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MilitaryTerms.INFO - Terms and definitions used in the US Military

























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Acronyms A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W - Z Resources

Glossary of Military Terms

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1. To terminate a mission for any reason other than enemy action. It may occur at any point after the beginning of the mission and prior to its completion. 2. To discontinue aircraft takeoff or missile launch.

above-the-line publications
The upper level publications in the hierarchy of joint publications which includes capstone, keystone, and other key joint doctrine publications that the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff signs and are intended to be used by combatant commanders, subunified commanders, joint task force commanders, Service Chiefs, and Joint Staff directors. See also below-the-line publications; capstone publications; joint publication; keystone publications.

absolute altimeter
A type of altimeter which measures vertical distance to the surface below, using radio, radar, sonic, laser, or capacitive technology.

absolute dud
A nuclear weapon which, when launched at or emplaced on a target, fails to explode.

absolute filter
A filter capable of cutting off 100% by weight of solid particles greater than a stated micron size.

absolute height
The height of an aircraft directly above the surface or terrain over which it is flying. See also altitude.

absorbed dose
The amount of energy imparted by nuclear (or ionizing) radiation to unit mass of absorbing material. The unit is the rad.

Operation plan review criterion. The determination as to whether the contemplated course of action is worth the cost in manpower, materiel, and time involved; is consistent with the law of war; and is militarily and politically supportable. See also adequacy; feasibility.

access to classified information
The ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge of classified information. Persons have access to classified information if they are permitted to gain knowledge of the information or if they are in a place where they would be expected to gain such knowledge. Persons do not have access to classified information by being in a place where classified information is kept if security measures prevent them from gaining knowledge of the information.

accidental attack
An unintended attack which occurs without deliberate national design as a direct result of a random event, such as a mechanical failure, a simple human error, or an unauthorized action by a subordinate.

accompanying supplies
Unit supplies that deploy with forces.

The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds. The person having this obligation may or may not have actual possession of the property, documents, or funds. Accountability is concerned primarily with records, while responsibility is concerned primarily with custody, care, and safekeeping. See also responsibility.

accounting line designator
A five-character code, consisting of the target desired ground zero designator and the striking command suffix, to indicate a specific nuclear strike by a specified weapon delivery system on a target objective to the operation plan. Also called ALD.

accuracy of fire
The precision of fire expressed by the closeness of a grouping of shots at and around the center of the target.

accuracy of information
See evaluation.

acoustic circuit
A mine circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a target. See also mine

acoustic intelligence
Intelligence derived from the collection and processing of acoustic phenomena. Also called ACINT.

acoustic jamming
The deliberate radiation or reradiation of mechanical or electroacoustic signals with the objectives of obliterating or obscuring signals that the enemy is attempting to receive and of disrupting enemy weapons systems. See also barrage jamming; electronic warfare; jamming; spot jamming.

acoustic mine
A mine with an acoustic circuit which responds to the acoustic field of a ship or sweep. See also mine.

acoustic minehunting
The use of a sonar to detect mines or mine-like objects which may be on or protruding from the seabed, or buried.

acoustic warfare
Action involving the use of underwater acoustic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the underwater acoustic spectrum and actions which retain friendly use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. Also called AW. There are three divisions within acoustic warfare. 1. acoustic warfare support measures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions to search for, intercept, locate, record, and analyze radiated acoustic energy in water for the purpose of exploiting such radiations. The use of acoustic warfare support measures involves no intentional underwater acoustic emission and is generally not detectable by the enemy. Also called AWSM. 2. acoustic warfare countermeasures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to prevent or reduce an enemy's effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum. Acoustic warfare countermeasures involve intentional underwater acoustic emissions for deception and jamming. Also called AWCM. 3. acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures. That aspect of acoustic warfare involving actions taken to ensure friendly effective use of the underwater acoustic spectrum despite the enemy's use of underwater acoustic warfare. Acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures involve anti-acoustic warfare support measures and anti-acoustic warfare countermeasures, and may not involve underwater acoustic emissions. Also called AWCCM

acoustic warfare counter-countermeasures
See acoustic warfare Part 3.

acoustic warfare countermeasures
See acoustic warfare Part 2.

acoustic warfare support measures
See acoustic warfare Part 1.

acoustical surveillance
Employment of electronic devices, including sound-recording, -receiving, or -transmitting equipment, for the collection of information

1. When applied to acquisition radars, the process of detecting the presence and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit identification. 2. When applied to tracking radars, the process of positioning a radar beam so that a target is in that beam to permit the effective employment of weapons. See also target acquisition.

acquire (radar)
See acquire.

See collection (acquisition).

acquisition and cross-servicing agreement
Agreements negotiated on a bilateral basis with US allies or coalition partners that allow US forces to exchange most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment. Authority to negotiate these agreements is usually delegated to the combatant commander by the Secretary of Defense. Authority to execute these agreements lies with the Secretary of Defense, and may or may not be delegated. Governed by legal guidelines, these agreements are used for contingencies, peacekeeping operations, unforeseen emergencies, or exercises to correct logistic deficiencies that cannot be adequately corrected by national means. The support received or given is reimbursed under the conditions of the acquisition and cross-servicing agreement. Also called ACSA. See also cross-servicing; servicing.

action agent
In intelligence usage, one who has access to, and performs actions against, the target.

action deferred
Tactical action on a specific track is being withheld for better tactical advantage. Weapons are available and commitment is pending.

action information center
See air defense control center; combat information center.

action phase
In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the landing forces of the amphibious force in the operational area and the accomplishment of their mission. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; landing force; mission.

Order to active duty (other than for training) in the Federal service. See also active duty; federal service.

activation detector
A device used to determine neutron flux or density by virtue of the radioactivity induced in it as a result of neutron capture.

active air defense
Direct defensive action taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets. It includes the use of aircraft, air defense weapons, electronic warfare, and other available weapons. See also air defense.

active communications satellite
See communications satellite.

active defense
The employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy. See also passive defense

active duty
Full-time duty in the active military service of the United States. This includes members of the Reserve Components serving on active duty or full-time training duty, but does not include full-time National Guard duty. Also called AD. See also active duty for training; inactive duty training.

active duty for special work
A tour of active duty for reserve personnel authorized from military and reserve personnel appropriations for work on active or reserve component programs. This includes annual screening, training camp operations, training ship operations, and unit conversion to new weapon systems when such duties are essential. Active duty for special work may also be authorized to support study groups, training sites and exercises, short-term projects, and doing administrative or support functions. By policy, active duty for special work tours are normally limited to 179 days or less in one fiscal year. Tours exceeding 180 days are accountable against active duty end strength.

active duty for training
A tour of active duty which is used for training members of the Reserve Components to provide trained units and qualified persons to fill the needs of the Armed Forces in time of war or national emergency and such other times as the national security requires. The member is under orders that provide for return to non-active status when the period of active duty for training is completed. This includes annual training, special tours of active duty for training, school tours, and the initial duty for training performed by nonprior service enlistees. Also called ADT.

Active Guard and Reserve
National Guard and Reserve members who are on voluntary active duty providing full-time support to National Guard, Reserve, and Active Component organizations for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the Reserve Components. Also called AGR.

active homing guidance
A system of homing guidance wherein both the source for illuminating the target and the receiver for detecting the energy reflected from the target as the result of the illumination are carried within the missile.

active material
Material, such as plutonium and certain isotopes of uranium, which is capable of supporting a fission chain reaction.

active mine
A mine actuated by the reflection from a target of a signal emitted by the mine.

active sealift forces
Military Sealift Command active, common-user sealift and the afloat pre-positioning force, including the required cargo handling and delivery systems as well as necessary operating personnel. See also afloat pre-positioning force; common-user sealift; Military Sealift Command.

active sealift forces
Military Sealift Command active, common-user sealift and the afloat pre-positioning force, including the required cargo handling and delivery systems as well as necessary operating personnel. See also afloat pre-positioning force; common-user sealift; Military Sealift Command.

1. A unit, organization, or installation performing a function or mission, e.g., reception center, redistribution center, naval station, naval shipyard. 2. A function, mission, action, or collection of actions. Also called ACT. See also establishment.

act of mercy
In evasion and recovery operations, assistance rendered to evaders by an individual or elements of the local population who sympathize or empathize with the evaders' cause or plight. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations.

actual ground zero
The point on the surface of the Earth at, or vertically below or above, the center of an actual nuclear detonation. See also desired ground zero; ground zero.

To operate a mine-firing mechanism by an influence or a series of influences in such a way that all the requirements of the mechanism for firing, or for registering a target count, are met.

acute radiation dose
Total ionizing radiation dose received at one time and over a period so short that biological recovery cannot occur

Operation plan review criterion. The determination as to whether the scope and concept of a planned operation are sufficient to accomplish the task assigned. See also acceptability; feasibility.

An order to the observer or spotter to initiate an adjustment on a designated target.

administrative airlift service
The airlift service normally provided by specifically identifiable aircraft assigned to organizations or commands for internal administration.

administrative control
Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management, unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization, demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational missions of the subordinate or other organizations. Also called ADCON.

administrative escort
A warship or merchant ship under naval control, carrying a convoy commodore and staff, and serving as a platform for simultaneous communication with an operational control authority and a coastal convoy.

administrative landing
An unopposed landing involving debarkation from vessels that have been administratively loaded. See also administrative loading; administrative movement; logistics over-the-shore operations.

administrative lead time
The interval between initiation of procurement action and letting of contract or placing of order. See also procurement lead time.

administrative loading
A loading system which gives primary consideration to achieving maximum utilization of troop and cargo space without regard to tactical considerations. Equipment and supplies must be unloaded and sorted before they can be used. Also called commercial loading. See also loading.

administrative map
A map that contains graphically recorded information pertaining to administrative matters, such as supply and evacuation installations, personnel installations, medical facilities, collecting points for stragglers and enemy prisoners of war, train bivouacs, service and maintenance areas, main supply roads, traffic circulation, boundaries, and other details necessary to show the administrative situation. See also map.

administrative movement
A movement in which troops and vehicles are arranged to expedite their movement and conserve time and energy when no enemy interference, except by air, is anticipated.

administrative order
An order covering traffic, supplies, maintenance, evacuation, personnel, and other administrative details

administrative shipping
Support shipping that is capable of transporting troops and cargo from origin to destination, but that cannot be loaded or unloaded without non-organic personnel and/or equipment (e.g., cargo handling personnel, stevedores, piers, barges, cranes, materials handling equipment, vessels, etc.). See also administrative loading; administrative movement.

advanced base
A base located in or near an operational area whose primary mission is to support military operations.

advanced logistic support site
See naval advanced logistic support site. Also called ALSS.

advanced operations base
In special operations, a small temporary base established near or within a joint special operations area to command, control, and/or support training or tactical operations. Facilities are normally austere. The base may be ashore or afloat. If ashore, it may include an airfield or unimproved airstrip, a pier, or an anchorage. An advanced operations base is normally controlled and/or supported by a main operations base or a forward operations base. Also called AOB. See also forward operations base; main operations base.

advance force
A temporary organization within the amphibious task force which precedes the main body to the objective area. Its function is to participate in preparing the objective for the main assault by conducting such operations as reconnaissance, seizure of supporting positions, minesweeping, preliminary bombardment, underwater demolitions, and air support.

advance guard
Detachment sent ahead of the main force to ensure its uninterrupted advance; to protect the main body against surprise; to facilitate the advance by removing obstacles and repairing roads and bridges; and to cover the deployment of the main body if it is committed to action.

advance guard reserve
Second of the two main parts of an advance guard, the other being the advance guard support. It protects the main force and is itself protected by the advance guard support. Small advance guards do not have reserves.

advance guard support
First of the two main parts of an advance guard, the other being the advance guard reserve. It is made up of three smaller elements, in order from front to rear, the advance guard point, the advance party, and the support proper. The advance guard support protects the advance guard reserve.

adverse weather
Weather in which military operations are generally restricted or impeded. See also marginal weather.

adverse weather aerial delivery system
The precise delivery of personnel, equipment, and supplies during adverse weather, using a self-contained aircraft instrumentation system without artificial ground assistance or the use of ground navigational aids. Also called AWADS.

advisory area
A designated area within a flight information region where air traffic advisory service is available.

aerial picket
See air picket.

aerial port
An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air movement of personnel and materiel as well as an authorized port for entrance into or departure from the country where located. Also called APORT. See also port of debarkation; port of embarkation.

aerial port control center
The agency responsible for the management and control of all aerial port resources and for the receipt and dissemination of all airlift requirements received from the airlift control team as the joint force commander's agent. Also called APCC. See also aerial port; airlift control team.

aerial port squadron
An Air Force organization that operates and provides the functions assigned to aerial ports, including processing personnel and cargo, rigging for airdrop, packing parachutes, loading equipment, preparing air cargo and load plans, loading and securing aircraft, ejecting cargo for inflight delivery, and supervising units engaged in aircraft loading and unloading operations

aerodynamic missile
A missile which uses aerodynamic forces to maintain its flight path. See also ballistic missile; guided missile.

aeromedical evacuation
The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation. Also called AE.

aeromedical evacuation cell
The interface between validation and execution; anaeromedical evacuation cell is established in the tanker airlift control center/air mobility operations control center. The aeromedical evacuation cell provides the critical linkbetween command and control, operations, and medical direction. It performs operational mission planning, tasking, andscheduling, and mission monitoring of airlift and aeromedical evacuation assets to support patient movement in coordinationwith the patient movement requirement center. See also aeromedical evacuation; Tanker Airlift Control Center.

aeromedical evacuation control officer
An officer of the air transport force or air command controlling the flow of patients by air.

aeromedical evacuation control team
A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. Provides command and control for theater aeromedical evacuation elements. It is responsible to the director of mobility forces for current aeromedical evacuation operational planning and mission execution. The aeromedical evacuation control team analyzes patient movement requirements; coordinates airlift to meet aeromedical evacuation requirements; tasks the appropriate aeromedical evacuation elements including special medical requirements, when necessary; and passes mission information to the patient movement requirement center. Also called AECT. See also aeromedical evacuation; aeromedical evacuation cell; air mobility division.

aeromedical evacuation coordination center
A coordination center within the joint air operations center's airlift coordination cell that monitors all activities related to aeromedical evacuation (AE) operations execution. It manages the medical aspects of the AE mission and serves as the net control station for AE communications. It coordinates medical requirements with airlift capability, assigns medical missions to the appropriate AE elements, and monitors patient movement activities. Also called AECC. See also aeromedical evacuation; aeromedical evacuation system; aeromedical evacuation unit.

aeromedical evacuation system
A system that provides: a. control of patient movement by air transport; b. specialized medical aircrew, medical crew augmentees, and specialty medical attendants and equipment for inflight medical care; c. facilities on or in the vicinity of air strips and air bases for the limited medical care of intransit patients entering, en route via, or leaving the system; and d. communication with originating, destination, and en route medical facilities concerning patient transportation. Also called AES. See also aeromedical evacuation.

aeromedical evacuation unit
An operational medical organization concerned primarily with the management and control of patients being transported via an aeromedical evacuation system or system echelon. See also forward aeromedical evacuation.

aeronautical chart
A specialized representation of mapped features of the Earth, or some part of it, produced to show selected terrain, cultural and hydrographic features, and supplemental information required for air navigation, pilotage, or for planning air operations.

aeronautical information overprint
Additional information which is printed or stamped on a map or chart for the specific purpose of air navigation.

aeronautical plotting chart
A chart designed for the graphical processes of navigation.

A liquid or solid composed of finely divided particles suspended in a gaseous medium. Examples of common aerosols are mist, fog, and smoke.

Of, or pertaining to, Earth's envelope of atmosphere and the space above it; two separate entities considered as a single realm for activity in launching, guidance, and control of vehicles that will travel in both entities.

aerospace defense
1. All defensive measures designed to destroy or nullify attacking enemy aircraft and missiles and also negate hostile space systems. 2. An inclusive term encompassing air defense, ballistic missile defense, and space defense. See also air defense; space defense.

affiliation training
Military training based on allied and/or coalition, joint, and/or Service doctrine or tactics, techniques, and procedures, as applicable, to prepare personnel or units for multinational operations. Usually conducted between US and non-US forces. May also be referred to as multinational training. See also command post exercise; exercise; field training exercise; maneuver.

afloat pre-positioning force
Shipping maintained in full operational status to afloat pre-position military equipment and supplies in support of combatant commanders' operation plans. The afloat pre-positioning force consists of the three maritime pre-positioning ships squadrons and the afloat pre-positioning ships. Also called APF. See also afloat pre-positioning ships; maritime pre-positioning ships.

afloat pre-positioning operations
Pre-positioning of ships, preloaded with equipment and supplies (including ammunition and petroleum) that provides for an alternative to land-based programs. This concept provides for ships and onboard force support equipment and supplies positioned near potential crisis areas that can be delivered rapidly to joint airlifted forces in the operational area. Afloat pre-positioning in forward areas enhances a force's capability to respond to a crisis, resulting in faster reaction time. See also operation.

afloat pre-positioning ships
Forward deployed merchant ships loaded with tactical equipment and supplies to support the initial deployment of military forces. Also called APS. See also merchant ship.

afloat support
A form of logistic support outside the confines of a harbor in which fuel, ammunition, and supplies are provided for operating forces either underway or at anchor. See also floating base support.

Wind currents set up in the vicinity of a nuclear explosion directed toward the burst center, resulting from the updraft accompanying the rise of the fireball.

In intelligence usage, an organization or individual engaged in collecting and/or processing information. Also called collection agency. See also agent; intelligence process; source.

In intelligence usage, one who is authorized or instructed to obtain or to assist in obtaining information for intelligence or counterintelligence purposes.

agent authentication
The technical support task of providing an agent with personal documents, accoutrements, and equipment which have the appearance of authenticity as to claimed origin and which support and are consistent with the agent's cover story.

agent net
An organization for clandestine purposes that operates under the direction of a principal agent.

aggressor forces
1. Forces engaged in aggressive military action. 2. In the context of training exercises, the "enemy" created to add realism in training maneuvers and exercises.

1. A precise point associated with a target and assigned for a specific weapon impact to achieve the intended objective and level of destruction. May be defined descriptively (e.g., vent in center of roof), by grid reference, or geolocation. 2. A prominent radar-significant feature, for example a tip of land, or bridge, used to assist an aircrew in navigating and delivering their weapons (usually in bad weather and/or at night). Also called offset aimpoint (OAP). See also desired mean point of impact; desired point of impact.

In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that a burst or group of bursts occurred before impact.

air alert
See airborne alert; air defense warning conditions; alert; ground alert.

air and space expeditionary task force
A deployed numbered air force (NAF) or command echelon immediately subordinate to a NAF provided as the US Air Force component command committed to a joint operation. Also called AETF. See also expeditionary force; air expeditionary wing.

air apportionment
See apportionment (air).

air assault
The movement of friendly assault forces (combat, combat support, and combat service support) by rotary-wing aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. See also assault.

air assault force
A force composed primarily of ground and rotary-wing air units organized, equipped, and trained for air assault operations.

air assault operation
An operation in which assault forces (combat, combat support, and combat service support), using the mobilityof rotary-wing assets and the total integration of available firepower, maneuver under the control of a ground or air maneuver commander to engage enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain.

air attack
1. coordinated--A combination of two or moretypes of air attack (dive, glide, low-level) in one strike, usingone or more types of aircraft. 2. deferred--A procedure in which attack groups rendezvous as a single unit. It is used when attack groups are launched from more than one station with their departure on the mission being delayed pending further orders. 3. divided--A method of delivering a coordinated air attack which consists of holding the units in close tactical concentration up to a point, then splitting them to attack an objective from different directions.

1. In relation to personnel, troops especially trained to effect, following transport by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchdown. 2. In relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation. It also designates some aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 3. When applied to materiel, items that form an integral part of the aircraft. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained. A lighter-than-air aircraft is not considered to be airborne when it is attached to the ground, except that moored balloons are airborne whenever sent aloft. Also called ABN. See also air transportable unit.

airborne alert
A state of aircraft readiness wherein combat-equipped aircraft are airborne and ready for immediate action. See also fighter cover. (DOD only) It is designed to reduce reaction time and to increase survivability. See also combat air patrol; fighter cover; ground alert.

airborne assault
See assault phase, Part 2.

airborne assault weapon
An unarmored, mobile, full-tracked gun providing a mobile antitank capability for airborne troops. Can be airdropped.

airborne command post
A suitably equipped aircraft used by the commander for the control of his or her forces.

airborne early warning
The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units. Also called AEW.

airborne early warning and control
Air surveillance and control provided by airborne early warning aircraft which are equipped with search and height-finding radar and communications equipment for controlling weapon systems. Also called AEW & C. See also air picket.

airborne force
A force composed primarily of ground and air units organized, equipped, and trained for airborne operations. See also force(s).

airborne interception equipment
A fire control system, including radar equipment, installed in interceptor aircraft used to effect air interception.

airborne lift
The total capacities expressed in terms of personnel and cargo that are, or can be, carried by available aircraft in one trip.

airborne mission commander
The commander serves as an airborne extension of the executing component's rescue coordination center (RCC) and coordinates the combat search and rescue (CSAR) effort between the combat search and rescue task force (CSARTF) and the RCC (or joint search and rescue center) by monitoring the status of all CSARTF elements, requesting additional assets when needed, and ensuring the recovery and supporting forces arrive at their designated areas to accomplish the CSAR mission. The airborne mission commander (AMC) may be designated by the component RCC or higher authority. The AMC appoints, as necessary, an on-scene commander. Also called AMC. See also combat search and rescue; combat search and rescue task force; rescue coordination center.

airborne operation
An operation involving the air movement into an objective area of combat forces and their logistic support for execution of a tactical, operational, or strategic mission. The means employed may be any combination of airborne units, air transportable units, and types of transport aircraft, depending on the mission and the overall situation. See also assault; assault phase.

airborne order
A command and authorization for flight when a predetermined time greater than five minutes is established for aircraft to become airborne.

airborne radio relay
Airborne equipment used to relay radio transmission from selected originating transmitters

airborne sensor operator
An individual trained to operate sensor equipment aboard aircraft and to perform limited interpretations of collected information produced in flight.

airborne troops
Those ground units whose primary mission is to make assault landings from the air. See also troops.

air-breathing missile
A missile with an engine requiring the intake of air for combustion of its fuel, as in a ramjet or turbojet. To be contrasted with the rocket missile, which carries its own oxidizer and can operate beyond the atmosphere.

An explosion of a bomb or projectile above the surface as distinguished from an explosion on contact with the surface or after penetration. See also types of burst.

air-capable ship
All ships other than aircraft carriers; aircraft carriers, nuclear; amphibious assault ships, landing platform helicopter; general purpose amphibious assault ships; or general purpose amphibious assault ships (with internal dock) from which aircraft can take off, be recovered, or routinely receive and transfer logistic support. See also aviation ship.

air cargo
Stores, equipment or vehicles, which do not form part of the aircraft, and are either part or all of its payload.

Air Carrier Initiative Program
Mutual assistance program with signatory commercial air carriers to assist in illegal drug detection and detection of internal conspiracies.

air cartographic camera
A camera having the accuracy and other characteristics essential for air survey or cartographic photography. Also called mapping camera.

air cartographic photography
The taking and processing of air photographs for mapping and charting purposes.

air component coordination element
An Air Force component element that interfaces and provides liaison with the joint force land component commander, or commander Army forces. The air component coordination element is the senior Air Force element assisting the joint force land component commander, or commander Army forces in planning air component supporting and supported requirements. The air component coordination element is responsible to the joint force air component commander and coordinates with the joint force land component commander's staff, representing the joint force air component commander's needs in either a supporting or supported role. Also called ACCE.

air control operations
The employment of air forces, supported by ground and naval forces, as appropriate, to achieve military objectives in vital airspace areas. Such operations include destruction of enemy air and surface-to-air forces, interdiction of enemy air operations, protection of vital air lines of communications, and the establishment of local military superiority in areas of air operations. See also operation.

air corridor
A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and established for the purpose of preventing friendly aircraft from being fired on by friendly forces.

See inactive aircraft inventory; program aircraft; reserve aircraft; supporting aircraft; unit aircraft.

aircraft arresting barrier
A device, not dependent on an aircraft arresting hook, used to stop an aircraft by absorbing its forward momentum in an emergency landing or an aborted takeoff. Also called barricade; emergency barrier. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting cable
That portion of an aircraft arresting system which spans the runway surface or flight deck landing area and is engaged by the aircraft arresting hook. Also called aircraft arresting wire.

aircraft arresting gear
A device used to engage hook-equipped aircraft to absorb the forward momentum of a routine or emergency landing or aborted takeoff. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting hook
A device fitted to an aircraft to engage arresting gear. Also called tail hook. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arresting system
A series of components used to stop an aircraft by absorbing its momentum in a routine or emergency landing or aborted takeoff. See also aircraft arresting barrier; aircraft arresting gear; aircraft arresting hook.

aircraft arresting wire
See aircraft arresting cable. See also aircraft arresting system.

aircraft arrestment
Controlled stopping of an aircraft by external means.

aircraft block speed
True airspeed in knots under zero wind conditions adjusted in relation to length of sortie to compensate for takeoff, climbout, letdown, instrument approach, and landing.

aircraft captain
See aircraft commander.

aircraft carrier
A warship designed to support and operate aircraft, engage in attacks on targets afloat or ashore, and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces. Designated as CV or CVN. CVN is nuclear powered.

aircraft commander
The aircrew member designated by competent authority as being in command of an aircraft and responsible for its safe operation and accomplishment of the assigned mission. Also called AC.

aircraft control and warning system
A system established to control and report the movement of aircraft. It consists of observation facilities (radar, passive electronic, visual, or other means), control center, and necessary communications.

aircraft cross-servicing
Services performed on an aircraft by an organization other than that to which the aircraft is assigned, according to an established operational aircraft cross-servicing requirement, and for which there may be a charge. Aircraft cross-servicing has been divided into two categories: a. Stage A cross-servicing: The servicing of an aircraft on an airfield/ship which enables the aircraft to be flown to another airfield/ship. b. Stage B cross-servicing: The servicing of an aircraft on an airfield/ship which enables the aircraft to be flown on an operational mission. See also aircraft transient servicing.

aircraft loading table
A data sheet used by the airlift commander containing information as to the load that actually goes into each aircraft.

aircraft mission equipment
Equipment that must be fitted to an aircraft to enable it to fulfill a particular mission or task. Also called aircraft role equipment.

aircraft modification
A change in the physical characteristics of aircraft, accomplished either by a change in production specifications or by alteration of items already produced.

aircraft monitoring and control
That equipment installed in aircraft to permit monitoring and control of safing, arming, and fuzing functions of nuclear weapons or nuclear weapon systems.

aircraft piracy
Any seizure or exercise of control, by force or violence, or threat of force or violence or by any other form of intimidation and with wrongful intent, of an aircraft within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States.

aircraft piracy
Any seizure or exercise of control, by force or violence, or threat of force or violence or by any other form of intimidation and with wrongful intent, of an aircraft within the special aircraft jurisdiction of the United States.

aircraft scrambling
Directing the immediate takeoff of aircraft from a ground alert condition of readiness.

aircraft store
Any device intended for internal or external carriage and mounted on aircraft suspension and release equipment, whether or not the item is intended to be separated in flight from the aircraft. Aircraft stores are classified in two categories as follows. a. expendable store--An aircraft store normally separated from the aircraft in flight such as a missile, rocket, bomb, nuclear weapon, mine, torpedo, pyrotechnic device, sonobuoy, signal underwater sound device, or other similar items. b. nonexpendable store--An aircraft store which is not normally separated from the aircraft in flight such as a tank (fuel and spray), line-source disseminator, pod (refueling, thrust augmentation, gun, electronic attack, data link, etc.), multiple rack, target, cargo drop container, drone, or other similar items. See also payload.

aircraft tiedown
Securing aircraft when parked in the open to restrain movement due to the weather or condition of the parking area.

aircraft transient servicing
Services performed on an aircraft by an organization other than that to which the aircraft is assigned and for which there may be a financial charge. This activity is separate from the established aircraft cross-servicing program and requires that the transient aircrew supervise the correct application of ground crew procedures. See also aircraft cross-servicing.

aircraft utilization
Average numbers of hours during each 24-hour period that an aircraft is actually in flight.

aircraft vectoring
The directional control of in-flight aircraft through transmission of azimuth headings

air cushion vehicle
A vehicle capable of being operated so that its weight, including its payload, is wholly or significantly supported on a continuously generated cushion or "bubble" of air at higher than ambient pressure. Also called ACV. (Note: NATO uses the term "ground effect machine.")

air defense
All defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or missiles in the Earth's envelope of atmosphere, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Also called AD. See also active air defense; aerospace defense; passive air defense.

air defense action area
An area and the airspace above it within which friendly aircraft or surface-to-air weapons are normally given precedence in operations except under specified conditions.

air defense area
1. overseas--A specifically defined airspace for which air defense must be planned and provided. 2. United States--Airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate agency within which the ready control of airbornevehicles is required in the interest of national security duringan air defense emergency.

air defense artillery
Weapons and equipment for actively combating air targets from the ground. Also called ADA.

air defense battle zone
A volume of airspace surrounding an air defense fire unit or defended area, extending to a specified altitude and range, in which the fire unit commander will engage and destroy targets not identified as friendly under criteria established by higher headquarters.

air defense control center
The principal information, communications, and operations center from which all aircraft, antiaircraft operations, air defense artillery, guided missiles, and air warning functions of a specific area of air defense responsibility are supervised and coordinated. Also called air defense operations center. See also combat information center.

air defense direction center
An installation having the capability of performing air surveillance, interception, control, and direction of allocated air defense weapons within an assigned sector of responsibility. It may also have an identification capability.

air defense division
A geographic subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense sector.

air defense early warning
See early warning.

air defense emergency
An emergency condition, declared by the Commander in Chief, North American Air Defense Command, that exists when attack upon the continental United States, Alaska, Canada, or United States installations in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place. Also called ADE.

air defense ground environment
The network of ground radar sites and command and control centers within a specific theater of operations which are used for the tactical control of air defense operations.

air defense identification zone
Airspace of defined dimensions within which the ready identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. Also called ADIZ.

air defense operations center
See air defense control center.

air defense operations team
A team of United States Air Force ground environment personnel assigned to certain allied air defense control and warning units/elements.

air defense readiness
An operational status requiring air defense forces to maintain higher than ordinary preparedness for a short period of time.

air defense readiness
An operational status requiring air defense forces to maintain higher than ordinary preparedness for a short period of time.

air defense sector
A geographical subdivision of an air defense region. See also air defense division.

air defense suppression
In air operations, actions taken to degrade fixed and mobile surface-based components of enemy air defense systems so that offensive air forces may effectively attack a target.

air defense warning conditions
A degree of air raid probability according to the following code. The term air defense division/sector referred to herein may include forces and units afloat and/or deployed to forward areas, as applicable. Air defense warning yellow--attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is probable. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are en route toward an air defense division/sector, or unknown aircraft and/or missiles suspected to be hostile are en route toward or are within an air defense division/sector. Air defense warning red--attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is imminent or is in progress. This means that hostile aircraft and/or missiles are within an air defense division/sector or are in the immediate vicinity of an air defense division/sector with high probability of entering the division/sector. Air defense warning white--attack by hostile aircraft and/or missiles is improbable. May be called either before or after air defense warning yellow or red. The initial declaration of air defense emergency will automatically establish a condition of air defense warning other than white for purposes of security control of air traffic.

air delivery
See airdrop; air landed; air movement; air supply.

air delivery container
A sling, bag, or roll, usually of canvas or webbing, designed to hold supplies and equipment for air delivery.

air delivery equipment
Special items of equipment (such as parachutes, air delivery containers, platforms, tie downs, and related items) used in air delivery of personnel, supplies, and equipment.

air direct delivery
The intertheater air movement of cargo or personnel from an airlift point of embarkation to a point as close as practicable to the user's specified final destination, thereby minimizing transshipment requirements. Air direct delivery eliminates the traditional Air Force two step intertheater and intratheater airlift transshipment mission mix. See also intertheater airlift; intratheater airlift.

The unloading of personnel or materiel from aircraft in flight. See also airdrop platform; air movement; free drop; free fall; high velocity drop; low velocity drop.

airdrop platform
A base upon which vehicles, cargo, or equipment are loaded for airdrop. See also airdrop.

air employment/allocation plan
The means by which subordinate commanders advise the joint force commander of planned employment/allocation of organic or assigned assets, of any expected excess sorties, or of any additional air support requirements.

air expeditionary force
Deployed US Air Force wings, groups, and squadrons committed to a joint operation. Also called AEF. See also air and space expeditionary task force.

air expeditionary wing
A wing or wing slice placed under the administrative control of an air and space expeditionary task force or air and space task force by Department of the Air Force orders for a joint operation. Also called AEW. See also air and space expeditionary task force.

air facility
An installation from which air operations may be or are being conducted. See also facility.

An area prepared for the accommodation (including any buildings, installations, and equipment), landing, and takeoff of aircraft. See also alternate airfield; departure airfield; landing area; landing point; landing site; main airfield; redeployment airfield. (DOD Note: In all entries involving "airfield" or "aerodrome," the US uses "airfield," and NATO uses "aerodrome." The terms are synonymous.)

airfield traffic
All traffic on the maneuvering area of an airfield and all aircraft flying in the vicinity of an airfield

Air Force air and space operations center
The senior agency of the Air Force component commander that provides command and control of Air Force air and space operations and coordinates with other components and Services. Also called AFAOC.

Air Force Component Headquarters
The field headquarters facility of the Air Force commander charged with the overall conduct of Air Force operations. It is composed of the command section and appropriate staff elements.

Air Force special operations base
A base, airstrip, or other appropriate facility that provides physical support to Air Force special operations forces (AFSOF). The facility may be used solely to support AFSOF or may be a portion of a larger base supporting other operations. As a supporting facility, it is distinct from the forces operating from or being supported by it. Also called AFSOB.

Air Force special operations component
The Air Force component of a joint force special operations component. Also called AFSOC. See also Army special operations component; Navy special operations component.

Air Force special operations detachment
A squadron-size headquarters that could be a composite organization composed of different Air Force special operations assets. The detachment is normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component, joint special operations task force, or joint task force, depending upon size and duration of the operation. Also called AFSOD.

Air Force special operations element
An element-size Air Force special operations headquarters. It is normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations component or detachment, depending upon size and duration of the operation. Also called AFSOE.

Air Force special operations forces
Those Active and Reserve Component Air Force forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called AFSOF.

1. A designated area in a hostile or threatened territory which, when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and materiel and provides the maneuver space necessary for projected operations. Normally it is the area seized in the assault phase of an airborne operation. 2. A designated location in an area of operations used as a base for supply and evacuation by air. See also beachhead; bridgehead.

airhead line
A line denoting the limits of the objective area for an airborne assault. The airhead line is bounded by assault objecties that are operationally located to ensure that enemy fires cannot be brought to bear on the main objective and for friendly forces to conduct defensive operations in depth. See also airhead; assault phase; objective area.

air intercept control common
A tactical air-to-ground radio frequency, monitored by all air intercept control facilities within an area, that is used as a backup for other discrete tactical control frequencies.

air interception
To effect visual or electronic contact by a friendly aircraft with another aircraft. Normally, the air intercept is conducted in the following five phases: a. climb phase--Airborne to cruising altitude. b. maneuver phase--Receipt of initial vector to target until beginning transition to attack speed and altitude. c. transition phase--Increase or decrease of speed and altitude required for the attack. d. attack phase--Turn to attack heading, acquire target, complete attack, and turn to breakaway heading. e. recovery phase--Breakaway to landing. See also close-controlled air interception.

air intercept zone
A subdivided part of the destruction area in which it is planned to destroy or defeat the enemy airborne threat with interceptor aircraft.

air interdiction
Air operations conducted to destroy, neutralize, or delay the enemy's military potential before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces at such distance from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required.

air landed
Moved by air and disembarked, or unloaded, after the aircraft has landed or while a helicopter is hovering. See also air movement.

air landed operation
An operation involving movement by air with a designateddestination for further ground deployment of units and personnel and/or further ground distribution of supplies. See also air landed.

air-launched ballistic missile
A ballistic missile launched from an airborne vehicle.

air liaison officer
The senior tactical air control party member attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air power. An air liaison officer is usually an aeronautically rated officer. Also called ALO. See also liaison.

airlift capability
The total capacity expressed in terms of number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo that can be carried at any one time to a given destination by available airlift. See also airlift requirement; allowable load; payload.

airlift control team
A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. The airlift control team brings intratheater airlift functional expertise from the theater organizations to plan, coordinate, manage, and execute intratheater airlift operations in the area of responsibility and joint operations area for the joint force air component commander. US Transportation Command and Air Mobility Command may augment the airlift control team with intratheater airlift expertise. These two sources of airlift expertise integrate into a single airlift control team within the air mobility division. Also called ALCT. See also Air Force air and space operations center; air mobility division; intratheater airlift.

airlift coordination cell
A cell within the air operations center which plans, coordinates, manages, and executes theater airlift operations in the area of responsibility or joint operations area. Normally consists of an airlift plans branch, an airlift operations branch, and an airlift support branch. Also called ALCC. See also Air Force air and space operations center; area of responsibility; joint operations area.

airlift mission commander
A commander designated when airlift aircraft are participating in airlift operations specified in the implementing directive. The airlift mission commander is usually designated by the commander of the deployed airlift unit, but may be selected by the Air Force component commander or joint force air component commander depending on the nature of the mission. See also joint force air component commander

airlift requirement
The total number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo required to be carried by air for a specific task. See also airlift capability.

airlift service
The performance or procurement of air transportation and services incident thereto required for the movement of persons, cargo, mail, or other goods

air logistic support
Support by air landing or airdrop, including air supply, movement of personnel, evacuation of casualties and enemy prisoners of war, and recovery of equipment and vehicles.

air logistic support operation
An air operation, excluding an airborne operation, conducted within a theater to distribute and recover personnel, equipment, and supplies.

See near miss.

air mission
See mission, Part 3.

air mission intelligence report
A detailed report of the results of an air mission, including a complete intelligence account of the mission.

airmobile forces
The ground combat, supporting, and air vehicle units required to conduct an airmobile operation.

airmobile operation
An operation in which combat forces and their equipment move about the battlefield by aircraft to engage in ground combat.

air mobility
The rapid movement of personnel, materiel and forces to and from or within a theater by air. This includes both airlift and air refueling. See also air refueling

Air Mobility Command
The Air Force component command of the US Transportation Command. Also called AMC.

air mobility control team
A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. The air mobilitycontrol team is the centralized source of air mobility command, control, and communications for the director of mobilityforces during mission execution. The director of mobility forces uses the air mobility control team to direct (or redirectas required) air mobility forces in concert with other air and space forces to respond to requirement changes, higher priorities, or immediate execution limitations. The airmobility control team deconflicts all air mobility operations into, out of, and within the area of responsibility or joint operations area. The air mobility control team maintainsexecution process and communications connectivity for tasking, coordination, and flight with the air operations center's combatoperations division, subordinate air mobility units, and mission forces. Also called AMCT. See also Air Force air and space operations center; air mobility; air mobility division.

air mobility division
Located in the joint air operations center to plan, coordinate, task, and execute the air mobility mission. Consists of the air mobility control team, airlift control team, aerial refueling control team, aeromedical evacuation control team, and the air mobility element. Coordinates with the joint force commander's movement requirements and control authority, the theater air mobility operations control center, if established, and the Air Mobility Command's tanker/airlift control center, as required. Also called AMD. See also air mobility; joint air operations center.

air mobility element
The air mobility element provides air mobility integration and coordination of US Transportation Command-assigned air mobility forces. The air mobility element receives directionfrom the director of mobility forces and is the primary team for providing coordination with the tanker airlift control center. Direct delivery intertheater air mobility missions, if required, will be coordinated through the air mobility division and tasked by the Air Mobility Command tanker airlift control center. The tanker airlift control center commander maintains operational control of direct delivery missions during execution. The air mobility element ensures the integration of intertheater air mobility missions with theater air and space operations planning. Also called AME. See also Air Force air and space operations center; air mobility division; director of mobility forces; Tanker Airlift Control Center.

air mobility express
An express airlift system that is activated when Department of Defense requirements dictate. It is comprised of express carrier aircraft and related continental United States infrastructure, Air Mobility Command airlift, and an in-theater rapid distribution system. Also called AMX. See also air mobility; Air Mobility Command.

air movement
Air transport of units, personnel, supplies, and equipmentincluding airdrops and air landings. See also airdrop; air landed.

air movement column
In airborne operations, the lead formation and the serials following, proceeding over the same flight path at the same altitude.

air movement table
A table prepared by a ground force commander in coordination with an air force commander. This form, issued as an annex to the operation order: a. indicates the allocation of aircraft space to elements of the ground units to be airlifted; b. designates the number and type of aircraft in each serial; c. specifies the departure area, time of loading, and takeoff.

air observation
See air observer.

air observation post
See observation post.

air observer
An individual whose primary mission is to observe or take photographs from an aircraft in order to adjust artillery fire or obtain military information.

air observer adjustment
The correcting of gunfire from an aircraft. See also spot.

air offensive
Sustained operations by strategic and/or tactical air weapon systems against hostile air forces or surface targets.

air photographic reconnaissance
The obtaining of information by air photography, divided into three types: a. Strategic photographic reconnaissance; b. Tactical photographic reconnaissance; and c. Survey/cartographic photography-air photography taken for survey/cartographical purposes and to survey/cartographic standards of accuracy. It may be strategic or tactical.

air picket
An airborne early warning aircraft positioned primarily to detect, report, and track approaching enemy aircraft or missiles and to control intercepts. Also called aerial picket. See also airborne early warning and control.

air plot
1. A continuous plot used in air navigation of a graphic representation of true headings steered and air distances flown. 2. A continuous plot of the position of an airborne object represented graphically to show true headings steered and air distances flown. 3. Within ships, a display that shows the positions and movements of an airborne object relative to the plotting ship.

See airfield.

air portable
Denotes materiel which is suitable for transport by an aircraft loaded internally or externally, with no more than minor dismantling and reassembling within the capabilities of user units. This term must be qualified to show the extent of air portability. See also load.

airport surface detection equipment
Short-range radar displaying the airport surface. Aircraft and vehicular traffic operating on runways, taxiways, and ramps, moving or stationary, may be observed with a high degree of resolution.

airport surveillance radar
Radar displaying range and azimuth that is normally employed in a terminal area as an aid to approach- and departure-control.

airport traffic area
Unless otherwise specifically designated, that airspace within a horizontal radius of five statute miles from the geographic center of any airport at which a control tower is operating, extending from the surface up to, but not including, an altitude of 3,000 feet above the elevation of the airport. Also called ATA.

air position
The calculated position of an aircraft assuming no wind effect.

air priorities committee
A committee set up to determine the priorities of passengers and cargo.

air raid reporting control ship
A ship to which the air defense ship has delegated the duties of controlling air warning radar and air raid reporting.

air reconnaissance
The acquisition of information by employing visual observation and/or sensors in air vehicles.

air reconnaissance liaison officer
An Army officer especially trained in air reconnaissance and imagery interpretation matters who is attached to a tactical air reconnaissance unit. This officer assists and advises the air commander and staff on matters concerning ground operations and informs the supported ground commander on the status of air reconnaissance requests.

air refueling
The capability to refuel aircraft in flight, which extends presence, increases range, and serves as a force multiplier. Also called AR

air refueling control point
During refueling operations, the geographic point where the receiver arrives in the observation or precontact position with respect to the tanker. Also called ARCP.

air refueling control team
A cell within the air operations center and one of the core teams in the air mobility division. Part of the air operations center that coordinates aerial refueling planning, tasking, and scheduling to support combat air operations or to support a strategic airbridge within the area of responsibility or joint area of operations. Also called ARCT. See also Air Force air and space operations center; air mobility division; air refueling.

air refueling control time
During refueling operations, the time the receiver and tanker arrive at the air refueling control point. Also called ARCT.

air refueling initiation point
During refueling operations, a point located upstream from the air refueling control point (inbound to the air refueling control point) where the receiver aircraft initiates the rendezvous. Also called ARIP.

air request net
A high frequency, single sideband, nonsecure net monitored by all tactical air control parties (TACPs) and the air support operations center (ASOC) that allows immediate requests to be transmitted from a TACP at any Army echelon directly to the ASOC for rapid response.

air route
The navigable airspace between two points, identified to the extent necessary for the application of flight rules.

air route traffic control center
The principal facility exercising en route control of aircraft operating under instrument flight rules within its area of jurisdiction. Approximately 26 such centers cover the United States and its possessions. Each has a communication capability to adjacent centers.

air smuggling event
In counterdrug operations, the departure of a suspected drug smuggling aircraft, an airdrop of drugs, or the arrival of a suspected drug smuggling aircraft.

air sovereignty
A nation's inherent right to exercise absolute control and authority over the airspace above its territory. See also air sovereignty mission.

air sovereignty mission
The integrated tasks of surveillance and control, the execution of which enforces a nation's authority over its territorial airspace. See also air sovereignty.

airspace control
See airspace control in the combat zone.

airspace control area
Airspace that is laterally defined by the boundaries of the operational area. The airspace control area may be subdivided into airspace control sectors.

airspace control authority
The commander designated to assume overall responsibility for the operation of the airspace control system in the airspace control area. Also called ACA. See also airspace control; airspace control area; airspace control system; control; operation.

airspace control boundary
The lateral limits of an airspace control area, airspace control sector, high density airspace control zone, or airspace restricted area.

airspace control center
The airspace control authority's primary airspace control facility, including assigned Service component, host-nation, and/or multinational personnel and equipment.

airspace control facility
Any of the several Service component, host nation, or multinational facilities that provide airspace control in the combat zone.

airspace control in the combat zone
A process used to increase combat effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. Airspace control is provided in order to reduce the risk of friendly fire, enhance air defense operations, and permit greater flexibility of operations. Airspace control does not infringe on the authority vested in commanders to approve, disapprove, or deny combat operations. Also called airspace control; combat airspace control.

airspace control order
An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace coordinating measures. It is published either as part of the air tasking order or as a separate document. Also called ACO.

airspace control plan
The document approved by the joint force commander that provides specific planning guidance and procedures for the airspace control system for the joint force operational area. Also called ACP. See also airspace control system; joint force commander.

airspace control procedures
Rules, mechanisms, and directions that facilitate the control and use of airspace of specified dimensions. See also airspace control authority; airspace control in a combat zone; airspace control order; airspace control plan.

airspace control sector
A subelement of the airspace control area, established to facilitate the control of the overall area. Airspace control sector boundaries normally coincide with air defense organization subdivision boundaries. Airspace control sectors are designated in accordance with procedures and guidance contained in the airspace control plan in consideration of Service component, host nation, and multinational airspace control capabilities and requirements. See also airspace control area.

airspace control system
An arrangement of those organizations, personnel, policies, procedures, and facilities required to perform airspace control functions. Also called ACS.

airspace coordinating measures
Measures employed to facilitate the efficient use of airspace to accomplish missions and simultaneously provide safeguards for friendly forces. Also called ACMs. See also airspace control area; airspace control boundary; airspace control sector; airspace coordination area; high-density airspace control zone; weapons engagement zone.

airspace coordination area
A three-dimensional block of airspace in a target area, established by the appropriate ground commander, in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. The airspace coordination area may be formal or informal. Also called ACA.

airspace management
The coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of airspace of defined dimensions.

airspace reservation
The airspace located above an area on the surface of the land or water, designated and set apart by Executive Order of the President or by a state, commonwealth, or territory, over which the flight of aircraft is prohibited or restricted for the purpose of national defense or for other governmental purposes.

airspace restrictions
Special restrictive measures applied to segments of airspace of defined dimensions.

air space warning area
See danger area.

The speed of an aircraft relative to its surrounding air mass. The unqualified term "airspeed" can mean any one of the following. a. calibrated airspeed--Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument installation error. b. equivalent airspeed--Calibrated airspeed corrected for compressibility error. c. indicated airspeed--The airspeed shown by an airspeed indicator. d. true airspeed--Equivalent airspeed corrected for error due to air density (altitude and temperature).

airspeed indicator
An instrument which displays the indicated airspeed of the aircraft derived from inputs of pitot and static pressures.

air staging unit
A unit situated at an airfield and concerned with reception, handling, servicing, and preparation for departure of aircraft and control of personnel and cargo.

air station
In photogrammetry, the point in space occupied by the camera lens at the moment of exposure.

air strike
An attack on specific objectives by fighter, bomber, or attack aircraft on an offensive mission. May consist of several air organizations under a single command in the air.

air strike coordinator
The air representative of the force commander in a target area, who is responsible for directing all aircraft in the target area and coordinating their efforts to achieve the most effective use of air striking power.

air strip
An unimproved surface which has been adapted for takeoff or landing of aircraft, usually having minimum facilities. See also airfield.

air superiority
That degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another that permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea, and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force.

air supply
The delivery of cargo by airdrop or air landing.

air support
All forms of support given by air forces on land or sea. See also close air support; immediate air support; preplanned air support; tactical air support.

air support operations center
The principal air control agency of the theater air control system responsible for the direction and control of air operations directly supporting the ground combat element. It processes and coordinates requests for immediate air support and coordinates air missions requiring integration with other supporting arms and ground forces. It normally collocates with the Army tactical headquarters senior fire support coordination center within the ground combat element. Also called ASOC. See also air support; close air support; operation; tactical air control center.

air support request
A means to request preplanned and immediate close air support, air interdiction, air reconnaissance, surveillance, escort, helicopter airlift, and other aircraft missions. Also called AIRSUPREQ.

air supremacy
That degree of air superiority wherein the opposing air force is incapable of effective interference.

air surface zone
A restricted area established for the purpose of preventing friendly surface vessels and aircraft from being fired upon by friendly forces and for permitting antisubmarine operations, unrestricted by the operation of friendly submarines. See also restricted area.

air surveillance
The systematic observation of airspace by electronic, visual or other means, primarily for the purpose of identifying and determining the movements of aircraft and missiles, friendly and enemy, in the airspace under observation. See also satellite and missile surveillance; surveillance.

air surveillance officer
An individual responsible for coordinating and maintaining an accurate, current picture of the air situation within an assigned airspace area.

air survey camera
See air cartographic camera.

air survey photography
See air cartographic photography.

air target chart
A display of pertinent air target intelligence on a specialized graphic base. It is designed primarily to support operations against designated air targets by various weapon systems. Also called ATC.

Air Target Materials Program
A Department of Defense program under the management control of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency established for and limited to the production of medium- and large-scale map, chart, and geodetic products, that supports worldwide targeting requirements of the unified and specified commands, the Military Departments, and allied participants. It encompasses the determination of production and coverage requirements, standardization of products, establishment of production priorities and schedules, and the production, distribution, storage, and release/exchange of products included under it.

air target mosaic
A large-scale mosaic providing photographic coverage of an area and permitting comprehensive portrayal of pertinent target detail. These mosaics are used for intelligence study and in planning and briefing for air operations.

air tasking order
A method used to task and disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected sorties, capabilities and/or forces to targets and specific missions. Normally provides specific instructions to include call signs, targets, controlling agencies, etc., as well as general instructions. Also called ATO.

air tasking order/confirmation
A message used to task joint force components; to inform the requesting command and the tasking authority of the action being taken; and/or to provide additional information about the mission. The message is used only for preplanned missions and is transmitted on a daily basis, normally 12 hours prior to the start of the air tasking day or in accordance with established operation plans for the operational area. Also called ATOCONF.

air terminal
A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transportation hub and accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the intransit processing of traffic. The airfield may or may not be designated an aerial port.

air-to-air guided missile
An air-launched guided missile for use against air targets. See also guided missile.

air-to-surface guided missile
An air-launched guided missile for use against surface targets. See also guided missile.

air traffic control and landing system
Department of Defense facilities, personnel, and equipment (fixed, mobile, and seaborne) with associated avionics to provide safe, orderly, and expeditious aerospace vehicle movements worldwide. Also called ATCALS.

air traffic control center
A unit combining the functions of an area control center and a flight information center. Also called ATCC. See also area control center; flight information region.

air traffic control clearance
Authorization by an air traffic control authority for an aircraft to proceed under specified conditions.

air traffic control facility
Any of the component airspace control facilities primarily responsible for providing air traffic control services and, as required, limited tactical control services.

air traffic controller
An air controller especially trained for and assigned to the duty of airspace management and traffic control of airborne objects.

air traffic control service
A service provided for the purpose of: a. preventing collisions: (1) between aircraft; and (2) on the maneuvering area between aircraft and obstructions; and b. expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

air traffic identification
The use of electronic devices, operational procedures, visual observation, and/or flight plan correlation for the purpose of identifying and locating aircraft flying within the airspace control area.

air traffic section
The link between the staging post and the local air priority committee. It is the key to the efficient handling of passengers and cargo at a staging post. It must include load control (including Customs and Immigrations facilities), freight, and mail sections.

air transportable unit
A unit, other than airborne, whose equipment is adapted for air movement. See also airborne; airborne operation.

air transported operations
The movement by aircraft of troops and their equipment for an operation

air transport group
A task organization of transport aircraft units that provides air transport for landing force elements or provides logistic support.

A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor marked with radio navigational aids.

airways station
A ground communication installation established, manned, and equipped to communicate with aircraft in flight, as well as with other designated airways installations, for the purpose of expeditious and safe movements of aircraft. These stations may or may not be located on designated airways.

air weapons controller
An individual especially trained for and assigned to the duty of employing and controlling air weapon systems against airborne and surface objects.

1. Readiness for action, defense or protection. 2. A warning signal of a real or threatened danger, such as an air attack. 3. The period of time during which troops stand by in response to an alarm. 4. To forewarn; to prepare for action. See also airborne alert. 5. (DOD only) A warning received by a unit or a headquarters which forewarns of an impending operational mission. 6. (DOD only) In aviation, an aircraft and aircrew that are placed in an increased state of readiness so that they may be airborne in a specified period of time after a launch order is received. See also air defense warning conditions; ground alert; warning order.

alert force
Specified forces maintained in a special degree of readiness

alerting service
A service provided to notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organizations as required.

alert order
1. A crisis action planning directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that provides essential guidance for planning and directs the initiation of execution planning for the selected course of action authorized by the Secretary of Defense. 2. A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of execution planning after the directing authority approves a military course of action. An alert order does not authorize execution of the approved course of action. See also course of action; crisis action planning; execution planning.

all appropriate action
Action taken in self-defense that is reasonable in intensity, duration, and magnitude, based on all the facts known to the commander at the time.

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