Glossary of Military Terms
Reserve Component units and individuls recalled to replace
deploying active units and/or individuals in the continental
United States and outside the continental United States. See
also Reserve Components.
The evidence or effect on a detector of radiation caused
by background radiation. In connection with health protection,
the background count includes but is not limited to radiations
produced by naturally occurring radioactivity and cosmic rays.
Nuclear (or ionizing) radiations arising from within
the body and from the surroundings to which individuals are
The rearward movement of personnel and materiel from an
air terminal in forward deployed areas back to a staging base
(either in-theater or out) after the normal forward delivery.
See also staging base.
Refers to a portion of the laser energy that is scattered
back in the direction of the seeker by an obscurant. See also
Radio wave propagation in which the direction of the
incident and scattered waves, resolved along a reference
direction (usually horizontal), are oppositely directed. A
signal received by back-scattering is often referred to as
The area of a beach extending from the limit of high water
foam lines to dunes or extreme inland limit of the beach.
The transfer of information from a higher to a lower
echelon of command. See also track telling.
In cartography, an image printed on the reverse side
of a map sheet already printed on one side. Also the printing of
An even layer of water that moves along the sea floor from
the beach through the surf zone and caused by the pile-up of
water on the beach from incoming breakers.
A concept as applied to an arms control measure that
connotes: a. adjustments of armed forces and armaments in such a
manner that one state does not obtain military advantage over
other states agreeing to the measure; and b. internal
adjustments by one state of its forces in such manner as to
enable it to cope with all aspects of remaining threats to its
security in a post arms control agreement era.
1. That condition of supply when availability and
requirements are in equilibrium for specific items. 2. An
accumulation of supplies in quantities determined necessary to
meet requirements for a fixed period.
balance station zero
See reference datum.
bale cubic capacity
The space available for cargo measured in cubic feet
to the inside of the cargo battens, on the frames, and to the
underside of the beams. In a general cargo of mixed commodities,
the bale cubic applies. The stowage of the mixed cargo comes in
contact with the cargo battens and as a general rule does not
extend to the skin of the ship.
The marking of a route by a system of dim beacon
lights enabling vehicles to be driven at near day-time speed,
under blackout conditions.
Any missile which does not rely upon aerodynamic
surfaces to produce lift and consequently follows a ballistic
trajectory when thrust is terminated. See also aerodynamic
missile; guided missile.
ballistic missile early warning system
An electronic system for providing detection and early
warning of attack by enemy intercontinental ballistic missiles.
Also called BMEWS.
The science or art that deals with the motion,
behavior, appearance, or modification of missiles or other
vehicles acted upon by propellants, wind, gravity, temperature,
or any other modifying substance, condition, or force.
The trajectory traced after the propulsive force is
terminated and the body is acted upon only by gravity and
That constant wind that would have the same effect upon
the trajectory of a bomb or projectile as the wind encountered
See barrage, Part 2.
In electronic warfare, a balloon-supported confusion
reflector to produce fraudulent radar echoes.
The difference between the limiting frequencies of a
continuous frequency band expressed in hertz (cycles per
second). The term bandwidth is also loosely used to refer to the
rate at which data can be transmitted over a given
communications circuit. In the latter usage, bandwidth is
usually expressed in either kilobits per second or megabits per
The angle between the aircraft's normal axis and the
Earth's vertical plane containing the aircraft's longitudinal
A submerged or emerged embankment of sand, gravel, or mud
created on the sea floor in shallow water by waves and currents.
A bar may be composed of mollusk shells.
A base having minimum essential facilities to house,
sustain, and support operations to include, if required, a
stabilized runway, taxiways, and aircraft parking areas. A bare
base must have a source of water that can be made potable. Other
requirements to operate under bare base conditions form a
necessary part of the force package deployed to the bare base.
See also base.
A flat-bed, shallow-draft vessel with no superstructure
that is used for the transport of cargo and ships' stores or for
general utility purposes. See also watercraft.
The altitude determined by a barometric altimeter by
reference to a pressure level and calculated according to the
standard atmosphere laws. See also altitude.
1. A prearranged barrier of fires, except that delivered
by small arms, designed to protect friendly troops and
installations by impeding enemy movements across defensive lines
or areas. 2. A protective screen of balloons that is moored to
the ground and kept at given heights to prevent or hinder
operations by enemy aircraft. This meaning also called balloon
barrage. 3. A type of electronic attack intended for
simultaneous jamming over a wide area of frequency spectrum. See
also barrage jamming; electronic warfare; fires.
Fire which is designed to fill a volume of space or
area rather than aimed specifically at a given target. See also
Simultaneous electromagnetic jamming over a broad band of
frequencies. See also jamming.
See aircraft arresting barrier.
A coordinated series of obstacles designed or employed to
channel, direct, restrict, delay, or stop the movement of an
opposing force and to impose additional losses in personnel,
time, and equipment on the opposing force. Barriers can exist
naturally, be manmade, or a combination of both.
barrier combat air patrol
One or more divisions or elements of fighter aircraft
employed between a force and an objective area as a barrier
across the probable direction of enemy attack. It is used as far
from the force as control conditions permit, giving added
protection against raids that use the most direct routes of
approach. See also combat air patrol.
Air, surface, and submarine units and their supporting
systems positioned across the likely courses of expected enemy
transit for early detection and providing rapid warning,
blocking, and destruction of the enemy.
barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare plan
A comprehensive, coordinated plan that includes
responsibilities; general location of unspecified and specific
barriers, obstacles, and minefields; special instructions;
limitations; coordination; and completion times. The plan may
designate locations of obstacle zones or belts. It is normally
prepared as an annex to a campaign plan, operation plan, or
See graphic scale; scale.
1. A locality from which operations are projected or
supported. 2. An area or locality containing installations which
provide logistic or other support. See also establishment. 3.
(DOD only) Home airfield or home carrier. See also base of
In base defense operations, a collection of bases,
geographically grouped for mutual protection and ease of command
base cluster commander
In base defense operations, the senior officer in the base
cluster (excluding medical officers, chaplains, and commanders
of transient units), with responsibility for coordinating the
defense of bases within the base cluster and for integrating
defense plans of bases into a base cluster defense plan.
base cluster operations center
A command and control facility that serves as the base
cluster commander's focal point for defense and security of the
base cluster. Also called BCOC.
An area containing a military base or group of such bases
organized under one commander. See also command.
In base defense operations, the officer assigned to
command a base
See Army base; installation complex; Marine base; naval base;
naval or Marine (air) base. See also noncontiguous facility.
The local military measures, both normal and emergency,
required to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of enemy attacks
on, or sabotage of, a base, to ensure that the maximum capacity
of its facilities is available to US forces.
base defense forces
Troops assigned or attached to a base for the primary
purpose of base defense and security as well as augmentees and
selectively armed personnel available to the base commander for
base defense from units performing primary missions other than
base defense operations center
A command and control facility established by the base
commander to serve as the focal point for base security and
defense. It plans, directs, integrates, coordinates, and
controls all base defense efforts and coordinates and integrates
into area security operations with the rear area operations
center/rear tactical operations center. Also called BDOC.
base defense zone
An air defense zone established around an air base and
limited to the engagement envelope of short-range air defense
weapons systems defending that base. Base defense zones have
specific entry, exit, and identification, friend or foe
procedures established. Also called BDZ.
base development (less force beddown)
The acquisition, development, expansion, improvement, and
construction and/or replacement of the facilities and resources
of an area or location to support forces employed in military
operations or deployed in accordance with strategic plans.
base development plan
A plan for the facilities, installations, and bases
required to support military operations.
See base unit.
1. (surveying) A surveyed line established with more than
usual care, to which surveys are referred for coordination and
correlation. 2. (photogrammetry) The line between the principal
points of two consecutive vertical air photographs. It is
usually measured on one photograph after the principal point of
the other has been transferred. 3. (radio navigation systems)
The shorter arc of the great circle joining two radio
transmitting stations of a navigation system. 4. (triangulation)
The side of one of a series of coordinated triangles the length
of which is measured with prescribed accuracy and precision and
from which lengths of the other triangle sides are obtained by
The continuing annual costs of military operations funded
by the operations and maintenance and military personnel
baseline environmental survey
A multi-disciplinary site survey conducted prior to or in
the initial stage of a joint operational deployment. The survey
documents existing deployment-area environmental conditions,
determines the potential for present and past site contamination
(e.g., hazardous substances, petroleum products, and
derivatives), and identifies potential vulnerabilities (to
include occupational and environmental health risks). Surveys
accomplished in conjunction with joint operational deployments
that do not involve training or exercises (e.g., contingency
operations) should be completed to the extent practicable
consistent with operational requirements. See also civil
A map or chart showing certain fundamental
information, used as a base upon which additional data of
specialized nature are compiled or overprinted. Also, a map
containing all the information from which maps showing
specialized information can be prepared. See also chart base;
base of operations
An area or facility from which a military force begins its
offensive operations, to which it falls back in case of reverse,
and in which supply facilities are organized.
That period of time for which factors were determined for
use in current planning and programming.
An area within the communications zone in an operational
area organized to provide logistic support to forward areas.
A cloud which rolls out from the bottom of the
column produced by a subsurface burst of a nuclear weapon. For
underwater bursts the surge is, in effect, a cloud of liquid
droplets which has the property of flowing almost as if it were
a homogeneous fluid. For subsurface land bursts the surge is
made up of small solid particles but still behaves like a fluid.
Unit of organization in a tactical operation around which
a movement or maneuver is planned and performed.
Coverage of any installation or area of a permanent nature
with which later coverage can be compared to discover any
changes that have taken place.
A compilation of identified installations and physical
areas of potential significance as objectives for attack. Also
Fundamental intelligence concerning the general situation,
resources, capabilities, and vulnerabilities of foreign
countries or areas which may be used as reference material in
the planning of operations at any level and in evaluating
subsequent information relating to the same subject.
The quantity of supplies required to be on hand
within, and which can be moved by, a unit or formation. It is
expressed according to the wartime organization of the unit or
formation and maintained at the prescribed levels.
basic military route network
Axial, lateral, and connecting routes designated in
peacetime by the host nation to meet the anticipated military
movements and transport requirements, both Allied and national.
Research directed toward the increase of knowledge, the
primary aim being a greater knowledge or understanding of the
subject under study. See also research.
Stocks to support the execution of approved
operational plans for an initial predetermined period. See also
basic stopping power
The probability, expressed as a percentage, of a
single vehicle being stopped by mines while attempting to cross
basic tactical organization
The conventional organization of landing force units for
combat, involving combinations of infantry, supporting ground
arms, and aviation for accomplishment of missions ashore. This
organizational form is employed as soon as possible following
the landing of the various assault components of the landing
The essential things, expressed in broad terms, that must
be done in order to implement the commander's concept
successfully. These may include military, diplomatic, economic,
informational, and other measures. See also strategic concept.
basis of issue
Authority that prescribes the number of items to be issued
to an individual, a unit, a military organization, or for a unit
piece of equipment.
See depth contour.
battalion landing team
In an amphibious operation, an infantry battalion normally
reinforced by necessary combat and service elements; the basic
unit for planning an assault landing. Also called BLT.
1. Tactical and administrative artillery unit or
subunit corresponding to a company or similar unit in other
branches of the Army. 2. All guns, torpedo tubes, searchlights,
or missile launchers of the same size or caliber or used for the
same purpose, either installed in one ship or otherwise
operating as an entity.
A point on the ground, the coordinates of which are
used as a reference indicating the location of the battery in
the production of firing data. Also called chart location of the
battery (troop) left (right)
A method of fire in which weapons are discharged from the
left (right), one after the other, at five second intervals.
battle damage assessment
The timely and accurate estimate of damage resulting from
the application of military force, either lethal or nonlethal,
against a predetermined objective. Battle damage assessment can
be applied to the employment of all types of weapon systems
(air, ground, naval, and special forces weapon systems)
throughout the range of military operations. Battle damage
assessment is primarily an intelligence responsibility with
required inputs and coordination from the operators. Battle
damage assessment is composed of physical damage assessment,
functional damage assessment, and target system assessment. Also
called BDA. See also combat assessment.
battle damage indicator
A measurable phenomenon, either quantitative or
qualitative, that can be used to indicate the damage/change of a
target. Also called BDI. See also battle damage assessment.
battle damage repair
Essential repair, which may be improvised, carried
out rapidly in a battle environment in order to return damaged
or disabled equipment to temporary service. Also called BDR.
battlefield coordination detachment
An Army liaison provided by the Army component or force
commander to the air operations center (AOC) and/or to the
component designated by the joint force commander to plan,
coordinate, and deconflict air operations. The battlefield
coordination detachment processes Army requests for air support,
monitors and interprets the land battle situation for the AOC,
and provides the necessary interface for exchange of current
intelligence and operational data. Also called BCD. See also Air
Force air and space operations center; liaison.
The lighting of the battle area by artificial light,
either visible or invisible to the naked eye.
Systematic observation of the battle area for the
purpose of providing timely information and combat intelligence.
See also surveillance.
A standing operational naval task force organization of
carriers, surface combatants, and submarines assigned to
numbered fleets. A battle force is subdivided into battle
Reserve supplies accumulated by an army, detached corps,
or detached division in the vicinity of the battlefield, in
addition to unit and individual reserves. See also reserve
The environment, factors, and conditions that must be
understood to successfully apply combat power, protect the
force, or complete the mission. This includes the air, land,
sea, space, and the included enemy and friendly forces;
facilities; weather; terrain; the electromagnetic spectrum; and
the information environment within the operational areas and
areas of interest. See also electromagnetic spectrum;
information environment; joint intelligence preparation of the
Knowledge and understanding of the operational area's
environment, factors, and conditions, to include the status of
friendly and adversary forces, neutrals and noncombatants,
weather and terrain, that enables timely, relevant,
comprehensive, and accurate assessments, in order to
successfully apply combat power, protect the force, and/or
complete the mission.
1. The area extending from the shoreline inland to a
marked change in physiographic form or material, or to the line
of permanent vegetation (coastline). 2. In amphibious
operations, that portion of the shoreline designated for landing
of a tactical organization.
An estimate, expressed in terms of measurement tons,
or weight tons, of cargo that may be unloaded over a designated
strip of shore per day. See also clearance capacity; port
See naval beach group; shore party.
A designated area on a hostile or potentially hostile
shore that, when seized and held, ensures the continuous landing
of troops and materiel, and provides maneuver space requisite
for subsequent projected operations ashore.
beach landing site
A geographic location selected for across-the-beach
infiltration, exfiltration, or resupply operations. Also called
A sign or device used to identify a beach or certain
activities thereon for incoming waterborne traffic. Markers may
be panels, lights, buoys, or electronic devices.
The naval officer in command of the beachmaster unit of
the naval beach group. Also called BM.
A commissioned naval unit of the naval beach group
designed to provide to the shore party a Navy component known as
a beach party, which is capable of supporting the amphibious
landing of one division (reinforced). Also called BMU. See also
beach party; naval beach group; shore party.
A minefield in the shallow water approaches to a
possible amphibious landing beach. See also minefield.
In an amphibious operation, the planned arrangement of
personnel and facilities to effect movement, supply, and
evacuation across beaches and in the beach area for support of a
The naval component of the shore party. See also
beachmaster unit; shore party.
beach party commander
The naval officer in command of the naval component of the
Vertical, oblique, ground, and periscope coverage at
varying scales to provide information of offshore, shore, and
inland areas. It covers terrain that provides observation of the
beaches and is primarily concerned with the geological and
tactical aspects of the beach.
In an amphibious operation, an accumulation of
supplies of all classes established in dumps in beachhead areas.
See also reserve supplies.
beach support area
In amphibious operations, the area to the rear of a
landing force or elements thereof, established and operated by
shore party units, which contains the facilities for the
unloading of troops and materiel and the support of the forces
ashore; it includes facilities for the evacuation of wounded,
enemy prisoners of war, and captured materiel. Also called BSA.
The collection of data describing the physical
characteristics of a beach; that is, an area whose boundaries
are a shoreline, a coastline, and two natural or arbitrary
The horizontal dimensions of the beach measured at right
angles to the shoreline from the line of extreme low water
inland to the landward limit of the beach (the coastline).
A missile guided by an electronic beam.
The angle between the directions, on either side of the
axis, at which the intensity of the radio frequency field drops
to one-half the value it has on the axis.
The horizontal angle at a given point measured clockwise
from a specific datum point to a second point. See also grid
bearing; relative bearing; true bearing.
The area on the ground upon which the cone of fire falls.
begin morning civil twilight
The period of time at which the sun is halfway between
beginning morning and nautical twilight and sunrise, when there
is enough light to see objects clearly with the unaided eye. At
this time, light intensification devices are no longer
effective, and the sun is six degrees below the eastern horizon.
Also called BMCT.
begin morning nautical twilight
The start of that period where, in good conditions and in
the absence of other illumination, enough light is available to
identify the general outlines of ground objects and conduct
limited military operations. Light intensification devices are
still effective and may have enhanced capabilities. At this
time, the sun is 12 degrees below the eastern horizon. Also
The lower level publications in the hierarchy of joint
publications that are signed by the Director, Joint Staff and
contain specific mission-area guidance for the joint community.
Included in this level are reference publications and those
describing joint personnel, intelligence support, operations,
logistic support, planning, and command, control,
communications, and computer systems support. See also
above-the-line publications; capstone publications; joint
publication; keystone publications.
The nearly horizontal portion of a beach or backshore
having an abrupt fall and formed by deposition of material by
wave action. A berm marks the limit of ordinary high tide. For
air cushion vehicles, berms (constructed) are required to
protect materials handling equipment operations. See also
A bend in a coast forming an open bay or an open bay
formed by such a bend.
Infrastructure which concerns only two NATO members
and is financed by mutual agreement between them (e.g.,
facilities required for the use of forces of one NATO member in
the territory of another). See also infrastructure
A ship's publication listing operational or administrative
1. Shelter for troops. 2. To quarter troops. 3. A
personnel position or assignment that may be filled by one
binary chemical munition
A munition in which chemical substances, held in
separate containers, react when mixed or combined as a result of
being fired, launched, or otherwise initiated to produce a
chemical agent. See also munition.
The fastening or securing of items to a movable
platform called a pallet. See also palletized unit load.
Storage of items of supplies and equipment in an
individual compartment or subdivision of a storage unit in less
than bulk quantities. See also bulk storage; storage.
That component of intelligence that deals with individual
foreign personalities of actual or potential importance.
A microorganism that causes disease in personnel, plants,
or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. See also
biological operation; biological weapon; chemical agent.
A type of ammunition, the filler of which is
primarily a biological agent.
The methods, plans, and procedures involved in
establishing and executing defensive measures against attacks
using biological agents.
Conditions found in an area resulting from direct or
persisting effects of biological weapons.
Employment of biological agents to produce casualties in
personnel or animals or damage to plants. See also biological
agent; biological threat.
A threat that consists of biological material planned to
be deployed to produce casualties in personnel or animals or
damage plants. See also biological agent; biological ammunition;
biological defense; biological environment; chemical,
biological, and radiological operation; contamination;
See biological operation.
An item of materiel which projects, disperses, or
disseminates a biological agent including arthropod vectors.
In intelligence handling, a term used in certain phrases
(e.g., living black, black border crossing) to indicate reliance
on illegal concealment rather than on cover.
An official counterintelligence listing of actual or
potential enemy collaborators, sympathizers, intelligence
suspects, and other persons whose presence menaces the security
of friendly forces.
Propaganda that purports to emanate from a source other
than the true one. See also propaganda.
Destruction of or damage to structures and personnel by
the force of an explosion on or above the surface of the ground.
Blast effect may be contrasted with the cratering and
ground-shock effects of a projectile or charge that goes off
beneath the surface.
A horizontal radial line on the surface of the Earth
originating at ground zero on which measurements of blast from
an explosion are taken.
A sharply defined wave of increased pressure rapidly
propagated through a surrounding medium from a center of
detonation or similar disturbance.
blast wave diffraction
The passage around and envelopment of a structure by
the nuclear blast wave.
That edge of a map or chart on which cartographic
detail is extended to the edge of the sheet.
Any transmission of information that is made without
expectation of acknowledgement.
A chemical agent which injures the eyes and lungs,
and burns or blisters the skin. Also called vesicant agent.
blocking and chocking
The use of wedges or chocks to prevent the
inadvertent shifting of cargo in transit.
A defensive position so sited as to deny the enemy access
to a given area or to prevent the enemy's advance in a given
A method of shipment of supplies to overseas areas to
provide balanced stocks or an arbitrary balanced force for a
specific number of days, e.g., shipment of 30 days' supply for
an average force of 10,000 individuals.
block stowage loading
A method of loading whereby all cargo for a specific
destination is stowed together. The purpose is to facilitate
rapid off-loading at the destination, with the least possible
disturbance of cargo intended for other points. See also
A chemical compound, including the cyanide group,
that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal
utilization of oxygen by body tissues.
A small sheet of material depicting an American flag and a
statement in several languages to the effect that anyone
assisting the bearer to safety will be rewarded. See also
blood chit (intelligence)
See blood chit.
1. Escape, to the rear and under pressure, of gases
formed during the firing of the weapon. Blowback may be caused
by a defective breech mechanism, a ruptured cartridge case, or a
faulty primer. 2. Type of weapon operation in which the force of
expanding gases acting to the rear against the face of the bolt
furnishes all the energy required to initiate the complete cycle
of operation. A weapon which employs this method of operation is
characterized by the absence of any breech-lock or bolt-lock
US military personnel, US citizen civilian employees of
the Department of Defense, and the dependents of both categories
who travel in connection with the death of an immediate family
member. It also applies to designated escorts for dependents of
deceased military members. Furthermore, the term is used to
designate the personal property shipment of a deceased member.
In the assault phase of an amphibious operation, a diagram
showing the positions of individuals and equipment in each boat.
The basic organization of landing craft. One boat group is
organized for each battalion landing team (or equivalent) to be
landed in the first trip of landing craft or amphibious
A lane for amphibious assault landing craft, which
extends seaward from the landing beaches to the line of
departure. The width of a boat lane is determined by the length
of the corresponding beach.
The space and weight factor used to determine the capacity
of boats, landing craft, and amphibious vehicles. With respect
to landing craft and amphibious vehicles, it is based on the
requirements of one person with individual equipment. The person
is assumed to weigh 224 pounds and to occupy 13.5 cubic feet of
space. See also man space.
The conical section of a ballistic body that
progressively decreases in diameter toward the tail to reduce
overall aerodynamic drag.
bomb disposal unit
See explosive ordnance disposal unit.
See intermediate-range bomber aircraft; long-range bomber
aircraft; medium-range bomber aircraft.
bomb impact plot
A graphic representation of the target area, usually a
pre-strike air photograph, on which prominent dots are plotted
to mark the impact or detonation points of bombs dropped on a
specific bombing attack.
The angle between the vertical and a line joining
the aircraft to what would be the point of impact of a bomb
released from it at that instant.
In air bombing, that part of the flight that begins,
normally from an initial point, with the approach to the target,
includes target acquisition, and ends normally at the weapon
bomb release line
An imaginary line around a defended area or
objective over which an aircraft should release its bomb in
order to obtain a hit or hits on an area or objective.
bomb release point
The point in space at which bombs must be released
to reach the desired point of detonation.
Good faith. In evasion and recovery operations, the use of
verbal or visual communication by individuals who are unknown to
one another to establish their authenticity, sincerity, honesty,
and truthfulness. See also evasion; evasion and recovery;
recovery; recovery operations.
In electrical engineering, the process of connecting
together metal parts so that they make low resistance electrical
contact for direct current and lower frequency alternating
currents. See also earthing.
An explosive or nonexplosive device or other
material, deliberately placed to cause casualties when an
apparently harmless object is disturbed or a normally safe act
1. A high-explosive element sufficiently sensitive
so as to be actuated by small explosive elements in a fuze or
primer and powerful enough to cause detonation of the main
explosive filling. 2. An auxiliary or initial propulsion system
which travels with a missile or aircraft and which may or may
not separate from the parent craft when its impulse has been
delivered. A booster system may contain, or consist of, one or
That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space
vehicle during which the booster and sustainer engines operate.
See also midcourse phase; reentry phase; terminal phase.
In cartography, the area of a map or chart lying
between the neatline and the surrounding framework.
A cartographic technique used when it is required to
extend a portion of the cartographic detail of a map or chart
beyond the sheetlines into the margin.
An individual, living close to a frontier, who
normally has to cross the frontier frequently for legitimate
Type of fuze having an interrupter in the explosive
train that prevents a projectile from exploding until after it
has cleared the muzzle of a weapon.
A mine with negative buoyancy which remains on the
seabed. Also called ground mine. See also mine.
1. In land warfare, a single movement, usually from
cover to cover, made by troops often under enemy fire. 2. (DOD
only) Distance covered in one movement by a unit that is
advancing by bounds.
A line that delineates surface areas for the purpose of
facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations
between adjacent units, formations, or areas. See also airspace
In naval mine warfare, a mine in which a number of
buoyant mine cases are attached to the same sinker, so that when
the mooring of one mine case is cut, another mine rises from the
sinker to its set depth. See also mine.
A method of adjusting fire in which a bracket is
established by obtaining an over and a short along the spotting
line, and then successively splitting the bracket in half until
a target hit or desired bracket is obtained.
1. A subdivision of any organization. 2. A geographically
separate unit of an activity which performs all or part of the
primary functions of the parent activity on a smaller scale.
Unlike an annex, a branch is not merely an overflow addition. 3.
An arm or service of the Army. 4. The contingency options built
into the basic plan. A branch is used for changing the mission,
orientation, or direction of movement of a force to aid success
of the operation based on anticipated events, opportunities, or
disruptions caused by enemy actions and reactions. See also
1. The onset of a condition in which the shock front
moves away from the exterior of the expanding fireball produced
by the explosion of a nuclear weapon. 2. (DOD only) After
completion of attack, turn to heading as directed.
Any commodity that, because of its weight, dimensions, or
incompatibility with other cargo, must be shipped by mode other
than military van or SEAVAN. See also breakbulk ship.
A ship with conventional holds for stowage of breakbulk
cargo, below or above deck, and equipped with cargo-handling
gear. Ships also may be capable of carrying a limited number of
containers, above or below deck. See also breakbulk cargo.
A wave in the process of losing energy where offshore
energy loss is caused by wind action and nearshore energy loss
is caused by the impact of the sea floor as the wave enters
shallow (shoaling) water. Breakers either plunge, spill, or
surge. See also breaker angle.
The angle a breaker makes with the beach. See also
The position at which a leaver or leaver section
breaks off from the main convoy to proceed to a different
1. In detection by radar, the separation of one
solid return into a number of individual returns which
correspond to the various objects or structure groupings. This
separation is contingent upon a number of factors including
range, beam width, gain setting, object size and distance
between objects. 2. In imagery interpretation, the result of
magnification or enlargement which causes the imaged item to
lose its identity and the resultant presentation to become a
random series of tonal impressions. Also called split-up.
A code which provides no security but which has as
its sole purpose the shortening of messages rather than the
concealment of their content.
An area of ground held or to be gained on the enemy's side
of an obstacle. See also airhead; beachhead.
The limit of the objective area in the development
of the bridgehead. See also objective area.
The act of giving in advance specific instructions
A unit usually smaller than a division to which are
attached groups and/or battalions and smaller units tailored to
meet anticipated requirements. Also called BDE.
When a water craft is thrown broadside to the wind and
waves, against a bar, or against the shoreline.
In nuclear warfare: 1. The horizontal distance
which, when added to the radius of safety, will give the desired
assurance that the specified degree of risk will not be
exceeded. The buffer distance is normally expressed
quantitatively in multiples of the delivery error. 2. The
vertical distance which is added to the fallout safe-height of
burst in order to determine a desired height of burst which will
provide the desired assurance that militarily significant
fallout will not occur. It is normally expressed quantitatively
in multiples of the vertical error.
1. A defined area controlled by a peace operations force
from which disputing or belligerent forces have been excluded. A
buffer zone is formed to create an area of separation between
disputing or belligerent forces and reduce the risk of renewed
conflict. Also called area of separation in some United Nations
operations. Also called BZ. See also area of separation; line of
demarcation; peace operations. 2. A conical volume centered on
the laser's line of sight with its apex at the aperture of the
laser, within which the beam will be contained with a high
degree of certainty. It is determined by the buffer angle. See
1. A concealed microphone or listening device or other
audiosurveillance device. 2. To install means for
Room or object that contains a concealed listening device.
Structures assembled from manufactured components designed
to provide specific building configurations (e.g., large steel
arch structures, large span tension fabric structures, panelized
buildings, and pre-engineered buildings). See also civil
The process of attaining prescribed strength of
units and prescribed levels of vehicles, equipment, stores, and
supplies. Also may be applied to the means of accomplishing this
That which is generally shipped in volume where the
transportation conveyance is the only external container; such
as liquids, ore, or grain.
bulk petroleum product
A liquid petroleum product transported by various
means and stored in tanks or containers having an individual
fill capacity greater than 250 liters.
1. Storage in a warehouse of supplies and equipment in
large quantities, usually in original containers, as
distinguished from bin storage. 2. Storage of liquids, such as
petroleum products in tanks, as distinguished from drum or
packaged storage. See also bin storage; storage.
An established reference point from which the position of
an object can be referenced. See also reference point.
An official statement by one intelligence agency to other
agencies, domestic or foreign, that an individual or group is
unreliable for any of a variety of reasons.
The point in time or in the missile trajectory when
combustion of fuels in the rocket engine is terminated by other
than programmed cutoff.
The velocity attained by a missile at the point of
The distance at which a specific radar can discern targets
through the external interference being received.