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Glossary of Military Terms

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An alliance is the result of formal agreements (i.e., treaties) between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interests of the members. See also coalition; multinational.

In a general sense, distribution of limited resources among competing requirements for employment. Specific allocations (e.g., air sorties, nuclear weapons, forces, and transportation) are described as allocation of air sorties, nuclear weapons, etc. See also allocation (air); allocation (nuclear); allocation (transportation); apportionment.

allocation (air)
The translation of the air apportionment decision into total numbers of sorties by aircraft type available for each operation or task. See also allocation.

allocation (nuclear)
The apportionment of specific numbers and types of nuclear weapons to a commander for a stated time period as a planning factor for use in the development of war plans. (Additional authority is required for the actual deployment of allocated weapons to locations desired by the commander to support the war plans. Expenditures of these weapons are not authorized until released by proper authority.)

allocation request
A message used to provide an estimate of the total air effort, to identify any excess and joint force general support aircraft sorties, and to identify unfilled air requirements. This message is used only for preplanned missions and is transmitted on a daily basis, normally 24 hours prior to the start of the next air tasking day. Also called ALLOREQ.

allocation (transportation)
Distribution by designated authority of available transport capability to users. See also allocation.

The temporary change of assignment of tactical air forces between subordinate commands. The authority to allot is vested in the commander having combatant command (command authority). See also combatant command (command authority).

allowable cabin load
The maximum payload that can be carried on an individual sortie. Also called ACL.

allowable cabin load
The maximum payload that can be carried on an individual sortie. Also called ACL.

allowable stacking weight
The amount of weight that can be stacked on corner posts of a container when subjected to 1.8 times the force of gravity.

all-source intelligence
1. Intelligence products and/or organizations and activities that incorporate all sources of information, most frequently including human resources intelligence, imagery intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, and open-source data in the production of finished intelligence. 2. In intelligence collection, a phrase that indicates that in the satisfaction of intelligence requirements, all collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting systems and resources are identified for possible use and those most capable are tasked. See also intelligence.

all-weather air defense fighter
A fighter aircraft with equipment and weapons which enable it to engage airborne targets in all weather conditions, day and night.

alongside replenishment
The transfer at sea of personnel and/or supplies by rigs between two or more ships proceeding side by side.

alphabet code
See phonetic alphabet.

alternate airfield
An airfield specified in the flight plan to which a flight may proceed when it becomes inadvisable to land at the airfield of intended landing. An alternate airfield may be the airfield of departure.

alternate command authority
One or more predesignated officers empowered by the commander through predelegation of authority to act under stipulated emergency conditions in the accomplishment of previously defined functions.

alternate command post
Any location designated by a commander to assume command post functions in the event the command post becomes inoperative. It may be partially or fully equipped and manned or it may be the command post of a subordinate unit.

alternate headquarters
An existing headquarters of a component or subordinate command that is predesignated to assume the responsibilities and functions of another headquarters under prescribed emergency conditions.

See variant.

The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level. See also density altitude; drop altitude; elevation; minimum safe altitude; pressure altitude; transition altitude; true altitude.

altitude acclimatization
A slow physiological adaptation resulting from prolonged exposure to significantly reduced atmospheric pressure.

altitude chamber
See hypobaric chamber.

altitude datum
The arbitrary level from which vertical displacement is measured. The datum for height measurement is the terrain directly below the aircraft or some specified datum; for pressure altitude, the level at which the atmospheric pressure is 29.92 inches of mercury (1013.2; and for true altitude, mean sea level. See also altitude.

altitude delay
Synchronization delay introduced between the time of transmission of the radar pulse and the start of the trace on the indicator, for the purpose of eliminating the altitude hole on the plan position indicator-type display.

altitude height
See altitude datum.

altitude hole
The blank area at the origin of a radial display, on a radar tube presentation, the center of the periphery of which represents the point on the ground immediately below the aircraft. In side-looking airborne radar, this is known as the altitude slot.

altitude separation
See vertical separation.

altitude slot
See altitude hole.

ambient temperature
Outside temperature at any given altitude, preferably expressed in degrees centigrade.

ambulance exchange point
A location where a patient is transferred from one ambulance to another en route to a medical treatment facility. This may be an established point in an ambulance shuttle or it may be designated independently. Also called AXP. See also medical treatment facility.

American National Standards Institute
The United States standards organization that establishes procedures for the development and coordination of voluntary American national standards.
See munition.

ammunition and toxic material open space
An area especially prepared for storage of explosive ammunition and toxic material. For reporting purposes, it does not include the surrounding area restricted for storage because of safety distance factors. It includes barricades and improvised coverings. See also storage.

ammunition controlled supply rate
In Army usage, the amount of ammunition estimated to be available to sustain operations of a designated force for a specified time if expenditures are controlled at that rate. It is expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired by weapons, and in terms of units of measure per organization per day for bulk allotment ammunition items. Tactical commanders use this rate to control expenditures of ammunition during tactical operations at planned intervals. It is issued through command channels at each level. It is determined based on consideration of the required supply rates submitted by subordinate commanders and ammunition assets available.

ammunition lot
A quantity of homogeneous ammunition, identified by a unique lot number, which is manufactured, assembled, or renovated by one producer under uniform conditions and which is expected to function in a uniform manner.

ammunition supply point
See distribution point.

A small craft, propelled by propellers and wheels or by air cushions for the purpose of moving on both land and water.

amphibious assault
The principal type of amphibious operation that involves establishing a force on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also assault; assault phase.

amphibious assault area
See landing area.

amphibious assault bulk fuel system
The petroleum, oils, and lubricants discharge system used to support US Marine Corps amphibious assaults and maritime pre-positioning force operations. It consists of 5,000 or 10,000 feet of buoyant 6-inch hose deployed from a landing ship, tank in amphibious assaults, or a maritime pre-positioning ship in maritime pre-positioning force operations. See also amphibious assault; petroleum, oils, and lubricants.

amphibious assault landing
See amphibious operation, Part e.

amphibious assault ship (general purpose)
A naval ship designed to embark, deploy, and land elements of a landing force in an assault by helicopters, landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and by combinations of these methods. Designated as "LHA" or with internal dock as "LHD."

amphibious aviation assault ship
An amphibious assault ship, landing platform helicopter; general purpose amphibious assault ship; or general purpose amphibious assault ship (with internal dock).

amphibious chart
A special naval chart designed to meet special requirements for landing operations and passive coastal defense, at a scale of 1:25,000 or larger, and showing foreshore and coastal information in greater detail than a combat chart.

amphibious command ship
A naval ship from which a commander exercises control in amphibious operations. Designated as LCC.

amphibious construction battalion
A permanently commissioned naval unit, subordinate to the Commander, Naval Beach Group, designed to provide an administrative unit from which personnel and equipment are formed in tactical elements and made available to appropriate commanders to operate pontoon causeways, transfer barges, warping tugs, and assault bulk fuel systems, and to meet salvage requirements of the naval beach party. Also called PHIBCB.

amphibious control group
Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne ship-to-shore movement in an amphibious operation.

amphibious demonstration
A type of amphibious operation conducted for the purpose of deceiving the enemy by a show of force with the expectation of deluding the enemy into a course of action unfavorable to him.

amphibious force
An amphibious task force and a landing force together with other forces that are trained, organized, and equipped for amphibious operations. Also called AF. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force; landing force.

amphibious group
A command within the amphibious force, consisting of the commander and staff, designed to exercise operational control of assigned units in executing all phases of a division-size amphibious operation.

amphibious group
A command within the amphibious force, consisting of the commander and staff, designed to exercise operational control of assigned units in executing all phases of a division-size amphibious operation.

amphibious lift
The total capacity of assault shipping utilized in an amphibious operation, expressed in terms of personnel, vehicles, and measurement or weight tons of supplies.

amphibious objective area
A geographical area (delineated for command and control purposes in the order initiating the amphibious operation) within which is located the objective(s) to be secured by the amphibious force. This area must be of sufficient size to ensure accomplishment of the amphibious force's mission and must provide sufficient area for conducting necessary sea, air, and land operations. Also called AOA. See also amphibious force; mission.

amphibious objective study
A study designed to provide basic intelligence data of a permanent or semipermanent nature required for planning amphibious operations. Each study deals with a specific area, the selection of which is based on strategic location, susceptibility to seizure by amphibious means, and other considerations.

amphibious operation
A military operation launched from the sea by an amphibious force, embarked in ships or craft with the primary purpose of introducing a landing force ashore to accomplish the assigned mission. See also amphibious force; landing force; mission; operation.

amphibious planning
The process of planning for an amphibious operation, distinguished by the necessity for concurrent, parallel, and detailed planning by all participating forces. The planning pattern is cyclical in nature, composed of a series of analyses and judgments of operational situations, each stemming from those that have preceded.

amphibious raid
A type of amphibious operation involving swift incursion into or temporary occupation of an objective followed by a planned withdrawal. See also amphibious operation.

amphibious reconnaissance
An amphibious landing conducted by minor elements, normally involving stealth rather than force of arms, for the purpose of securing information, and usually followed by a planned withdrawal.

amphibious reconnaissance unit
A unit organized, equipped, and trained to conduct and support amphibious reconnaissance missions. An amphibious reconnaissance unit is made up of a number of amphibious reconnaissance teams.

amphibious shipping
Organic Navy ships specifically designed to transport, land, and support landing forces in amphibious assault operations and capable of being loaded or unloaded by naval personnel without external assistance in the amphibious objective area.

amphibious squadron
A tactical and administrative organization composed of amphibious assault shipping to transport troops and their equipment for an amphibious assault operation. Also called PHIBRON.

amphibious striking forces
Forces capable of projecting military power from the sea upon adjacent land areas for initiating and/or conducting operations in the face of enemy opposition.

amphibious task force
A Navy task organization formed to conduct amphibious operations. The amphibious task force, together with the landing force and other forces, constitutes the amphibious force. Also called ATF. See also amphibious force; amphibious operation; landing force.

amphibious tractor
See amphibious vehicle.

amphibious transport dock
A ship designed to transport and land troops, equipment, and supplies by means of embarked landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters. Designated as LPD.

amphibious transport group
A subdivision of an amphibious task force composed primarily of transport ships. The size of the transport group will depend upon the scope of the operation. Ships of the transport group will be combat-loaded to support the landing force scheme of maneuver ashore. A transport unit will usually be formed to embark troops and equipment to be landed over a designated beach or to embark all helicopter-borne troops and equipment.

amphibious vehicle
A wheeled or tracked vehicle capable of operating on both land and water. See also landing craft.

amphibious vehicle availability table
A tabulation of the type and number of amphibious vehicles available primarily for assault landings and for support of other elements of the operation.

amphibious vehicle employment plan
A plan showing in tabular form the planned employment of amphibious vehicles in landing operations, including their employment after the initial movement to the beach.

amphibious vehicle launching area
An area, in the vicinity of and to seaward of the line of departure, to which landing ships proceed and launch amphibious vehicles.

amphibious withdrawal
A type of amphibious operation involving the extraction of forces by sea in ships or craft from a hostile or potentially hostile shore. See also amphibious operation.

analysis and production
In intelligence usage, the conversion of processed information into intelligence through the integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of all source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or anticipated user requirements. See also intelligence process.

A specified location for anchoring or mooring a vessel in-stream or offshore.

anchor cable
In air transport, a cable in an aircraft to which the parachute static lines or strops are attached.

anchor line extension kit
A device fitted to an aircraft equipped with removable clamshell doors to enable paratroopers to exit from the rear.

A document appended to an operation order or other document to make it clearer or to give further details.

annotated print
A photograph on which interpretation details are indicated by words or symbols.

A marking placed on imagery or drawings for explanatory purposes or to indicate items or areas of special importance.

annual screening
One day of active duty for training required each year for Individual Ready Reserve members so the Services can keep current on each member's physical condition, dependency status, military qualifications, civilian occupational skills, availability for service, and other information.

annual training
The minimal period of training reserve members must perform each year to satisfy the training requirements associated with their Reserve Component assignment. Also called AT.

antemortem identification media
Records, samples, and photographs taken prior to death. These include (but are not limited to) fingerprints, dental x-rays, body tissue samples, photographs of tattoos, or other identifying marks. These "predeath" records would be compared against records completed after death to help establish a positive identification of a remains. See also mortuary affairs.

antenna mine
In naval mine warfare, a contact mine fitted with antennae which, when touched by a steel ship, sets up galvanic action to fire the mine. See also mine.

antiarmor helicopter
A helicopter armed primarily for use in the destruction of armored targets. Also called antitank helicopter.

anticountermining device
A device fitted in an influence mine designed to prevent its actuation by shock.

antideficiency violations
The incurring of obligations or the making of expenditure (outlays) in excess of amounts available in appropriations or funds.

anti-G suit
A device worn by aircrew to counteract the effects on the human body of positive acceleration.

antilift device
A device arranged to detonate the mine to which it is attached, or to detonate another mine or charge nearby, if the mine is disturbed.

antimateriel agent
A living organism or chemical used to cause deterioration of, or damage to, selected materiel.

antimateriel operation
The employment of antimateriel weapons or agents in military operations.

antipersonnel mine (land mine warfare)
A mine designed to cause casualties to personnel. See also mine.

antiradiation missile
A missile which homes passively on a radiation source. Also called ARM. See also guided missile.

antirecovery device
In naval mine warfare, any device in a mine designed to prevent an enemy discovering details of the working of the mine mechanism.

antisubmarine action
An operation by one or more antisubmarine-capable ships, submarines, or aircraft (or a combination thereof) against a particular enemy submarine.

antisubmarine air distant support
Antisubmarine air support at a distance from, but directly related to, specific convoys or forces.

antisubmarine air search attack unit
The designation given to one or more aircraft separately organized as a tactical unit to search for and destroy submarines.

antisubmarine barrier
The line formed by a series of static devices or mobile units arranged for the purpose of detecting, denying passage to, or destroying hostile submarines. See also antisubmarine patrol.

antisubmarine close air support
Air operations for the antisubmarine warfare protection of a supported force.

antisubmarine operation
Operation contributing to the conduct of antisubmarine warfare.

antisubmarine patrol
The systematic and continuing investigation of an area or along a line to detect or hamper submarines, used when the direction of submarine movement can be established. See also antisubmarine barrier.

antisubmarine screen
An arrangement of ships and/or aircraft for the protection of a screened unit against attack by a submarine.

antisubmarine search
Systematic investigation of a particular area for the purpose of locating a submarine known or suspected to be somewhere in the area. Some types of search are also used in locating the position of a distress incident.

antisubmarine support operation
An operation conducted by an antisubmarine force in the area around a force or convoy, in areas through which the force or convoy is passing, or in defense of geographic areas. Support operations may be completely coordinated with those of the force or convoy, or they may be independent operations coordinated only to the extent of providing operational intelligence and information.

antisubmarine warfare
Operations conducted with the intention of denying the enemy the effective use of submarines. Also called ASW.

antisubmarine warfare forces
Forces organized primarily for antisubmarine action. May be composed of surface ships, aircraft, submarines, or any combination of these, and their supporting systems.

antisurface air operation
An air operation conducted in an air/sea environment against enemy surface forces.

antisweep device
Any device incorporated in the mooring of a mine or obstructor, or in the mine circuits to make the sweeping of the mine more difficult.

antisweeper mine
A mine which is laid or whose mechanism is designed or adjusted with the specific object of damaging mine countermeasures vessels. See also mine.

antitank helicopter
See antiarmor helicopter.

antitank mine
A mine designed to immobilize or destroy a tank. See also mine.

Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited response and containment by local military forces. Also called AT. See also antiterrorism awareness; counterterrorism; proactive measures; terrorism.

antiterrorism awareness
Fundamental knowledge of the terrorist threat and measures to reduce personal vulnerability to terrorism. See also antiterrorism.

antiwatching device
A device fitted in a moored mine which causes it to sink should it show on the surface, so as to prevent the position of the mine or minefield being disclosed. See also watching mine.

any Service member mail
Mail sent by the general public to an unspecified Service member deployed on a contingency operation, as an expression of patriotic support.

The point at which a missile trajectory or a satellite orbit is farthest from the center of the gravitational field of the controlling body or bodies.

apparent horizon
The visible line of demarcation between land/sea and sky.

apparent precession
The apparent deflection of the gyro axis, relative to the Earth, due to the rotating effect of the Earth and not due to any applied force. Also called apparent wander.

A document appended to an annex of an operation order, operation plan, or other document to clarify or to give further details.

applicable materiel assets
That portion of the total acceptable materiel assets that meets the military or other characteristics as defined by the responsible Military Service and that is in the right condition and location to satisfy a specific military requirement.

1. The system or problem to which a computer is applied. Reference is often made to an application as being either of the computational type (arithmetic computations predominate) or of the data processing type (data handling operations predominate). 2. In the intelligence context, the direct extraction and tailoring of information from an existing foundation of intelligence and near real time reporting. It is focused on and meets specific, narrow requirements, normally on demand.

In the general sense, distribution for planning of limited resources among competing requirements. Specific apportionments (e.g., air sorties and forces for planning) are described as apportionment of air sorties and forces for planning, etc. See also allocation; apportionment (air).

apportionment (air)
The determination and assignment of the total expected effort by percentage and/or by priority that should be devoted to the various air operations for a given period of time. Also called air apportionment. See also apportionment.

approach clearance
Authorization for a pilot conducting flight in accordance with instrument flight rules to commence an approach to an airport.

approach control
A control station in an air operations control center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center, that is responsible for controlling air traffic from marshal until hand-off to final control. See also helicopter direction center; marshal.

approach end of runway
That end of the runway nearest to the direction from which the final approach is made.

approach lane
An extension of a boat lane from the line of departure toward the transport area.

approach march
Advance of a combat unit when direct contact with the enemy is imminent. Troops are fully or partially deployed. The approach march ends when ground contact with the enemy is made or when the attack position is occupied.

approach schedule
The schedule that indicates, for each scheduled wave, the time of departure from the rendezvous area, from the line of departure, and from other control points and the time of arrival at the beach.

approach sequence
The order in which two or more aircraft are cleared for an approach.

approach time
The time at which an aircraft is expected to commence approach procedure.

approval authority
A representative (person or organization) of the Commandant, US Coast Guard, authorized to approve containers within terms of the International Conference for Safe Containers. See also International Convention for Safe Containers.

A defined area on an airfield intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance.

archipelagic sea lanes passage
The nonsuspendable right of continuous and expeditious transit through archipelagic waters in the normal mode through and over routes normally used for navigation and overflight.

A framework or structure that portrays relationships among all the elements of the subject force, system, or activity.

When used in the context of deliberate planning, the directed command will remove the referenced operation plan, operation plan in concept format, and any associated Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing files from its library of active plans. All material will be prepared for shipment to appropriate archive facilities in accordance with appropriate command directives. See also maintain; retain.

area air defense commander
Within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force, the commander will assign overall responsibility for air defense to a single commander. Normally, this will be the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the command, control, and communications capability to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. Representation from the other components involved will be provided, as appropriate, to the area air defense commander's headquarters. Also called AADC.

area assessment
The commander's prescribed collection of specific information that commences upon employment and is a continuous operation. It confirms, corrects, refutes, or adds to previous intelligence acquired from area studies and other sources prior to employment.

area bombing
Bombing of a target which is in effect a general area rather than a small or pinpoint target.

area command
A command which is composed of those organized elements of one or more of the Armed Services, designated to operate in a specific geographical area, which are placed under a single commander. See also command.

area control center
A unit established to provide air traffic control service to controlled flights in control areas under its jurisdiction. See also air traffic control center; flight information region.

area damage control
Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or manmade disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects. See also damage control; disaster control.

area of influence
A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commander's command or control.

area of intelligence responsibility
An area allocated to a commander in which the commander is responsible for the provision of intelligence within the means at the commander's disposal. See also area of interest; area of responsibility.

area of interest
That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory to the objectives of current or planned operations. This area also includes areas occupied by enemy forces who could jeopardize the accomplishment of the mission. Also called AOI. See also area of influence.

area of limitation
A defined area where specific limitations apply to the strength and fortifications of disputing or belligerent forces. Normally, upper limits are established for the number and type of formations, tanks, antiaircraft weapons, artillery, and other weapons systems in the area of limitation. Also called AOL. See also line of demarcation; peace operations.

area of militarily significant fallout
Area in which radioactive fallout affects the ability of military units to carry out their normal mission.

area of northern operations
A region of variable width in the Northern Hemisphere that lies north of the 50 degrees isotherm--a line along which the average temperature of the warmest 4-month period of the year does not exceed 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Mountain regions located outside of this area are included in this category of operations provided these same temperature conditions exist.

area of operations
An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces. Also called AO. See also area of responsibility; joint operations area; joint special operations area.

area of responsibility
The geographical area associated with a combatant command within which a combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct operations. Also called AOR. See also combatant command.

area of separation
See buffer zone. Also called AOS. See also peace operations

area operations
In maritime usage, operations conducted in a geographical area and not related to the protection of a specific force.

area oriented
Personnel or units whose organizations, mission, training, and equipping are based on projected operational deployment to a specific geographic or demographic area.

area radar prediction analysis
Radar target intelligence study designed to provide radar-significant data for use in the preparation of radar target predictions.

area search
Visual reconnaissance of limited or defined areas.

area target
A target consisting of an area rather than a single point.

armament delivery recording
Motion picture, still photography, and video recordings showing the delivery and impact of ordnance. This differs from reconnaissance imagery in that it records the act of delivery and impact and normally is done by the weapon system delivering the ordnance. Armament delivery recording is used primarily for evaluating strike effectiveness and for combat crew training. It is also one of the principal sources of over-the-target documentation in force employments, and may be used for public affairs purposes. Also called ADR.

armed forces
The military forces of a nation or a group of nations. See also force.

armed forces censorship
The examination and control of personal communications to or from persons in the Armed Forces of the United States and persons accompanying or serving with the Armed Forces of the United States. See also censorship.

armed forces courier
An officer or enlisted member in the grade of E-7 or above, of the US Armed Forces, assigned to perform Armed Forces Courier Service duties and identified by possession of an Armed Forces Courier Service Identification Card (ARF-COS Form 9). See also courier.

Armed Forces Courier Service
A joint service of the Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, with the Chief of Staff, US Army, as Executive Agent. The courier service provides one of the available methods for the secure and expeditious transmission of material requiring protected handling by military courier.

armed forces courier station
An Army, Navy, or Air Force activity, approved by the respective military department and officially designated by Headquarters, Armed Forces Courier Service, for the acceptance, processing, and dispatching of Armed Forces Courier Service material.

Armed Forces of the United States
A term used to denote collectively all components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. See also United States Armed Forces.

Armed Forces Radio and Television Service
A worldwide radio and television broadcasting organization that provides US military commanders overseas and at sea with sufficient electronic media resources to effectively communicate theater, local, Department of Defense, and Service-unique command information to their personnel and family members. Also called AFRTS.

armed helicopter
A helicopter fitted with weapons or weapon systems.

armed mine
A mine from which all safety devices have been withdrawn and, after laying, all automatic safety features and/or arming delay devices have operated. Such a mine is ready to be actuated after receipt of a target signal, influence, or contact.

armed reconnaissance
A mission with the primary purpose of locating and attacking targets of opportunity, i.e., enemy materiel, personnel, and facilities, in assigned general areas or along assigned ground communications routes, and not for the purpose of attacking specific briefed targets.

armed sweep
A sweep fitted with cutters or other devices to increase its ability to cut mine moorings.

As applied to explosives, weapons, and ammunition, the changing from a safe condition to a state of readiness for initiation.

aarming delay device
A device fitted in a mine to prevent it being actuated for a preset time after laying.

arming lanyard
See arming wire.

arming pin
A safety device inserted in a munition, which until its removal, prevents the unintentional action of the arming cycle. Also called safety pin. See also safety device.

arming system
That portion of a weapon that serves to ready (arm), safe, or re-safe (disarm) the firing system and fuzing system and that may actuate devices in the nuclear system.

arming wire
A cable, wire or lanyard routed from the aircraft to an expendable aircraft store in order to initiate the arming sequence for the store upon release from the aircraft, when the armed release condition has been selected; it also prevents arming initiation prior to store release and during safe jettison. Also called arming lanyard. See also safety wire.

In international law, a suspension or temporary cessation of hostilities by agreement between belligerent powers.

armistice demarcation line
A geographically defined line from which disputing or belligerent forces disengage and withdraw to their respective sides following a truce or cease fire agreement. Also called cease fire line in some United Nations operations. Also called ADL. See also armistice; cease fire; cease fire line; peace operations.

arm or de-arm
Applies to those procedures in the arming or de-arming section of the applicable aircraft loading manual or checklist that places the ordnance or explosive device in a ready or safe condition i.e., rocket launchers, guided missiles, guns--internal and pods, paraflares--(external and SUU-44/25 dispenser). (NOTE: The removal or installation of pylon or bomb rack safety pins from a nonordnance-loaded station is considered a function requiring certification within the purview of this publication.) See also arming; de-arming; ordnance.

armored personnel carrier
A lightly armored, highly mobile, full-tracked vehicle, amphibious and air-droppable, used primarily for transporting personnel and their individual equipment during tactical operations. Production modifications or application of special kits permit use as a mortar carrier, command post, flame thrower, antiaircraft artillery chassis, or limited recovery vehicle. Also called APC.

arms control
A concept that connotes: a. any plan, arrangement, or process, resting upon explicit or implicit international agreement, governing any aspect of the following: the numbers, types, and performance characteristics of weapon systems (including the command and control, logistics support arrangements, and any related intelligence-gathering mechanism); and the numerical strength, organization, equipment, deployment, or employment of the Armed Forces retained by the parties (it encompasses disarmament); and b. on some occasions, those measures taken for the purpose of reducing instability in the military environment.

arms control agreement
The written or unwritten embodiment of the acceptance of one or more arms control measures by two or more nations.

arms control agreement verification
A concept that entails the collection, processing, and reporting of data indicating testing or employment of proscribed weapon systems, including country of origin and location, weapon and payload identification, and event type.

arms control measure
Any specific arms control course of action.

Army Air Defense Command Post
The tactical headquarters of an Army air defense commander.

Army air-ground system
The Army system which provides for interface between Army and tactical air support agencies of other Services in the planning, evaluating, processing, and coordinating of air support requirements and operations. It is composed of appropriate staff members, including G-2 air and G-3 air personnel, and necessary communication equipment. Also called AAGS.

Army and Air Force Exchange Service imprest fund activity
A military-operated retail activity, usually in remote or forward sites, when regular direct operations exchanges cannot be provided. It is a satellite activity of an Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) direct operation. The supported unit appoints the officer in charge of an imprest fund activity, who is issued an initial fund by AAFES to purchase beginning inventory. Money generated from sales is used to replenish the merchandise stock. See also imprest fund.

Army base
A base or group of installations for which a local commander is responsible, consisting of facilities necessary for support of Army activities including security, internal lines of communications, utilities, plants and systems, and real property for which the Army has operating responsibility. See also base complex.

Army corps
A tactical unit larger than a division and smaller than a field army. A corps usually consists of two or more divisions together with auxiliary arms and services. See also field army.

Army service area
The territory between the corps rear boundary and the combat zone rear boundary. Most of the Army administrative establishment and service troops are usually located in this area. See also rear area.

Army Service component command
Command responsible for recommendations to the joint force commander on the allocation and employment of Army forces within a combatant command. Also called ASCC.

Army special operations component
The Army component of a joint force special operations component. Also called ARSOC. See also Air Force special operations component; Navy special operations component.

Army special operations forces
Those Active and Reserve Component Army forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called ARSOF.

Army tactical data link 1
See tactical digital information link.

arresting barrier
See aircraft arresting barrier.

arresting gear
See aircraft arresting gear.

arrival zone
In counterdrug operations, the area in or adjacent to the United States where smuggling concludes and domestic distribution begins. By air, an airstrip; by sea, an offload point on land, or transfer to small boats. See also transit zone.

artificial horizon
See attitude indicator.

artillery fire plan table
A presentation of planned targets giving data for engagement. Scheduled targets are fired in a definite time sequence. The starting time may be on call, at a prearranged time, or at the occurrence of a specific event.

artillery survey control point
A point at which the coordinates and the altitude are known and from which the bearings/azimuths to a number of reference objects are also known.

1. The climax of an attack, closing with the enemy in hand-to-hand fighting. 2. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission. 3. To make a short, violent, but well-ordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement, a fort, or a machine gun nest. 4. A phase of an airborne operation beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault phase; landing attack.

assault aircraft
A powered aircraft that moves assault troops and/or cargo into an objective area.

assault area
In amphibious operations, that area that includes the beach area, the boat lanes, the lines of departure, the landing ship areas, the transport areas, and the fire support areas in the immediate vicinity of the boat lanes.

assault area diagram
A graphic means of showing, for amphibious operations, the beach designations, boat lanes, organization of the line of departure, scheduled waves, landing ship area, transport areas, and the fire support areas in the immediate vicinity of the boat lanes.

assault craft
A landing craft or amphibious vehicle primarily employed for landing troops and equipment in the assault waves of an amphibious operation.

assault craft unit
A permanently commissioned naval organization, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, that contains landing craft and crews necessary to provide lighterage required in an amphibious operation. Also called ACU.

assault echelon
In amphibious operations, the element of a force comprised of tailored units and aircraft assigned to conduct the initialassault on the operational area. Also called AE. See also amphibious operation.

assault fire
1. That fire delivered by attacking troops as they close with the enemy. 2. In artillery, extremely accurate, short-range destruction fire at point targets.

assault follow-on echelon
In amphibious operations, that echelon of the assault troops, vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and supplies that, though not needed to initiate the assault, is required to support and sustain the assault. In order to accomplish its purpose, it is normally required in the objective area no later than five days after commencement of the assault landing. Also called AFOE.

assault phase
1. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of their mission. 2. In an airborne operation, a phase beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault.

assault schedule
See landing schedule.

assault shipping
Shipping assigned to the amphibious task force and utilized for transporting assault troops, vehicles, equipment, and supplies to the objective area.

assault wave
See wave.

In logistics, an item forming a portion of an equipment, that can be provisioned and replaced as an entity and which normally incorporates replaceable parts or groups of parts. See also component; subassembly.

assembly anchorage
An anchorage intended for the assembly and onward routing of ships.

assembly area
1. An area in which a command is assembled preparatory to further action. 2. In a supply installation, the gross area used for collecting and combining components into complete units, kits, or assemblies.

1. Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned intelligence activity. 2. Judgment of the motives, qualifications, and characteristics of present or prospective employees or "agents."

assessment agent
The organization responsible for conducting an assessment of an approved joint publication. The assessment agent is assigned by the Director, J-7, Joint Staff; normally US Joint Forces Command. Also called AA.

asset (intelligence)
Any resource--person, group, relationship, instrument, installation, or supply--at the disposition of an intelligence organization for use in an operational or support role. Often used with a qualifying term such as agent asset or propaganda asset.

1. To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the functions, of the unit or personnel. 2. To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or functions are primary and/or relatively permanent. See also attach.

assistance mechanism
Individuals, groups of individuals, or organizations (together with materiel and/or facilities in position, or that can be placed in position by appropriate US or multinational agencies), used to accomplish or support evasion and recovery operations. See also evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations.

assisted recovery
The return of an evader to friendly control as the result of assistance from an outside source. See also evader; source.

assumed azimuth
The assumption of azimuth origins as a field expedient until the required data are available.

assumed grid
A grid constructed using an arbitrary scale superimposed on a map, chart, or photograph for use in point designation without regard to actual geographic location. See also grid.

A supposition on the current situation or a presupposition on the future course of events, either or both assumed to be true in the absence of positive proof, necessary to enable the commander in the process of planning to complete an estimate of the situation and make a decision on the course of action.

astern fueling
The transfer of fuel at sea during which the receiving ship(s) keep(s) station astern of the delivering ship.

asymmetrical sweep
A sweep whose swept path under conditions of no wind or cross-tide is not equally spaced either side of the sweeper's track.

atmospheric environment
The envelope of air surrounding the Earth, including its interfaces and interactions with the Earth's solid or liquid surface.

at my command
In artillery and naval gunfire support, the command used when it is desired to control the exact time of delivery of fire.

atomic air burst
See airburst.

atomic defense
See nuclear defense.

atomic demolition munition
A nuclear device designed to be detonated on or below the ground surface, or under water as a demolition munition against material-type targets to block, deny, and/or canalize the enemy.

atomic underground burst
See nuclear underground burst.

atomic underwater burst
See nuclear underwater burst.

atomic warfare
See nuclear warfare.

atomic weapon
See nuclear weapon.

at priority call
A precedence applied to the task of an artillery unit to provide fire to a formation/unit on a guaranteed basis. Normally observer, communications, and liaison are not provided. An artillery unit in "direct support" or "in support" may simultaneously be placed "at priority call" to another unit or agency for a particular task and/or for a specific period of time.

at sea
Includes the following maritime areas: foreign internal waters, archipelagic waters, and territorial seas; foreign contiguous zones; foreign exclusive economic zones; the high seas; and US-exclusive economic zone, territorial sea, and internal waters.

1. The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. 2. The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such functions are secondary or relatively temporary, e.g., attached for quarters and rations; attached for flying duty. See also assign.

See attach.

attack assessment
An evaluation of information to determine the potential or actual nature and objectives of an attack for the purpose of providing information for timely decisions. See also damage estimation.

attack cargo ship
A naval ship designed or converted to transport combat-loaded cargo in an assault landing. Capabilities as to carrying landing craft, speed of ship, armament, and size of hatches and booms are greater than those of comparable cargo ship types. Designated as LKA.

attack group
A subordinate task organization of the navy forces of an amphibious task force. It is composed of assault shipping and supporting naval units designated to transport, protect, land, and initially support a landing group.

attack heading
1. The interceptor heading during the attack phase that will achieve the desired track-crossing angle. 2. The assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown by aircraft during the delivery phase of an air strike.

attack helicopter
A helicopter specifically designed to employ various weapons to attack and destroy enemy targets.

attack origin
1. The location or source from which an attack was initiated. 2. The nation initiating an attack. See also attack assessment.

attack pattern
The type and distribution of targets under attack. Also called target pattern. See also attack assessment.

attack position
The last position occupied by the assault echelon before crossing the line of departure.

attack timing
The predicted or actual time of bursts, impacts, or arrival of weapons at their intended targets.

1. Decrease in intensity of a signal, beam, or wave as a result of absorption of energy and of scattering out of the path of a detector, but not including the reduction due to geometric spreading, i.e., the inverse square of distance effect. 2. In mine warfare, the reduction in intensity of an influence as distance from the source increases. 3. In camouflage and concealment, the process of making an object or surface less conspicuous by reducing its contrast to the surroundings and/or background. Also called tone down.

attenuation factor
The ratio of the incident radiation dose or dose rate to the radiation dose or dose rate transmitted through a shielding material. This is the reciprocal of the transmission factor.

The position of a body as determined by the inclination of the axes to some frame of reference. If not otherwise specified, this frame of reference is fixed to the Earth.

attitude indicator
An instrument which displays the attitude of the aircraft by reference to sources of information which may be contained within the instrument or be external to it. When the sources of information are self-contained, the instrument may be referred to as an artificial horizon.

The reduction of the effectiveness of a force caused by loss of personnel and materiel.

attrition minefield
In naval mine warfare, a field intended primarily to cause damage to enemy ships. See also minefield.

attrition rate
A factor, normally expressed as a percentage, reflecting the degree of losses of personnel or materiel due to various causes within a specified period of time.

attrition reserve aircraft
Aircraft procured for the specific purpose of replacing the anticipated losses of aircraft because of peacetime and/or wartime attrition.

attrition sweeping
The continuous sweeping of minefields to keep the risk of mines to all ships as low as possible.

augmentation forces
Forces to be transferred from a supporting commander to the combatant command (command authority) or operational control of a supported commander during the execution of an operation order approved by the Secretary of Defense.

A challenge given by voice or electrical means to attest to the authenticity of a message or transmission.

1. A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator. 2. A means of identifying individuals and verifying their eligibility to receive specific categories of information. 3. Evidence by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official. 4. In evasion and recovery operations, the process whereby the identity of an evader is confirmed. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery operations; security.

A symbol or group of symbols, or a series of bits, selected or derived in a prearranged manner and usually inserted at a predetermined point within a message or transmission for the purpose of attesting to the validity of the message or transmission.

autocode format
An abbreviated and formatted message header used in conjunction with the mobile cryptologic support facility (MCSF) to energize the automatic communications relay functions of the MCSF, providing rapid exchange of data through the system.

automated data handling
See automatic data handling.

automated identification technology
A suite of tools for facilitating total asset visibility (TAV) source data capture and transfer. Automated identification technology (AIT) includes a variety of devices, such as bar codes, magnetic strips, optical memory cards, and radio frequency tags for marking or "tagging" individual items, multi-packs, equipment, air pallets, or containers, along with the hardware and software required to create the devices, read the information on them, and integrate that information with other logistic information. AIT integration with logistic information systems is key to the Department of Defense's TAV efforts. Also called AIT. See also total asset visibility.

automatic approach and landing
A control mode in which the aircraft's speed and flight path are automatically controlled for approach, flare-out, and landing. See also ground-controlled approach procedure.

automatic data handling
A generalization of automatic data processing to include the aspect of data transfer.

automatic data processing
1. Data processing largely performed by automatic means. 2. That branch of science and technology concerned with methods and techniques relating to data processing largely performed by automatic means.

automatic flight control system
A system which includes all equipment to control automatically the flight of an aircraft or missile to a path or attitude described by references internal or external to the aircraft or missile. Also called AFCS.

automatic message processing system
Any organized assembly of resources and methods used to collect, process, and distribute messages largely by automatic means.

automatic resupply
A resupply mission fully planned before insertion of a special operations team into the operations area that occurs at a prearranged time and location, unless changed by the operating team after insertion. See also emergency resupply; on-call resupply.

automatic search jammer
An intercept receiver and jamming transmitter system which searches for and jams signals automatically which have specific radiation characteristics.

Automatic Secure Voice Communications Network
A worldwide, switched, secure voice network developed to fulfill DOD long-haul, secure voice requirements. Also called AUTOSEVOCOM.

automatic supply
A system by which certain supply requirements are automatically shipped or issued for a predetermined period of time without requisition by the using unit. It is based upon estimated or experience-usage factors.

automation network
The automation network combines all of the information collection devices, automatic identification technologies, and the automated information systems, that either support or facilitate the joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration process. See also automated identification technology; joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration.

autonomous operation
In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has lost all communications with higher echelons. The unit commander assumes full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets.

availability date
The date after notification of mobilization by which forces will be marshalled at their home station or mobilization station and available for deployment. See also home station; mobilization; mobilization station.

available payload
The passenger and/or cargo capacity expressed in weight and/or space available to the user.

available-to-load date
A date specified for each unit in a time-phased force and deployment data indicating when that unit will be ready to load at the point of embarkation. Also called ALD.

avenue of approach
An air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path. Also called AA.

average speed
The average distance traveled per hour, calculated over the whole journey, excluding specifically ordered halts.

aviation combat element
The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is task-organized to conduct aviation operations. The aviation combat element (ACE) provides all or a portion of the six functions of Marine aviation necessary to accomplish the MAGTF's mission. These functions are antiair warfare, offensive air support, assault support, electronic warfare, air reconnaissance, and control of aircraft and missiles. The ACE is usually composed of an aviation unit headquarters and various other aviation units or their detachments. It can vary in size from a small aviation detachment of specifically required aircraft to one or more Marine aircraft wings. The ACE itself is not a formal command. Also called ACE. See also combat service support element; command element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

aviation life support equipment
See life support equipment.

aviation medicine
The special field of medicine which is related to the biological and psychological problems of flight.

aviation ship
An aircraft carrier. See also air-capable ship; aircraft; amphibious aviation assault ship.

Individual and/or unit measures taken to avoid or minimize nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) attacks and reduce the effects of NBC hazards.

axial route
A route running through the rear area and into the forward area. See also route.

axis of advance
A line of advance assigned for purposes of control; often a road or a group of roads, or a designated series of locations, extending in the direction of the enemy.

Quantities may be expressed in positive quantities increasing in a clockwise direction, or in X, Y coordinates where south and west are negative. They may be referenced to true north or magnetic north depending on the particular weapon system used.

azimuth angle
An angle measured clockwise in the horizontal plane between a reference direction and any other line.

azimuth guidance
Information which will enable the pilot or autopilot of an aircraft to follow the required track.

azimuth resolution
The ability of radar equipment to separate two reflectors at similar ranges but different bearings from a reference point. Normally the minimum separation distance between the reflectors is quoted and expressed as the angle subtended by the reflectors at the reference point.

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