weapons effectiveness. See also minefield; operation; target acquisition.

An operation undertaken in reaction to or in anticipation of a move by the enemy. See also counterattack.

A large scale offensive undertaken by a defending force to seize the initiative from the attacking force. See also counterattack.

counterpreparation fire
Intensive prearranged fire delivered when the imminence of the enemy attack is discovered. (DOD only) It is designed to: break up enemy formations; disorganize the enemy's systems of command, communications, and observation; decrease the effectiveness of artillery preparation; and impair the enemy's offensive spirit. See also fire.

Those actions (e.g., detect and monitor, prepare to conduct counterproliferation operations, offensive operations, weapons of mass destruction, active defense, and passive defense) taken to defeat the threat and/or use of weapons of mass destruction against the United States, our military forces, friends, and allies. Also called CP. See also nonproliferation.

counterpropaganda operations
Those psychological operations activities that identify adversary propaganda, contribute to situational awareness, and serve to expose adversary attempts to influence friendly populations and military forces.

All measures taken to prevent hostile observation of a force, area, or place.

That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, or prevent sabotage activities through identification, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting sabotage activities.

A secret challenge and its reply. See also challenge; password.

That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, or prevent subversive activities through the identification, exploitation, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting subversive activities.

All measures, active or passive, taken to counteract hostile surveillance. See also surveillance.

Operations that include the offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to terrorism. Also called CT. See also antiterrorism; combating terrorism; terrorism.

country cover diagram
A small scale index, by country, depicting the existence of air photography for planning purposes only.

country team
The senior, in-country, US coordinating and supervising body, headed by the chief of the US diplomatic mission, and composed of the senior member of each represented US department or agency, as desired by the chief of the US diplomatic mission.

coup de main
An offensive operation that capitalizes on surprise and simultaneous execution of supporting operations to achieve success in one swift stroke.

A messenger (usually a commissioned or warrant officer) responsible for the secure physical transmission and delivery of documents and material. Generally referred to as a command orlocal courier. See also armed forces courier.

The intended direction of movement in the horizontal plane.

course of action
1. Any sequence of activities that an individual or unit may follow. 2. A possible plan open to an individual or commander that would accomplish, or is related to the accomplishment of the mission. 3. The scheme adopted to accomplish a job or mission. 4. A line of conduct in an engagement. 5. A product of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System concept development phase. Also called COA.

course of action development
The phase of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System within the crisis action planning process that provides for the development of military responses and includes, within the limits of the time allowed: establishing force and sustainment requirements with actual units; evaluating force, logistic, and transportation feasibility; identifying and resolving resource shortfalls; recommending resource allocations; and producing a course of action via a commander's estimate that contains a concept of operations, employment concept, risk assessments, prioritized courses of action, and supporting databases. See also course of action; crisis action planning.

1. The action by land, air, or sea forces to protect by offense, defense, or threat of either or both. 2. Those measures necessary to give protection to a person, plan, operation, formation, or installation from the enemy intelligence effort and leakage of information. 3. The act of maintaining a continuous receiver watch with transmitter calibrated and available, but not necessarily available for immediate use. 4. Shelter or protection, either natural or artificial. 5. (DOD only) Photographs or other recorded images which show a particular area of ground. 6. (DOD only) A code meaning, "Keep fighters between force/base and contact designated at distance stated from force/base" (e.g., "cover bogey twenty-seven to thirty miles").

1. The ground area represented on imagery, photomaps, mosaics, maps, and other geographical presentation systems. 2. (DOD only) Cover or protection, as the coverage of troops by supporting fire. 3. (DOD only) The extent to which intelligence information is available in respect to any specified area of interest. 4. (DOD only) The summation of the geographical areas and volumes of aerospace under surveillance. See also comparative cover.

covering fire
1. Fire used to protect troops when they are within range of enemy small arms. 2. In amphibious usage, fire delivered prior to the landing to cover preparatory operations such as underwater demolition or minesweeping. See also fire.

covering force
1. A force operating apart from the main force for the purpose of intercepting, engaging, delaying, disorganizing, and deceiving the enemy before the enemy can attack the force covered. 2. Any body or detachment of troops which provides security for a larger force by observation, reconnaissance, attack, or defense, or by any combination of these methods. See also force(s).

covering force area
The area forward of the forward edge of the battle area out to the forward positions initially assigned to the covering forces. It is here that the covering forces execute assigned tasks.

cover (military)
Actions to conceal actual friendly intentions, capabilities, operations, and other activities by providing a plausible yet erroneous explanation of the observable.

cover search
In air photographic reconnaissance, the process of selection of the most suitable existing cover for a specific requirement.

covert operation
An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of identity of sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation. See also clandestine operation; overt operation.

A person in charge of a small craft (in the Army, a Class B or smaller craft) who often functions as the helmsman. For a causeway ferry, the pilot is in charge with the coxswain performing helmsman functions. See causeway.

crash locator beacon
An automatic emergency radio locator beacon to help searching forces locate a crashed aircraft. See also emergency locator beacon; personal locator beacon.

crash position indicator
See crash locator beacon.

crash rescue and fire suppression
Extraction of aircrew members from crashed or burning aircraft and the control and extinguishing of aircraft and structural fires.

The pit, depression, or cavity formed in the surface of the Earth by an explosion. It may range from saucer shaped to conical, depending largely on the depth of burst. In the case of a deep underground burst, no rupture of the surface may occur. The resulting cavity is termed a "camouflet."

crater depth
The maximum depth of the crater measured from the deepest point of the pit to the original ground level.

cratering charge
A charge placed at an adequate depth to produce a crater.

crater radius
The average radius of the crater measured at the level corresponding to the original surface of the ground.

creeping barrage
A barrage in which the fire of all units participating remains in the same relative position throughout and which advances in steps of one line at a time.

creeping mine
In naval mine warfare, a buoyant mine held below the surface by a weight, usually in the form of a chain, which is free to creep along the seabed under the influence of stream or current.

A terrain feature of such altitude that it restricts fire or observation in an area beyond, resulting in dead space, or limiting the minimum elevation, or both.

A report that indicates that engagement of a target or observation of an area is not possible because of an obstacle or intervening crest.

An incident or situation involving a threat to the United States, its territories, citizens, military forces, possessions, or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of such diplomatic, economic, political, or military importance that commitment of US military forces and resources is contemplated in order to achieve national objectives.

crisis action planning
1. The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System process involving the time-sensitive development of joint operation plans and orders in response to an imminent crisis. Crisis action planning follows prescribed crisis action procedures to formulate and implement an effective response within the time frame permitted by the crisis. 2. The time-sensitive planning for the deployment, employment, and sustainment of assigned and allocated forces and resources that occurs in response to a situation that may result in actual military operations. Crisis action planners base their plan on the circumstances that exist at the time planning occurs. Also called CAP. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System

crisis management
Measure to resolve a hostile situation and investigate and prepare a criminal case for prosecution under federal law. Crisis management will include a response to an incident involving a weapon of mass destruction, special improvised explosive device, or a hostage crisis that is beyond the capability of the lead federal agency. See also crisis; hostage; hostile.

critical information
Specific facts about friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities vitally needed by adversaries for them to plan and act effectively so as to guarantee failure or unacceptable consequences for friendly mission accomplishment.

Critical Infrastructure Protection
Department of Defense program to identify and protect assets critical to the Defense Transportation System. Loss of a critical asset would result in failure to support the mission of a combatant commander. Assets include worldwide DOD, commercial, and civil physical and command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence infrastructures. See also Defense Transportation System.

critical intelligence
Intelligence that is crucial and requires the immediate attention of the commander. It is required to enable the commander to make decisions that will provide a timely and appropriate response to actions by the potential or actual enemy. It includes but is not limited to the following: a. strong indications of the imminent outbreak of hostilities of any type (warning of attack); b. aggression of any nature against a friendly country; c. indications or use of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; and d. significant events within potential enemy countries that may lead to modification of nuclear strike plans.

critical item
An essential item which is in short supply or expected to be in short supply for an extended period. See also critical supplies and materiel; regulated item

critical item list
Prioritized list, compiled from a subordinate commander'scomposite critical item lists, identifying supply items andweapon systems that assist Service and Defense Logistics Agency'sselection of supply items and systems for production surgeplanning. Also may be used in operational situations by thecombatant commander and/or subordinate joint force commander(within combatant commander directives) to cross-level criticalsupply items between Service components. Also called CIL. See also critical item.

critical joint duty assignment billet
A joint duty assignment position for which, considering the duties and responsibilities of the position, it is highly important that the assigned officer be particularly trained in, and oriented toward, joint matters. Critical billets are selected by heads of joint organizations, approved by the Secretary of Defense and documented in the Joint Duty Assignment List.

critical mass
The minimum amount of fissionable material capable of supporting a chain reaction under precisely specified conditions.

critical node
An element, position, or command and control entity whose disruption or destruction immediately degrades the ability of a force to command, control, or effectively conduct combat operations. Also called target critical damage point.

critical occupational specialty
A military occupational specialty selected from among the combat arms in the Army or equivalent military specialties in the Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps. Equivalent military specialties are those engaged in operational art in order to attain strategic goals in an operational area through the design, organization, and conduct of campaigns and major operations. Critical occupational specialties are designated by the Secretary of Defense. Also called COS.

critical point
1. A key geographical point or position important to the success of an operation. 2. In point of time, a crisis or a turning point in an operation. 3. A selected point along a line of march used for reference in giving instructions. 4. A point where there is a change of direction or change in slope in a ridge or stream. 5. Any point along a route of march where interference with a troop movement may occur.

critical safety item
A part, assembly, installation, or production system with one or more essential characteristics that, if not conforming to the design data or quality requirements, would result in an unsafe condition that could cause loss or serious damage to the end item or major components, loss of control, or serious injury to personnel. Also called CSI.

critical speed
A speed or range of speeds which a ship cannot sustain due to vibration or other similar phenomena.

critical supplies and materiel
Those supplies vital to the support of operations, which owing to various causes are in short supply or are expected to be in short supply. See also critical item; regulated item.

critical sustainability item
Any item described at National Stock Number level of detail, by federal supply class, as part of the logistic factors file, that significantly affect the commander's ability to execute an operation plan. Also called CSI.

critic report
See critical intelligence.

crossing area
1. A number of adjacent crossing sites under the control of one commander. 2. (DOD only) A controlled access area for a river crossing operation used to decrease traffic congestion at the river. It is normally a brigade-sized area defined by lateral boundaries and release lines 3 to 4 kilometers (based on mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available-time available) from each side of the river.

The authority and ability to shift materiel inventory from one owner to meet the requirement of another. At the theater strategic level and operational level, it is the process of diverting en route or in-theater materiel from one military element to meet the higher priority of another within the combatant commander's directive authority for logistics. Cross-leveling plans must include specific reimbursement procedures.

cross-loading (personnel)
The distribution of leaders, key weapons, personnel, and key equipment among the aircraft, vessels, or vehicles of a formation to preclude the total loss of command and control or unit effectiveness if an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle is lost. It is also an important factor in aiding rapid assembly of units at the drop zone or landing zone. See also loading.

A subset of common-user logistics in which a function isperformed by one Military Service in support of another MilitaryService and for which reimbursement is required from the Servicereceiving support. See also acquisition and cross-servicing agreement; common-user logistics; servicing.

cross-targeting (nuclear)
The layering of weapons from different delivery platforms to increase the probability of target damage or destruction.

cross tell
The transfer of information between facilities at the same operational level. See also track telling.

cruise missile
Guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to its target is conducted at approximately constant velocity; depends on the dynamic reaction of air for lift and upon propulsion forces to balance drag.

cruising altitude
A level determined by vertical measurement from mean sea level, maintained during a flight or portion thereof.

cruising level
A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. See also altitude.

crush depth
See collapse depth.

cryogenic liquid
Liquefied gas at very low temperature, such as liquid oxygen, nitrogen, or argon.

The steps and operations performed in converting encrypted messages into plain text without initial knowledge of the key employed in the encryption.

1. A complete system of crypto-communications between two or more holders. 2. The basic unit for naval cryptographic communication. It includes: a. the cryptographic aids prescribed; b. the holders thereof; c. the indicators or other means of identification; d. the area or areas in which effective; e. the special purpose, if any, for which provided; and f. pertinent notes as to distribution, usage, etc. A cryptochannel is analogous to a radio circuit.

cryptographic information
All information significantly descriptive of cryptographic techniques and processes or of cryptographic systems and equipment (or their functions and capabilities) and all cryptomaterial.

Of or pertaining to cryptology.

The science that deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted communications. It includes communications security and communications intelligence.

The science that deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted communications. It includes communications security and communications intelligence.

A division of a message as prescribed for security reasons. The operating instructions for certain cryptosystems prescribe the number of groups which may be encrypted in the systems, using a single message indicator. Cryptoparts are identified in plain language. They are not to be confused with message parts.

See communications security.

The associated items of cryptomaterial that are used as a unit and provide a single means of encryption and decryption. See also cipher; code; decrypt; encipher.

CSAR-capable assets
Those aircraft, vehicles, maritime craft, and assigned personnel possessing inherent capabilities to recover isolated personnel, but whose primary designed operational capability or mission is other than combat search and rescue (CSAR). CSAR-capable assets are mobile, responsive, and capable of physically recovering and/or returning isolated personnel to friendly forces.

CSAR-dedicated assets
Those aircraft, vehicles, maritime craft, and assigned personnel with a primary designed operational capability and Service- or component-designated mission of conducting or directly supporting combat search and rescue (CSAR) operations. Dedicated assets and assigned personnel are specifically trained, equipped, and employed to recover isolated personnel or provide direct support to assets conducting CSAR operations. "CSAR-capable" assets specifically tasked to conduct CSAR operations by a joint force commander or other appropriate authority are included in this category.

culminating point
The point at which a force no longer has the capability to continue its form of operations, offense or defense. a. In the offense, the point at which continuing the attack is no longer possible and the force must consider reverting to a defensive posture or attempting an operational pause. b. In the defense, the point at which counteroffensive action is no longer possible.

A deliberate and calculated association with a person for the purpose of recruitment, obtaining information, or gaining control for these or other purposes.

A feature of the terrain that has been constructed by man. Included are such items as roads, buildings, and canals; boundary lines; and, in a broad sense, all names and legends on a map.

curb weight
Weight of a ground vehicle including fuel, lubricants, coolant, and on-vehicle materiel, excluding cargo and operating personnel.

A body of water moving in a certain direction and caused by wind and density differences in water. The effects of a current are modified by water depth, underwater topography, basin shape, land masses, and deflection from the earth's rotation.

current force
The force that exists today. The current force represents actual force structure and/or manning available to meet present contingencies. It is the basis for operations and contingency plans and orders. See also force; Intermediate Force Planning Level; Programmed Forces.

current intelligence
One of two categories of descriptive intelligence that is concerned with describing the existing situation.

current, offshore
Deep water movements caused by tides or seasonal changes in ocean water level.

current, rip
A water movement that flows from the beach through the surf zone in swiftly moving narrow channels. See also surf zone.

curve of pursuit
The curved path described by a fighter plane making an attack on a moving target while holding the proper aiming allowance.

Ridges of beach material extending seaward from the beach face with intervening troughs.

custodian of postal effects
Members of the US Armed Forces or Department of Defense civilian employees accountable for administration of the postal effects entrusted to them by the United States Postal Service. Civilian custodians of postal effects are supervised by the members of the US Armed Forces. Also called COPE.

1. The responsibility for the control of, transfer and movement of, and access to, weapons and components. Custody also includes the maintenance of accountability for weapons and components. 2. Temporary restraint of a person.

customer ship
The ship in a replenishment unit that receives the transferred personnel and/or supplies.

customer wait time
The total elapsed time between issuance of a customer order and satisfaction of that order. Also called CWT.

Customs Over-The-Horizon Enforcement Network
US Customs Service long-range voice communications system. Also called COTHEN.

The deliberate shutting off of a reaction engine.

cutoff attack
An attack that provides a direct vector from the interceptor's position to an intercept point with the target track.

cut-off velocity
The velocity attained by a missile at the point of cut-off.

An intermediary or device used to obviate direct contact between members of a clandestine organization.

1. In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a sweep wire to cut or part the moorings of mines or obstructors; it may also be fitted in the mooring of a mine or obstructor to part a sweep. 2. (DOD only) Coast Guard watercraft 65 feet long or larger. See also mine warfare; watercraft.

cutting charge
A charge which produces a cutting effect in line with its plane of symmetry

cyber counterintelligence
Measures to identify, penetrate, or neutralize foreignoperations that use cyber means as the primary tradecraft methodology, as well as foreign intelligence service collectionefforts that use traditional methods to gauge cyber capabilities and intentions. See also counterintelligence.

The notional environment in which digitized information is communicated over computer networks.

The notional environment in which digitized information is communicated over computer networks.

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